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Messrs. RICHARD SMITH & Co., St. John's Nurseries, Worcester, and Mr. J. H. WHITE sent hardy flowers. (Bronze Medal.)

The only group of Orchids staged on this occasion came from the Highbury houses of the Rt. Hon. JOSEPH CHAMBERLAIN, M.P., Birming. ham (gr., Mr. J. Mackay). A few of the best things were Phalaenopsis amabilis Rimestadtiana, Cattleya Gaskelliana alba. Lælio-Cattleya Aphrodite, and Dendrochilum filiforme, bearing an abundance of long slender racemes of tiny greenish-yellow flowers. (Vote of thanks.)

Mr. C. H. HERBERT, Acock's Green, exhibited hardy flowers (Silver Medal), and HUGH MITCHELL, Esq., Mercote Hall, had Pansies and Canterbury Bells.


The largest and most representative display of hardy border and bulbous flowers came from Messrs. DICKSONS, Chester, who had English and Spanish Irises, Lupinus Somerset (lovely canary-yellow flowers), Liliums, and a dozen stately Delphiniums, of which the varieties named Persimmon, light blue, and Mrs. Chamberlain, deep blue, were the best.

From Messrs. BLACKMORE & LANGDON, Twerton-on-Avon, Bath, came a collection of double and single-flowered Begonias, arranged in vases and Bamboo stands. (Silver Medal.)

J. A. KENRICK, Esq., Berrow Court, Edg. baston (gr. Mr. A. Cryer), sent a group of Schizanthus Wisetonensis and Delphiniums. Messrs. JARMAN & Co., Chard, Somerset, showed New Centaureas and about 30 sprays of Zonal Pelargonioums. (Bronze Medal.)


Lalio-Cattleya Aphrodite (Lælia purpurata x Cattleya Mendeli) from Messrs. CHARLESWORTH & Co., Heaton, Bradford. Sepals and petals unusually broad, pure in colour and of great substance; lip large, of rich velvety purple. Centaurea The Bride from Messrs. JARMAN & Co., Chard, Somerset. The flowers of this new Sweet Sultan are nearly 3 inches in diawith deeply-cut meter, white, semi-double, petals.

Delphinium H. Smetham from Messrs. BLACKMORE & LANGDON, Twerton-on-Avon, Bath. A strong-growing, much-branched spike of large semi-double, deep-blue flowers, tinted with purple.


JULY 3.-At the monthly meeting of this association, held at 5, St. Andrew Square, Edinburgh, Mr. D. W. Thomson, president, in the chair, a paper was read by Miss Barker, Corstorphine, on "Women Gardeners." Miss Barker, who has the distinction of being the first lady to address the association, said he suitability or unsuitability of gardening as an cccupation for women had been so much discussed that it was difficult for most people to form a fair judgment on the subject. Excluding the heaviest work, there was no reason why a woman should not do well all that was required in a garden from the simplest work to the culture of the most exacting plant that could be raised.


THE members of these societies recently paid a visit to the summer residence of Colonel Evans-Lloyd (of Chester), at Moel-y-Garnedd. The gardens contain a fine collection of herbaceous plants and hardy flowering shrubs. Lupins, Centaurea montana, the beautiful Geranium armenum, Heucheras, Oriental Poppies in many colours, the grand Spiræa Aruncus, Globe Thistles, Inulas, Erigerons, Sea Holley, Delphiniums, &c., in great variety, were seen in the borders; Tropaeolum polyphyl. lum covered a border with its glaucous leaves and curious flowers. Rodgersia podophylla, which is so difficult to establish, was well grown and flowering freely; but the great glory of all eemed to be a large shrub of the Ceanothus azurea, which was covered with a profusion of its small, light-blue-coloured flowers. On the way from Bala Station, the botanists of the perty were fortunate in finding Meadow Rue Thalictrum minus), Red Sandwort, Spurry (Spergularia rubra), Shoreweed (Littorella lacustris), Quillwort (Isoetes lacustris) and te Le ser Sp kerush (Eleocharis acicularis). George Paxton.



