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(The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed by his correspondents.) OMPHALODES LUCILIA. The illustration of this plant on p. 53 interested me greatly, and caused me to recall the solitary example of the plant that, some 35 years ago, was growing under my care in the nursery of the late Mr. Robert Parker, at Tooting. My instructions were to watch it so carefully day by day that not a single seed should be lost, for the Tooting plant was one of the very few which then existed in England. During the first season I was successful in harvesting a few dozen seeds, most of which were sown a little later the same season, the remainder being sold. The chief disappointment experienced in the raising of seedlings of the plant is that a large number are quite devoid of the characteristic glaucous leafage of the original plant, although identical in all other respects. At this date it is interesting to note that the plant still produces many green-leaved seedlings, and I have never known a batch to be perfectly free from them. In the month of May, either in 1874 or 1875, I had a plant strong enough from which to risk taking cuttings, and of these I secured 13, each with a "heel" attached. more than the eighth part of an inch separated the heart of the cutting from the heel, consequently each piece had to be tied to a little stick or peg to hold it in position. In less than five weeks every one of the cuttings was nicely rooted, and they were therefore potted up singly. Since that time I have rooted many cuttings of the plant, but the satisfaction on my first success was greatest. May and June are the best months for inserting cuttings, and bell-glasses should always be employed, for once they are permitted to droop they rarely, if ever, form roots. The plant will readily submit to division during the above named months, but interference during winter is most harmful, and as fatal in its results as is an application of manure to its roots. In regard to soil the plant is not especially fastidious. My first specimen was planted in a good depth of sandy loam and peat on the level ground, and it was partly protected by a handlight. In the late Mr. Atkins' garden at Painswick this Omphalodes rambled in wild profusion over a low rocky slope, the roots for the most part being in loam and slate-chippings. In sandy peat it also succeeds well. The finest leaf growth and leaf colouring I have known the plant to develop was when planted in a deep fissure of rock in a mixture of strong loam-peat, LeightonBuzzard grit with some finely-broken soft brick freely added. The rooting medium should be quite 2 feet in depth, and should be provided with means for perfect drainage. Slugs are very fond of the leaves. The plant succeeds well in the rock gardens if treated as described above, and it is also at home in the rock wall if its roots can penetrate into cool soil. E. H. Jenkins, Hampton Hill.

BEGONIA GLOIRE DE LORRAINE FROM SEED. -There are many gardeners who have yet to learn that Begonia Gloire de Lorraine does produce seed. I shall be much surprised if the note by Mr. Cromwell (see p. 406) does not fall as a bombshell on the ears of many professional men. The theory that hybrids are not capable of reproducing themselves by seed is, we know, gradually being broken down; but that B. Gloire de Lorraine is assisting in upsetting this theory is somewhat surprising. The number of articles that have been published during the past 15 years, in reference to the propagation and cultivation of this plant are enormous; but I do not recollect reading of anyone being successful in the saving of seed, at least with one exception. A note appeared in the Gardeners' Chronicle about six years ago. It had been inserted by a leading firm of nurserymen, and stated that they had been successful in the raising (not saving) of seed, and that they hoped at a future date to be in a position to exhibit the plants at a meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society. Whether they had the honour "of doing this I trow not. The bearing of seed by this Begonia is not a matter of fact sort of thing in South Wales, as it appears to be at "Cleveley." A few particulars from Mr Cromwell as to his method ot procuring seed otherwise than by self-fertilisation would. I am sure, be of great interest to a large number of the readers of this journal. H. R., Cardiff.

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In the issue of Gardeners' Chronicle for December 15, p. 406, there is a note on Begonia Gloire de Lorraine, by Mr. B. Cromwell, and a

part of the same is as follows: "The stock was raised by leaf propagation from cuttings, and from seed, the latter germinating on the surface of the pans, which last year were suspended in the corridor, thus showing clearly that B. Gloire de Lorraine will reproduce itself from seed providing the atmospheric surroundings are suitable." I think it would be of great interest to many readers if they could find out what treatment, in the way of "atmospheric surroundings,' &c., are essential. A. J. W.

THE PLANTS OF THE BIBLE.-In your review of my book with the above title, you note two supposed errors and add one (?). (1) I did not mean the reader to infer that the scarlet cup of the Yew is poisonous, for I have eaten them repeatedly, and was never the worse. My words are: "It is the leaves and little green seed or kernel within the sweet, juicy, scarlet cup that is very poisonous. Children have died from eating the latter (i.e., the seed), and cattle from browsing on the foliage (i.e., the former). (2) The Weeping Willow (Salix Babylonica) is not mentioned as indigenous but cultivated." My words are: "There are eight species of Willow in Palestine, including the cultivated Salix Babylonica, or Weeping Willow.'"' With regard to my philological suggestion that Almug or Algeim was the Greek Smilaks or Yew, you observe Philological sleight of hand of this description would enable one to prove (?) anything." By no means, for you omit the qualification that the "sleight of hand" must be rigidly conformable to Grimm's Law, viz., the Labials, Dentals and Gutterals are, respectively, interchangeable. A good example is seen in the word Bodega over a Spanish wine-shop, for it is identical with the German Apothek, though used in a different sense. George Henslow.

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FROM an American journal we learn that there has been in St. Louis a rather novel Chrysanthemum show, differing in a number of respects from the usual exhibitions known by this name all over the country.