[We cannot accept any responsibility for the subjoined reports. They are furnished to us regularly every Wednesday, by the kindness of several of the principal salesmen, who are responsible for the quotations. It must be remembered that these quotations do not represent the prices on any particular day, but only the general averages for the week preceding the date of our report. The prices depend upon the quality of the samples, the way in which they are packed, the supply in the market, and the demand, and they may fluctuate, not only from day to day, but occasionally several times in one day.-ED.j

Cut Flowers, &c.: Average Wholesale Prices.
s.d. s.d.

Calla æthiopica, per dozen Centaurea cyanus,


2 6-4 0

doz. bunches... 20-40 suaveolens 30-40

Coreopsis grandi

flora, per doz.

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s.d. s.d.

crispum, per dozen blooms 2 0-26 Pæonies, per doz.

bunches Pelargoniums,

show, per doz.

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best American

smaller do.


16-30 10-26 30-80

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Cattleyas, per doz.


Gladiolus, various,

per dz. bnchs.. The Bride

Poppies (Iceland),

per dz. bnchs. 1 6-2 6



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grandiflora, per doz. blooms... Gardenias, per doz. blooms...



4 0-60



90-12 0


Roses, 12 blooms, Niphetos Bridesmaid Kaiserin A.


10-20 20-30


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20-30 30-46

60-90 90-12 0

p. dz. bunches 20-30 -yellow, per dz. bunches

Mignonette, dozen bunches Myosotis, per doz. bunches




Mrs. J. Laing 30-50

from the open,

various kinds,

per dz. bnchs. 30-60 Statice, per dozen

bunches Stephanotis, per


dozen trusses 30-50 Stocks (double white) per doz. bunches


Peas, per doz. bunches... 16-50

20-30 Sweet


Cut Foliage, &c.: Average Wholesale Prices. s.d. s.d.

Asparagus plumosus, long

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red, per handle 26 sieve (French) 60-70 black, sieve... 63-69 - English pecks 30-36 sieve... 60-70 Figs, per dozen 20-80 Grapes (English),


Black Hambro,

per lb.

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- English, Muscat, per lb.

Gooseberries (Eng

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per cwt. Spanish,


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Walnuts, dried,


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06 08






punnetts French, crates

(4 baskets) Southampton,

per basket

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s.d. s.d lius, dozen 40-50 laxus, per doz 40-50 Dracænas, per doz. 9 0-24 0 Erica, per dozen... 24 0-26 0 -ventricosa magnifica 24 0-42 0 Euonymus, per dz. 4 0-90 18 0-30 0 Ferns, in thumbs, per 100... 7 0-10 0 in small and large 60's 16 0-25 0 -in 48's, perdoz. 4 0-10 0 -in 32's, per doz. 10 0-18 0 Ficus elastica, 9 0-18 0 -repens, per doz. 50-80 Fuchsias, per doz. 4 0-60 Heliotrope, per dz. 30-50 HydrangeaHortensia, per dozen Thos. Hogg paniculata

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per lb. ...

7 6-10 0


s.d. s.d.


Buttons, per lb. 08-10 Mustard and Cress,

per dozen pun. 10-16 Onions (Egyptian),


pickling, per



4 6-5 0


French, bag.. 23

Parsley, 12 bunches 10-16

Spring, dozen





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FLOWER MARKET. The busy season is now over, and many stands remain empty. There is still a good supply of flowering plants. Show, Zonal, and Regal Pelargoniums are very good, but the best Ivy leaved sorts are nearly finished for the season. Marguerites, both yellow and white varieties, are remarkably good, but trade in them has fallen off. Hydrangea Hortensia and H. paniculata grandiflora are still good. Liliums are not so plentiful; very good L. longiflorums are seen. Spiræa multiflora compacta is one of the best kinds, and

S. Silver Sheath is also nice. Fuchsias vary much in quality; some are excellent. Chrysanthemum segetum is seen from several growers. Coreopsis is now coming from Mr. Lewington; it is a pity this plant is not obtained earlier in the market, but I find all who try it fail, for the plants grow too tall and the blooms will not open. I believe this difficulty might be got over by saving seed from the earliest flowers, and growing the plants in light airy houses. Crassula coccinea and the hybrid varieties are still plentiful and good. Among roses some good Ramblers in small pots are seen, also H.P.'s, but they are not numerous. Foliage plants are plentiful and vary little in price, but it would not be safe to rely on the markets for best Crotons (Codiæums) and Cordylines (Dracænas).


Roses continue over plentiful, especially those from_the open ground which arrive early in the morning. Best blooms with long stems are not numerous. Carnations are plentiful and good in all varieties. Even at this late season the American varieties take the lead and have much depreciated the value of "Malmaisons," which usually make good prices during the London season. Hardy flowers are seen in great abundance, and now that hawkers are giving their attention to fruit, they do not clear well. I have never before seen Sweet Peas in such great abundance, and there must be many wasted, for at closing time large quantities are left over, and they are of no use for sale the next day. Liliums and other choice flowers are rather short, and prices vary much from day to day.

LA TRIBUNE HORTICOLE.-Soyez la bienvenue is the welcome to be extended to this the latest accession to the horticultural Press. It is published at 10 centimes (1d.) in Brussels. At present there is no other weekly publication of a similar character in Belgium. There are about 7,000,000 of people in that kingdom, 20 cities comprising among them representatives of remarkable energy, industry, ability and taste. Besides, horticulture may almost be reckoned as a speciality in Belgium, so that the success of the journal should be assured. In the first number we notice a description of a new Brasilian Orchid by M. DE WildeMAN, Pleurothallis gracilis, var. Binoti. plementary illustration gives a representation of a new Cattleya, C. Mendeli var. Frau Lina Abeken, in which the segments are white, flushed with rose, the lip white with a magenta-coloured blotch at the base. Reports of the two Brussels societies, the Royale de Flore and the Royale Linnénne, will be given in the Tribune from time to time.

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"Nos ARBRES."-Under this title Mr. CORREVON has just issued an illustrated treatise on the trees of Switzerland, to which we shall take an early opportunity of referring more at length.

THE FLORA OF TROPICAL AFRICA.-A new part of The Flora of Tropical Africa has lately been issued. It comprises the remainder of the Scrophulariaceæ by Messrs. HEMSLEY AND SKAN, the Orobanchaceae and Lentibulariacea by Dr. STAPF, the Gesneracea by Mr. J. G. BAKER and C. B. Clarke, the Bignoniaceæ by Mr. SPRAGUE, the Pedaliaceæ (Pedalineæ) by Dr. STAPF. This part completes the fourth volume and is provided with a full index.

AMERICAN PEONY SOCIETY.-The formation of a special society is no novelty in this country. What is noteworthy, however, is that such a society should be associated with a university. We can scarcely conceive our sedate Universities, such as Oxford or Cambridge, interesting themselves seriously in such, as they would judge, frivolous pursuits as Pæony growing. Our American cousins take wider views of the functions of a university, and so we find that the Pæony Society is to meet at Cornell University next year, that a large collection of Pæonies, nearly 2,000 varieties, is being grown and carefully studied in the college grounds, and that one of the advanced students is preparing a thesis on Pæonies for his doctor's degree in the university. The robes of a doctor of music in this country are gorgeous enough-what must be the apparel of a doctor of Pæonies? That the Pæony is not universally appreciated in America was illustrated by the fact that some time since we were dining at a public table decorated with bowls of Pæonies. The company consisted largely of Americans, to whom the flowers in We question seemed to be quite unknown. observe that among the visitors to the recent Pæony Exhibition at Boston were Mr. and Mrs. HUGH DICKSON, of Belfast.


"TO CLEAN MARBLE, &c."-If Hortus would apply a solution of potash [of what strength?] [powdered] pumice-stone and whitening, and after 24 hours wash the vases, they should be clean. N. S.