Shaw's Garden," or the Missouri Botanical Garden as it is properly called, is very well known as a scientific establishment of international reputation and a place worth seeing by every visitor to St. Louis. It has also won recognition as a place to which florists may turn for information or carry their professional troubles with the certainty of getting willing help. But comparatively few people outside of St. Louis know that for several years past it has vied with the florists' clubs and horticultural societies of other large cities in staging Chrysanthemums on a large scale. In 1904, without impairing its own exhibit, the garden easily won the first prize for Chrysanthemums in number and variety at the national flower show that was held in the horticultural building of the World's Fair, even the Japanese exhibit falling behind it.

These Botanical Garden exhibitions differ from ordinary Chrysanthemum shows in several respects. The plants are all grown by the garden itself; they are not confined to commercially profitable varieties; they are arranged so as to represent the various Chrysanthemum types instructively, and as cut flowers are not used, their arrangement is made highly artistic. Perhaps the greatest difference lies in the fact that they are absolutely free to the public.

This year the Chrysanthemums were displayed in a large circular tent, nearly 100 feet in diameter, covering a large part of the parterre or sunken garden just within the main entrance, and the plants were plunged in the beds that a little later will be planted with Tulips for spring blooming. This arrangement in turf-bordered beds, separated by firm well drained walks, has made seeing them a delight to visitors, who have thronged the tent notwithstanding unprecedentedly inclement weather. For a part of the first week a dense blanket of smoke hung over the city, and offices and even street cars were kept lighted for a good part of the day. To meet this emergency, which reduced all of the flowers to a uniform cherry colour, electric lights were installed, and the directors of the garden took advantage of this circumstance to throw the tent open to the public during the evenings-a concession which has never before been made in the history of the garden, and which enabled a very large number of business men and women to see the flowers when they could not have done so during the daytime.

Everyone who has had to stage Chrysanthemums knows how hopeless the first plant--or the first half dozen plants, even-looks when it is moved into place in a hall. It was the same when the first specimens were set in the big tent, though they were large enough to make it necessary to take off roof sections of the houses they had been grown in, in order to get them out; but for all this, the tent has been full to overflowing with superb, single-head, bush and standard grown specimens, to the number of over 3,000 and re presenting over 300 varieties, each legibly named and all worked into as great harmony of colour as the entire gamut of Chrysanthemum colour allows. The primitive yellow Chrysanthemum Indicum and the very similar but later blooming "Golden Chain" variety have attracted a good deal of interest in contrast with the mammoth heads of the best trade varieties in all shades of white, yellow and red. As usual, a grafted plant occupied a prominent place, and attracted the attention of curiosity hunters; and in a sense this was justified by the plant itself, for it had been surrounded by potted plants of the 25 varieties to be grafted on it, and these were allowed to grow on their own roots until the inarching was completed, so that their flowers, instead of being starved as grafted flowers often are, were of normal size and perfection.

One good effect of the botanical exhibition is that the florists of the city have begun hustling for a fine flower show next year, and are talking of a $10,000 guarantee fund, to be raised in the course of the winter, so as to ensure an unusually good exhibit next fall.-Florists' Exchange (American).



WE have already announced the result of the appeal lodged by M. M. Linden et Cie against the decision of the lower courts. The full report of the trial, with the details of the motives upon which the judgment was based, is given in technical fashion in the Journal des Tribunaux, of Brussels, for December 9, 1906. This case has lasted some two and a half years, so that the law's delays are not peculiar to this country. We understand that Mr. Leemann has been repaid the money that he expended, with costs.

CHRYSANTHEMUM ROBERT Morgan.-From the gardens of the Alexandra Palace we lately received a bunch of a single-flowered Chrysanthemum under this name. The flowers were large, clear reddish-brown or maroon colour, with a yellow centre, and showed evidence of good culture.


JOHN BRACK BOYD.-The death occurred on the 12th instant of this well-known Scottish amateur gardener, of Cherry Trees, Yetholm, N.B. Mr. Boyd was the raiser of some fine Saxifragas, notably the one bearing his name, S. Boydii, the history of which was given by Mr. Boyd's brother, himself a famous horticulturist, in our issue for May 12, 1906, p. 301. Deceased, who was 89 years of age, took a keen interest in gardening to the last.


THE WEATHER IN WEST HERTS. Week ending December 26. The heaviest fall of snow for nearly seven years. During the past week the temperatures have been all more or less below the average, but at no time was the cold severe, the exposed thermometer on the coldest night indicating only 15 of frost. At 2 feet deep the ground is at the present time 29, and at 1 foot deep 3°, colder than is seasonable. Rain fell on only one day of the week, but there occurred a heavy fall of snow during the early morning of the 26th. which covered the ground to the average depth of 6 inches, making this the deepest fall of snow experienced here since February 14, 1900, or for nearly seven years. The percolation has been gradually slackening during the week, and nas now almost ceased through both gauges. The sun shone on an average for one hour twelve minutes a day, which is about five minutes a day less than is usual at this season. During the seven days ending the 21st, no sunshine at all was recorded. The first five days of the week proved calm, but on the last two days the wind was rather high. The mean amount of moisture in the air at 3 p.m. fell short of a seasonable quantity for that hour by about four per cent. E.M., Berkhamsted, December 26, 1906.

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(Concluded from page 424.)

AMONG the prominent seedsmen of America to-day the names of the following Scotsmen are included:-ROBERT JAMES and JOHN K. M. L. FARQUHAR, of Boston, Mass., natives of Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, introducers into com. merce here of, among other good things, the Farquhar Rose, the Farquhar Violet, Lilium Philippinense, and Begonia Gloire de Lorraine. John K. M. L. Farquhar is a great traveller, and is in much demand as a lecturer on horticultural topics. ALEXANDER DON, of New York, a Brechin boy, a graduate from Drummond's, Stirling, is an expert on grass and other seeds, and for years was secretary-trea surer of the American Seed Trade Association. ALEXANDER FORBES is general manager of Peter Henderson and Company, New York, a man well posted in all branches of the seed business. Mr. Forbes is the inventor of a revolv ing showcase for display of seeds in packets. The CURRIE brothers, the largest seedsmen of Milwaukee, Wis., are natives of Ayrshire. ALEX. M. RENNIE, another Scot, is a prominent seedsman of Providence, R.I. ROBERT VEITCH and ARCHIBALD VEITCH, natives of Peebles, became well-known plantsmen and seedsmen in New Haven, Conn. WM. MEGGATT, born near Drumlanrig Castle, came to America in 1859, entering the garden seed business, from which he has retired. He is a replica of Burns's Captain Grose, and has a large and varied collection of antiquities. He was at one time president of the American Seed Trade Association.

As commercial florists, contributing their share toward the advancement of their craft, I would mention JAMES DEAN, a native of Wig. tonshire, born in 1845, a noted grower of Easter plants, now retired. Mr. Dean is a veteran of the Civil War, and was president of the Society of American Florists for one term. His hobby is the collecting of antique firearms, of which he has a large and varied assortment. ADAM GRAHAM, Cleveland, O., a native of Fife, born in 1840, a successful florist, and man of affairs. An ex-president of the S.A.F.O.H.

Among modern Rose growers ALEXANDER MONTGOMERY, of the Waban Rose Conservatories, Natick, Mass., is a recognised leader. He was born at Port William in 1848, and apprenticed as gardener on the Earl of Galloway's estate. He came to America in 1882. The Waban, a sport from Catherine Mermet Rose, sometimes called the Red Mermet, originated at this establishment, and in recent years the new Rose Wellesley was obtained. Mr. Montgomery was president of the American Rose Society for two terms. Mr. Montgomery's son, Alex.,

Jr., is the author of a monograph on The Grafting of Roses. GEORGE ANDERSON, Philadelphia, a noted Rose grower, is a native of Jedburgh. One of the most widely known among the living floriculturists in the United States is PETER FISHER, of Ellis, Mass., the originator of some of the best of the present-day American Carnations. He has been engaged in improving that flower since 1892. His productions include the varieties Mrs. Thomas W. Lawson, the famous "30,000-dollar Carnation," Enchantress, Nelson Fisher, Mrs. M. A. Patten, Beacon, and Evange line. Mr. Fisher was born near Dunkeld, his father being land steward for the Duke of Athole. He received his training in the gar dens of the estate of the Dowager Duchess of Athole. Mr. Fisher served as president of the American Carnation Society the present year. JOHN MURCHIE, Sharon, Pa., from the West of Scotland, is also a noted raiser of seedling Carnations, the variety Fred. Burke being one of his best. JOHN DONALDSON, a native of Banff, a graduate from the Earl of Fife's gardens, now of Elmhurst, N.Y., a Carnation specialist, was for years secretary of the New York Cut Flower Exchange. JOHN BIRNIE, of West Hoboken, N.J., from Aberdeenshire, a noted grower of Geraniums, Verbenas, and Carnations, is one of the leading men in the New York Plant Market. JOHN NICOL, also an Aberdonian, who in his young days was gardener at Viscount Arbuthnot's estate, near Bervie, is an ex-president of the New York Market Florists' Association.

JOHN SCOTT, a native of Newlandrig, near Dalkeith, served under Wm. Priest at New Battle Abbey. He is at present president of the

New York Florists' Club. The popular Nephrolepis exaltata var. Scottii, a sport of the type, originated with him. Mr. Scott is one of our progressive young florisis, and is building up a large establishment at Flatbush, near New York.

WILLIAM and JAMES T. SCOTT, brothers, natives of Aberdeenshire, possess a facile pen, and contribute numerous articles on gardening subjects to the technical Press. William Scott was for several terms president of the Tarrytown (N.Y.) Horticultural Society, and is a very successful grower and exhibitor of Grapes, Chrysanthemums, and vegetables. These gentlemen have recently entered the ranks of the commercial growers, with greenhouses at Elmsford, N.Y.

WILLIAM SIM, Cliftondale, Mass., a native of Fyvie, apprenticed at Dunnottar House, near Stonehaven, ranks high among our progressive young florists. He is an expert grower of Tomatos under glass, and as a cultivator of the Princess of Wales single Violet has few, if any, equals. It may be safely said of him that he was among the first to grow Sweet Peas under glass to a high state of perfection.