We are compelled to hold over a report of the Hanley Flora Fête, and other matters until our next issue.

BEGONIAS AFFECTED WITH THRIPS: J. W. Dip the foliage in tobacco water and endeavour to promote a healthy growth in the plants by favourable cultivation.

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CARNATION SEEDLING: G. P. The seedling is not so good as Mrs. Sinkin and many others already in commerce. The calyx is of the worst type, splitting badly. The Carnation and the Pink are such near relatives that crosses between them should excite little wonder. Mr. Douglas has even crossed the Sweet William (Dianthus barbatus), with a Carnation. However, you should preserve the seedlings, as they often improve in the second or third season. CORRECTION.-In the note on Celmisias, on p. 2, line 17, the word "Rockery" was, by a printer's error, made to read " Valley." CYMBIDIUM TRACEYANUM: F. T. There is no fungus present. The injury, known as spot, is due to the deposition of moisture on the leaf during the night This is caused by damping down the floor and stages late in the day, combined with lack of sufficient ventilation and decrease of atmospheric temperature. FLIES J. G. E. The flies are specimens of one of the ruby-tailed flies (Chrysis ignita). The mud nest was no doubt made by one of the solitary wasps belonging to the genus Odynerus which fills its nest with the larvæ of various insects as food for its grubs. The ruby-tailed flies" do not make nests, but lay their eggs in the nests of the Odynerus, thus playing a part similar to the Cuckoo. This explains the presence of more than one kind of larva in the nest.

GRAPES: Dulwich. The Grapes are perfectly free from fungi, the markings being due to scald or contact with sunlight before the fruit has become dry on the surface.

GRAPES SPOTTED: F. T. and M. O. Y. The berries are affected with the "spot" disease. Burn any that are diseased and spray the remaining ones with liver of sulphur-ounce to 1 gallon of water.



INSECTS: J. C. and S. The creatures in the glass phial are the common aphis or green fly at a particular stage in their development. MUSCAT OF ALEXANDRIA GRAPES: J. G. H. The disease is that known as Browning.' See answer to N. W., p. 416. NAMES OF PLANTS: W. W. 1, Spiræa Filipendula; 2, Centaurea montana; 3, Erigeron speciosus; 4, Tradescantia virginica; 5, Scabiosa or Cephalaria; 6, Eryngium alpinum.-S. Spre iger. 1, Priva tuberosa; 2, Zephyranthes sersilis; 3, Either a variety of Dianthus scaber or an undescribed species.-R. S. Lathyrus rotundifolius.-W. W. 1, Rubus, not recognised: no flowers present. The Japanese Wineberry is Rubus phænicolasius; 2, Primula, probably P. mollis; 3, Ruellia Portellæ; 4, Geranium pratense var.; 5, Lupinus nanus.J. McL. i, Veronica spicata; 2, Solanum Dulcamara; 3, Linum perenne; 4, Euphorbia Lathyris, the Caper Spurge; 5, Mimulus syn. Diplacus glutinosus: 6, Polygala myrtifolia grandiflora syn. P. Dalmaisiana; 7, Pedicularis sylvatica.-G. B. 1, Poterium Sanguisorba; 2, Genista Scoparia.-G. M. 1, Not known; 2, Eryngium alpinum; 3, Campanula persicifolia; 4. Lupinus ornatus; 5, Iris pseudoacorus; 6, Chrysanthemum maximum; 7, Sidalcea malvæflora.-J. W. 1, Photinia serrulata; 2, Cassinia fulvida 3, Ephedra nebrodensis; 4, Ruscus racemosus.-Dinne ford. Trichopilia coccinea.-