In the retail florist branch of the business, ALEX. MCCONNELL, New York, takes a leading place. He was born in the Isle of Man of Scotch parents, and is in all things truly Scottish. The WEIR brothers, John and Fred., of Brooklyn, N.Y., are prominent retailers in the city of churches. Their father, James Weir, a native of Perth, was a pioneer grower of plants around New York City. SAM. MURRAY, Kansas City, Mo., a native of the West of Scotland, is a leading retailer in his home city, and has few peers as a grower of the Gloire de Lorraine Begonia.

In the list of park superintendents is included the names of JOHN MCLAREN, of the Golden Gate Park, San Francisco's beauty spot, which figured prominently as a camping ground for the recent earthquake-fire sufferers. Mr. McLaren is a Perthshire man, and Golden Gate Park is an enduring monument to his skill. JOHN DUNBAR is assistant park superintendent of Rochester, N.Y., a frequent writer to horticultural journals. JOHN W. DUNCAN, from Aberdeenshire, is assistant superintendent of the park system of Boston, Mass., and a local correspondent of leading a trade journal. RODERICK CAMPBELL is superintendent of the Syracuse (N.Y.) parks.

WILLIAM FALCONER, one of the ablest gardeners in the United States, born in 1850, a native of Inverness-shire, commenced his horti. cultural career in the establishment of John Grigor and Company, Forres. He graduated from Kew, and joined the staff of the Garden in 1872. Two years later he came to America, and has held such important positions as superinten

dent of the Botanical Garden at Harvard University, gardener for the late Mr. Charles A. Dana, editor of the New York Sun, and superintendent of Schenley Park, Pittsburg, Pa., in the development of which he played a prominent part. He is now superintendent of Allegheny Cemetery, Pa. Mr. Falconer was the first editor of Gardening, an illustrated horticultural periodical. He is a careful writer and frequent contributor to the technical Press, and is author of Mushrooms and How to Grow Them. Among cemetery superintendents may also be mentioned ROBERT CAMPBELL, a native of Ellerslie, Renfrewshire, in charge of Cave Hill Cemetery, Louisville, Ky.; and ALEXANDER REID, superintendent of Oakwood Cemetery, Chicago.

Along the scientific lines the Hon. JAMES WILSON, the present Secretary of Agriculture in President Roosevelt's Cabinet, is a native of Ayrshire. He has drawn to his department many able scientists in special lines of investigation in horticulture, whose work is of the greatest benefit to those commercially or otherwise engaged in the cultivation of fruits, flowers and vegetables in America. GEORGE W. Oliver,

native of East Lothian, and a graduate from the Edinburgh Botanical Gardens, is an expert in the Bureau of Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Mr. Oliver has done some excellent work in the im. provement of the Easter Lily, in hybridising Water Lilies, Nepenthes, and other plants.

ROBERT CAMERON, a native of Inverness, a former Kewite, is curator of the Harvard Botanical Gardens at Cambridge, Mass., and

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I now come to private gardeners. Around Newport, R.I., some of the finest residences and private gardens in America are to be found, and in the development of the grounds and in the care of the greenhouses Scotsmen have been, and are, prominent. Among them are WILLIAM FINDLAY, a native of Fife, noted as a grower of fruits under glass; JAMES MCLEISH, a Rose. neath boy, a most successful Grape grower, and a past president of the Newport Horticultural Society; ALEXANDER MACLELLAN, a native of Lanarkshire, a good all-round gardener, who has given much attention to the eradication and prevention of insect pests, one of the origina. tors of the Newport Horticultural Society, and its present president. JAMES ROBERTSON, a Forfarshire lad, in addition to his other qualifi cations as a gardener, is an authority on Dahlias, and has raised several good seedlings. COLIN ROBERTSON, his brother, is an expert grower of Crotons, and is also an enthusiastic cultivator of Dahlias. JAMES BOYD, from Selkirk, is a successful grower of Lilies, Peaches and Nectarines under glass. HUGH WILLIAMSON, from the Burns country, has one of the largest collections of H.P. Roses in the locality, and is a very successful exhibitor.

ANDREW MEIKLE, a native of Lark Hall, Lanarkshire, ranks high as a landscape gardener and maker-up of floral designs. He was at one time financial secretary of the local society. JAMES KYLE hails from Kirkcudbrightshire, and is an expert grower of Adiantum Farleyense. CHARLES D. STARK is an excellent cultivator of ornamental foliage plants. ANDREW POW is a native of Hawick; has raised some very good varieties of Nerines, and is also an expert Chrysanthemum grower. DAVID MCINTOSH served his apprenticeship at Skibo Castle, now the Scottish home of Andrew Carnegie. Mr. McIntosh was one of the originators of the Newport Horticultural Society, and has been its secretary for nearly five years. He is a frequent contributor to the horticultural Press, and is an able plants


At Orange, N.J., PETER DUFF, a graduate from the gardens of St. Martins, Perthshire, now superintendent of Mr. J. Crosby Brown's fine estate, and an expert in Chrysanthemum culture; MALCOLM MACRORIE, a West Highlander, superintendent of the estate of Doctor Mandeville; and GEORGE SMITH, formerly gar dener for Colgate, of soap fame, now a com mercial florist, all held for a term the office of president of the New Jersey Floricultural Society. WILLIAM REID, another Scotsman, is its treasurer at present.

JOHN F. JOHNSTON, an Edinburgh lad, gar. dener on the Dana Estate, Glen Cove, is secretary of the Nassau County (N.Y.) Horticultural Society; and his brother-in-law, W. H. WAITE, a graduate of the Edinburgh Botanical Gar dens, holds a similar office in connection with the Elberon (N.J.) Horticultural Society. Each of these young men contributes frequently to the gardening Press, both being expert photographers of plants and flowers.

DAVID FRASER, a native of Craigo, Forfarshire, who served his apprenticeship at Usan, near Montrose, is head gardener for Mr. Henry C. Frick, the millionaire ironmaster of Pittsburg, Pa., and the present secretary of the Chry santhemum Society of America.

JOHN DALLAS, a native of the North of Scotland, has held several positions as head gar dener in the New England States, and has contributed freely of his excellent practical knowledge to gardening periodicals. His brother, Alexander, is a well-known florist of Waterbury, Conn

PETER BISSET, a native of Auchtermuchty, where he was born in 1869, served his gardening apprenticeship at Dalmeny Park, the seat of the Earl of Rosebery, under the late John Moyes. Mr. Bisset is now superintendent of the estate of "Twin Oaks," near Washington, D.C. He has raised several good Water Lilies, among them Nymphæa alba magnifica, N. O'Marana, Bissetii, and others, and is now engaged on a


work called The Book of Water Gardening. He has also given attention to cross-fertilisation of Roses, the new Tea Rose Queen Beatrice being one of his seedlings. Mr. Bisset is president of the Florists' Club of Washington, and a member of the executive committee of the American Rose Society.

So far as the pioneers in the profession are concerned, the conditions they faced are very clearly set forth in a letter written by Grant Thorburn to a London magazine in 1832. In that communication Mr. Thorburn said:

"We have neither lords spiritual nor temporal in this country, with seventy thousand pounds sterling a year at their backs, and who to assist them in spending so much money, must employ perhaps thirty horsemen, a hundred labourers, and, it may be, thirty gardeners. Almost every man is his own gardener, and perhaps not in America are there three gentlemen who employ gardeners for the twelve months round. While our present system of government continues, as we have no hereditary estates, and property is never shall consequently always shifting, we No have what are called overgrown fortunes. man is able to employ ten gardeners in this country; therefore, while the present system continues in Britain, gardeners will meet with much better encouragment there than in America. But, notwithstanding all this, a gardener may live very comfortably in America. Single men are generally engaged by the year, and receive from twelve to fifteen dollars per month, bed, board, and washing. It 15 expected from them to raise vegetables sufficient to supply the family; to take care of a few flower beds, and sometimes a small greenhouse." Mr. Thorburn then refers to the oppor tunity of saving money and engaging in marketgardening near a city, continuing: "But I would not advise a gardener who has a family to come here except he can bring with him one hundred or two hundred guineas, for it often happens that some months go over his head before he gets into a situation."

"A man wants only health, hands, a good character, and a good spade, to work his way in this country."

Three-quarters of a century has wrought considerable and gradual change. While our system of government is still the same, we are yet without lords, either spiritual or temporal, we have now a comparatively large number of individuals who have amassed fortunes running into the millions of dollars, and the majority of these men (and women) own big estates, and well-kept gar. dens and grounds. The latest directory of gardeners, published in 1904, gives the total in the United States and Canada as 2,000; the number may now have reached 3,000 in the two countries. There is, however, no surplus of good positions. Some of the head gardeners at Newport, R.I., have held their present places for from 15 years to a quarter of a century; it is the same else. where throughout the country, and there always seems to be a man 66 on the spot" to fill any vacancy, and, more often than not, a superabundance of applicants. The greater portion of the positions a-going are filled through the media of the various seed houses, a practice that has been in vogue since seed stores had their being here. The trained, capable, sober gardener, as against the incapable and dissolute, will, and does, of course always push his way to the front wherever he goes; but he has quite a good many drawbacks to contend against in America, perhaps not experienced to such an extent at home. Chief among these is the pretender, the man with the smattering of gardening, the garden labourer who poses as a profes sional, who is willing, as he is only qualified, to do all the "chores," as such work as attending horse, milking the cow, &c., is called, in addition to looking after the garden, imperfectly, and who works for little wages. Strange, too, many such are employed here in spite of their deficiencies. The competent, well-conducted gardener who comes to the United States in these days must take his chances, and when once he gets a foothold, make his merit felt in order to win success; and, it may be said, there is no room here for the discontented or the vicious.

Thorburn's advice respecting the married gar. dener-and for that matter the unmarried one, too-in regard to having a little nest egg to fall back upon still holds good. As in his day, quite a number of professional gardeners, as I

have previously stated, enter the commercial business of growing plants, cut flowers, &c., for market; in fact, many of our most successful florists have at one time been private gardeners. In regard to emoluments, I called on my friend, PATRICK O'MARA, of Peter Henderson & Company, New York, who has had more experience probably in the placing of gardeners in this country than any other one man, to get a line on present-day gardeners' wages. He informs me that these run from $720 a year, with house rent free, coal, and, in a good many cases, light, milk, vegetables from the surplus raised on the place, up to $1,500 a year, carry. ing the same perquisites. Places paying the latter figure are not numerous. Single men, under gardeners, receive from $25 to $50 a month, and board. Single men who have charge of places run about the same, depending on the character of the position. Most of the head gardeners are benedicts, and the number of assistant gardeners on any one place rarely exceeds, on an average, five or six.

Mr. O'Mara has, during the 20 years he has acted as the gardeners' friend, had a splendid opportunity to learn the traits, capabilities, &c., of men of the different nationalities that have come under his observation; and he gives it as his opinion, and without any disparagement of other men, that as a class Scotch gardeners head the list for all-round satisfaction. They have a greater power of concentration, are not so easily distracted by extraneous influences, such as affairs of church or state, as, say, an Irishman, or a German; and their chief glory lies rather in the achievement, the renown that attaches to difficulties overcome and victories won, than in the purely sordid side of the work.

It is facts like these, combined with the other native characteristics for which the men from ayont the Tweed are famed the world over, that in all things connected with horticulture, enable Scotland to still stand where she did-at the top. Aiec Wallace, New York, November 3, 1906.



COVENT GARDEN, December 27. [We cannot accept any responsibility for the subjoined reports. They are furnished to us regularly every Wednesday, by the kindness of several of the principal salesmen, who are responsible for the quotations. must be remembered that these quotations do not represent the prices on any particular day, but only the general averages for the week preceding the date of our report. The prices depend upon the quality of the samples, the way in which they are packed, the supply in the market, and the demand, and they may fluctuate, not only from day to day, but occasionally several times in one day.-ED.]

Cut Flowers, &c.: Average Wholesale Prices.
s.d. s.d.

Azalea Fielderi, per
dozen bunches 3 0-60
mollis, p. bch. 1 C-16
Anemones, per dz.
Bouvardia, per dz.
Calla æthiopica,per
Camellias, white,
per dozen
Carnations, per

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dozen blooms, best American


smaller, per

s.d. s.d.

Marguerites, white, p. dz. bunches 20-30 - yellow, per dz. bunches Mignonette, per dz.


4 0-60 Narcissus, paper

50-60 20-30


doz. bunches 60-90 Cattleyas, per doz. blooms Christmas Roses,

doz. blooms... Chrysanthemums,

10 0-12 0


specimen blms. 40-90 per dz. blooms 16-40 small blooms,

per doz. bnchs. 30-90 Daffodils, per bch. 1 0- 16 Eucharis grandiflora, per doz. blooms... Gardenias, per doz. blooms... Gypsophila ele

3 04 0


gans, dz. bchs. 20-30 Heather, white, pr.

doz. bunches... 30-60 Hyacinth (Roman),

p. dz. bunches 6 0-12 0 Lilac, white, p. bch, 40-50 Lilium auratum 30-40 lancifolium, rubrum and album ... longiflorum

Lily of the Valley,

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Mad. Chatenay 30-60

Mrs. J. Laing 40-60 Stephanotis,

per dozen trusses 40-60 20-30 Tuberoses, per dz. 40-60 blooms 04-06 Tulips, per dozen 1 0-1 6 Violets, doz. bchs. 2 0-4 0 Parma, p. bch. 30-40

p. dz. bunches 60-90 extra quality... 12 0-18 0


Grapes, per lb.... - Almeria,

18 0-20 0

12 0-15 0 14 0-15 0 14 6-16 0 20 0-21 0

12 6-14 0

18 0-20 0 16 0-18 0 Canadian, per barrel: Russets Greenings

Ben Davis Baldwins

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21 0-23 0 12 0-14 0 13 0-14 0 14 0-15 0

U.S.A., 'per barrel 21 0-35 0 English, bus. 3 0-10 0

English, per

bushel (46 lbs.

to 50 lbs.)

Newtown Pip


pins, per case 10 6-16 0 Bananas, bunch:

West red

No. 1


No. 2

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8 0-10 0 10 0-12 0 46-60 Loose, per dz. 09-16 Cranberries, p. case 12 0 Custard Apples,


per dozen 4 0-10 0 Dates (Tunis), doz. boxes 46 Figs, Italian, box.. 0 6 0 9 French, p. box 06-08 Grape Fruit, case 6 6-10 0 Grapes (English), Black Hambro, per lb.


Alicante, p. lb. 08-12

Gros Colmar, per lb....


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s.d. c.d.

per bushel... 10-16 Cabbages, per mat

(about 30 to 40


heads) ... -red, per dozen 20 Carrots, French pad 30 per bag, un




13-19 26

Cauliflowers,p.tally 11 0-12 0

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30-40 Savoys, per mat

0 10-1 0 10

1 0-1 6


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(holding about

20 16 0-18 0

30 to 40) Seakale, doz. pts. Tomatos:

- Canary, per bundle...

Turnips, per cwt.





14 0-18 0


- Egyptian, bag.. 3 6-4 0 pickling, per washed, cwt.... bushel... 20-26 Watercress, per French, bag.. 26 doz. bunches... 04-06 REMARKS.-The severe snow-storm has curtailed the supply of all green vegetables such as Savoys, Brussel's Sprouts, &c., and this morning (December 27) the market was practi, cally empty, so far as these were concerned. Celery, however, is plentiful. The sea fogs, and bad weather generally, delayed the transit of much foreign produce, and Tomatos are especially dear. Foreign Tomatos arrive in boxes, four of which nailed together by strips of wood, constitute a "bundle." All vegetables are very dear. The Christmas trade generally has been very good. E. H. R., Covent Garden, Thursday, December 27.

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The Christmas trade was disappointing. On Saturday morning there were very few empty stands, and most of them were nearly full. Prices advanced but little. The frost checked the trade for the more tender plants. I saw some Poinsettias, which were good and plentiful, passing through the streets, without protection, early in the morning when the ground was hard with frost. It seemed a pity, for after such an exposure the bracts would droop down in a few hours. Begonia Gloire de Lorraine was fully exposed at the same time. It is this sort of treatment that spoils the trade for tender plants, for if they reach the customers before showing the effects from cold they soon deteriorate, and the buyers being disappointed, do not purchase the same plants again. Azalea indica though fairly hardy will not stand exposure after being forced into flower. Ericas made better prices, but supplies were more than equal to the demand. Marguerites were over plentiful. Spiræas were good. Chinese Primulas from several growers were better than we have seen them for several years past. Bouvardias as they appear now can hardly be recommended, Cyclamen vary, but some are very good. White Hyacinths (Dutch) are better than those seen a few days earlier, and the "Romans are good. Tulips vary; some are very good, but others have been over forced; they are plentiful in white, red, and yellow colours. Solanums are still over plentiful, and many of them are far advanced and the berries drop easily. A fairly good trade has been done in foliage plants, but the supply is excessive.


These have been abundant, and very little advance was made in prices. A few extra fine Callas made 8s. per dozen, but 5s. was about the ruling price for very good samples, and 5s. was the highest price asked for Lilium longiflorum. Roses advanced in prices considerably; General Jacqueminot went out at 8s. per dozen blooms, and other sorts were proportionately dear. Carnations also cleared at better prices. It is true that many of the Chrysanthemums are rather far advanced, but even good, fresh white blooms did not rise in price, except it was for extra large flowers. Poinsettias instead of advancing were rather lower in price. Lily of the Valley continues plentiful. Eucharis remained on sale at closing time. Violets are not quite so plentiful and have advanced in price. Camellias were sold at low prices. Orchid blooms, particularly Cattleyas, are not so abundant as they were a few weeks ago. Daffodils were not quite so plentiful, the first crop being over, but Tulips and Roman Hyacinths were abundant. Narcissus Paper White, Gloriosa, and Soleil d'Or (imported) are plentiful and good. "Mimosa" is much better, for we are now getting the true Acacia armata. Ranunculus is good and Roses are of fair quality. Eucalyptus globulus in flower is attractive. Foliage of all descriptions continues abundant. A. H.



HEATH'S BOOK ON VIOLETS.-If Mr. Percy Allder (see p. 379) will make application to Mr. J. Heath, Violet specialist, Fluder, Kingskerswell, Devon, he will get all the information he requires, G. Goddard.

USE OF GAS LIME AGAINST EEL-WORM. I am thinking of preparing soil for next year's Tomato growing, and as a safeguard against eel-worm, &c.. have thought of mixing gas lime with the soil and keeping them exposed in the open air until wanted for use. How much gas lime will it be safe to put with a cart load of soil? If mixed now, will it be safe to use it at about the middle of March? There will be a large heap of about 40 cart loads; will the centre of the heap be sufficiently exposed for the air to act on the lime, or should it be turned occasionally? B. A.



AUBRIETIAS AND ALYSSUMS: L. W. Aubrietia deltoidea Campbelli (syn. A. Hendersonii) is perhaps the best Aubrietia for the purpose of growing on and covering a stone wall, as it possesses a vigorous constitution with a fine tufted habit, while its large flowers of a deep shade of violet blue are extremely attractive. "Dr. Mules," a new variety, with flowers of a rich glowing purple, is preferred by many, but while admitting it is undoubtedly one of the best three to grow in a limited collection, we should give it second place to the former. A. d. græca superba may be chosen as the third variety, because of its good habit and the profuseness of its light purple flowers, which are produced over a very extended period. Of Alyssums the best for growing on walls is A. montanum, because of its dwarf and spreading habit. Its flowers are yellow and very sweet scented, and its foliage is a pleasing shade of glaucous green. For ordinary spring-bedding purposes A. saxatile compactum and A. s. flore pleno are best. BOOKS: 0. T. M. Dictionaries (Nicholson's) and the French translation, by Mottet, published at 26, Rue Jacob, Paris; Bailey's Cyclopædia of American Horticulture (Macmillan), Emil Koehne, Deutsche Dendrologie (Stuttgart, Enke); Dippel Handbuch der Laubholzkunde (Berlin Parey); Beissner Handbuch der Nadelholzkunde (Berlin Parey); Veitch's Manual of the Conifera (James Veitch & Sons); Sargent Manual of the Trees of North America (Constable & Co.) and the Silva, of the same author, in 14 large 4to volumes; Fertilisation of Flowers, Müller. Apply to Macmillan & Co.-C. P. D. We do not know of any complete or recently published book on the natural orders. The last edition of Henfrey's Elementary Course of Botany, now some years old, contains the fullest account of the natural

orders for your purposes. We do not know any book in English on Geographical Botany. Messrs. Stanford, Long Acre, or Philip, Fleet Street, would supply you with a globe. Write for their catalogue. Kerner and Oliver can be had from our publisher, at the price of 30s., postage extra. BREACH OF CONTRACT: A. B. If you were engaged for the situation, and the agreement is in writing, we think you would be able to claim a week's wages or a month's wages, according to the length of notice that would be necessary to terminate the same engagement after you had actually commenced work. Such claim, however, might be disallowed in a court of law if one of the parties could prove that he obtained certain knowledge after making the contract that justified him in denouncing it.

FRUITS OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS: C. Bailey. As the unripe fruits of P. edulis chiefly consist of juice, the only thing you can do is to boil it with sugar, and make a flavouring essence of it. If very liquid, you might add a small quantity of brandy before bottling the syrup. In a compost of Bananas, for instance, some of this syrup would be delicious.

GROWING VEGETABLES AND HARDY FRUIT FOR MARKET: C. E. A. Your question is a difficult one to answer, seeing that so much depends upon circumstances and local conditions. Therefore we should advise you to consider the matter from every point of view before embarking in the business of market-gardener with a view to securing an annual income of £250 from the growing and marketing of vegetables and hardy fruits from a given acreage. Careful consideration is especially necessary in your case, inasmuch as you possess no special knowledge of the business upon which you propose to embark. You would have to rely upon the honesty and business ability of a manager who possesses the knowledge you lack. If you decide to make the attempt you should try and obtain on lease five, 10, 15, or more acres within five or six miles of the large and populous city near which you write from, and which is also within easy reach of other important centres of industry to which you could send the produce in your own conveyances to the several shops. By arrangement with some of the stable people you might then load your cart with manure on the return

journey. You should, at all events, endeavour to get land enough to admit of your keeping two or more horses for ploughing, &c., so as to dispense with as much manual labour as possible in the production and marketing of crops; doing everything thoroughly and at the same time economically. Put plenty of manure into the ground, cultivate it well, and crop it closely and in regular succession with the vegetables most in demand. If you have capital enough to start in this fashion you may succeed. Should you be able to erect some low, narrow houses for the production of Cucumbers, and procure a good man to grow them, you would stand a still better chance of securing an income. But there would be no use in your commencing vegetable-growing for market unless you were near to a large city like Manchester or Birmingham, and suchlike centres in which to dispose of your produce. HEATING GREENHOUSE : A. R. G. From the further particulars with which you have furnished us, including the height of the ridge of house from the floor-line, &c., it appears the cubic space is considerably less than your esti Therefore, we think that four rows of 4-inch hot-water piping will be sufficient to ensure a minimum atmospheric temperature of 45° during severe weather in winter, especially if you have no front lights or only shallow ones. In this case we should recommend you to fix two pipes, putting the flow and return, one above the other, parallel with, and close up to, side wall on either side of the house, and fixing the position of the pipes in a line of say 2 feet from the wall-plate, on piers or suspension hooks, made so that the top 2 inches rests on the wallplate, and is secured thereon with a screw. With regard to your last question our answer is, about 20 feet.


JOURNAL FOR MARKET GARDENERS: J. A. Fruit Grower, Fruiterer, Florist, and Market Gardener, price 1d., published weekly at 1, 2, and 3, Salisbury Court, London, E.C., or Profitable Farm and Garden, price 1d., published weekly by Messrs. Collingridge, 148 and 149, Aldersgate Street, E.C.

PINEAPPLE DECAYED: J. T. The plants have been subjected to some error of culture, which has caused a check to them, resulting in the diseased condition seen. It is not due to a fungoid pest. We do not undertake to reply by post.

TUBEROSES INTENDED FOR FLOWERING IN SEPThe TEMBER AND OCTOBER: Constant Reader. bulbs which are now coming to hand should be successional batches, and those potted in intended for late flowering should be kept in sand in a dry room. If they are to flower in September and October, the bulbs should be taken from the sand and potted up at the end of May or the beginning of June. Under ordinary treatment they will then produce flowers at the time stated. A good compost for the rooting medium is formed of loam and leaf mould, and if the pots could be plunged in a bottom heat of 659 70° when the plants are about to start into growth, a much more even growth would be ensured. When the roots have become active, the plants | should be placed in a position near to the glass, in a moist atmosphere, and be frequently syringed, to keep down red spider. All side growths should be rubbed off as they appear, thus the vigour in the bulb will be concentrated into the nourishment of the central growth, which will in due| time produce strong spikes of flowers. WOODLICE: T. C. Place hollowed slices of Potatos, Turnips, or other vegetables near their haunts, and examine these baits occasionally, when many woodlice will be found congregated on the under surface. Garden mats, rolled and placed on the ground, also act as excellent traps for these pests. See note published on p. 435 of last week's issue, under "Cockroaches, &c., for a proprietary poison that was recommended for destroying woodlice. COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED.-H. R. C. (next week; thanks for 2s. which has been placed in Orphan Fund Box)-H. Slater-A. C. B.-E. M.-W. P.-C. & Co.-Mrs. A Warwick-A. D. W.-W. B. & Sons-Hayward-Tyler & Co., Ltd.--O. T.-J. O'B.-F. M.-A. G. S-S. A -C. H. P.-A. & B., Ltd.-H. W.-W. H.-A. E. W. G. -H. W. G.-S. V., Wiln.-A. G. G.-K. D.-E. M. A. C. H.-J. D. G.-T. C.-S. G. R.-J. W.-D. & R.J. O. B.-J. M.-R. S.-W, W. P.-A. C, B.-H. W. W.F. C. S., Cape Town.


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