D. S. G. Tradescantia virginica.-J. & Co. Stachys lanata.-S. J. H. 1, Thuya dolabrata ; 2, Thuya occidentalis; 3, Retinospora filifera of gardens; 4, Cupressus nootkænsis variegated; 5, Retinospora plumosa of gardens; 6, Cupressus Hæmanthus Lawsoniana.-J. G., Wimborne. puniceus, not a valuable species.-J. B., Stockport. The partly decayed flower is probably Cattleya Mossiæ. The damage was probably caused by excessive moisture and not sufficient ventilation. -F. E., Hants. 1, Selaginella lævigata, often called S. cæsia arborea 2, Selaginella plumosa : 3, Selaginella flabellata; 4, Selaginella Wildenovi. The Lavatera was attacked by fungus, probably in the soil.-P. M. Apparently Echium vulgare, but specimen insufficient and shrivelled. -G. R. D. 1, Sisyrhynchium Bermudianum ; 2, Artemisia abrotanum; 3, Epilobium angustifolium. -T. W., South Wales. Cupressus funebris, in its two stages of growth: the red colour is quite normal.-A. C. H. Anchusa italica.-L. H., Wycombe. 1, Campanula glomerata; 2, Agrimonia Eupatoria: 3, Galium palustre; 4. Melampyrum pratense; 5, Primula Forbesi: 6, Sedum album.-W. H. Glaucium luteum, orange-coloured variety.— W. Y. 1, Acalypha Macafeeana; 2, Bignonia cherere; 3, Alstroemeria aurea; 4, Hemerocallis fulva; 5, Campanula pyramidalis; 6. Polemonium cœruleum; 7, Phalaris arundinacea variegata; 8. Centranthus ruber.-H. H. 1 and 2, varieties of Thunia Veitchiana Thunia Marshalliana; 4, Thunia Bensoniæ; 5, Brassia candata.-H. E. 1, Adiantum cuneatum grandiceps; 2, Adiantum concinnum; 3. Adiantum Capillus Veneris; 4, Adiantum Pacotii; 5, Adiantum decorum; 6, Acalypha hispida.-Japonica. Epidendrum oncidioides, Aspasia variegata.-Ballyarthur. 1, Mitraria coccinea; 2, Taxodium distichum; 3, Liriodendron tulipifera; 4, Sequoia sempervirens; 5, Azalea pontica; 6, Daphne Laureola; 7, Spiræa chamædrifolia.


NECTARINES INJURED: J. W. The damage is a physical one-there is no fungus present. The fruits appear to have been scalded by the sun when they were wet. See that they do not receive injury also from the wires.

PEAS DISEASED: C. P. Your Peas are badly attacked with a brown mould, Colletotrichum Lindemuthianum (Briosa and Cavara). Badly diseased plants should be removed and the remainder sprayed with Bordeaux mixture or potassium sulphide. A damp situation or sowing seeds too thickly would favour the disease. Do not save seeds from infected plants. POTATO J. T. M. The plant is badly attacked by the common Potato fungus Peronospora infestans. Spraying with a fungicide is very helpful at an earlier stage in preventing a serious attack, but you can do nothing for the present crop beyond removing the haulm as soon as it is dead and burning it. Lift the tubers as soon as they are ready, that those which are diseased may be separated from those which are not. ROSE GRUB: 7. C. & Sons. The edges of the Rose leaves are rolled by grubs of one of the "sawflies (Blennocampa pusilla), a by no means uncommon insect, but one which we have never known to occur in such numbers as to be the cause of any real injury to the plants. The most effectual way of destroying the insect is by picking off the affected leaves and burning or burying them. Insecticides are of no use. STRAWBERRIES INJURED: E. N., C.S.G. The injury has been caused by mice, which have eaten the seeds or pips. We have received similar injured fruits from the forcing houses earlier in the season.-A. G. T. The fruits appear to be rotting from dampness. There is no indication of disease.

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TOMATO DISEASED: R. F. and Another. The fruits are affected with 'spot" disease of Tomatos. Cladosporium lycopersica. Burn all diseased fruits, and spray the foliage and remaining fruits with Bordeaux mixture. See Calendar of Garden Operations, p. 45, obtainable from our Publishing Department, price 74d. post free.

COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED.-L. C.-G. B. & Co.-W. B. H. -W. I.-E. H. W.-J. H. V., Berlin.-C. T. D.-E. W, Oundle (photos).-W. E. G.-F. L.-W. J. M.-W. C. B.F. A. W.-J. H. D.-H. Gillett.-W. B.-R. T. H.-H. T. McM.-W. H. & L. C.-J. McD.-J. P.-G. R.-Cardif Hort. Soc.-M. Correvon, Geneva-G. D.-J. L.-R. H. W.-W. J. W.-A, L. F.-J. S.-F. S.-B. M. S.-H. G. P.-R. B.-S. B. & Sons-Trehane-J. R.-F. W. G -W. K.-T. H. S.-L. C.-A. B.-F. B.-D. R. W.-F P.J. O'B.

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Roses, nevertheless, are much finer this season than most cultivators could reasonably have anticipated. Perhaps an exception may be made in the case of the more tender Noisettes and Teas, many of which, such as L'Ideal, Madame Pierre Cochet, Maréchal Niel, Anna Olivier, William Allen Richardson, The Bride, and Madame de Watteville have unquestionably suffered much; and especially where, as in many gardens I could indicate, they have been utterly neglected. On the other hand, such varieties as the creamywhite Devoniensis, which is exceptionally beautiful at my study window, Madame Alfred Carrière, Bouquet d'Or, Papa Gontier, and Corallina, have never been more luxuriant in their floral beauty than they are this year. The lovely and sweetly-fragrant hybrid Noisette, to which I have just referredMadame Alfred Carrière-is present flowering in my garden through a hawthorn hedge at a height of 13 feet; while Margaret Dickson, the Queen of Irish Roses, has attained an equal eminence on the southern wall of this manse.

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WING chiefly to adverse atmospheric influences Roses, even in the most congenial situations, have demanded abnormal attention this year. The insidious Rose-caterpillar and the prolific green fly have had, in such a semi-tropical season, an extensive dispersion. The former was well compared, by the late Dean Hole, of Rochester, to a burglar who hides himself during the day in the shrubbery before he makes his nocturnal attack upon the silver in the dining




In the great hybrid perpetual class, such lustrous crimsons as Duke, of Edinburgh, Charles Lefebvre, Horace Vernet, A. K. Williams (whose first flower-buds, as usual, proved hard and abortive), Lady Helen Stewart, Duke of Teck, and those recent fine introductions from Belmont and Newtownards, viz., F. B. Clark, Hugh Dickson, and Charles J. Grahame, are in flower. F. B. Clark, which Dean Hole would doubtless have characteristically described "a bright, dark Rose," has already achieved great reputation. Etoile de France, its Continental rival in renown, has not yet in my garden unfolded its full charms; but I can certify that it is in budform a supreme beauty, of rich maroon colour, and uniquely artistic. The grandest of all the hybrid perpetuals, whose satinwhite flowers are seldom less than six inches in diameter, Frau Karl Druschki, sometimes more expressively entitled La Reine de Neige, is already conspicuous, luna inter minores ignes, by the purity and splendour of its blooms. Clio and Margaret Dickson, two varieties of quite inestimable value, whether as regards their remarkable growth or their floral achievement, are also grandly sustaining their great reputation. La France and Caroline Testout, Clara Watson, Viscountess Folkestone, and Madame Pernet Ducher are as florally effective as in former years. Among modern Roses, Florence Pemberton is especially fine.

That exquisite semi-double, so-called "Austrian Briar Rose, Rosa Harrisoni, which has of late received well-deserved attention from the Gardeners' Chronicle, has been extremely beautiful and luxuriant this season. Grown, as it is invariably here, in artistic association with the brighter forms of the Penzance Briars, it is undoubtedly one of the loveliest of all Roses, of charming texture, and delicately refined. David R. Williamson, Manse of Kirkmaiden, Wigtonshire, Scotland.

But the devices of this monstrous regiment of insects can be easily discovered by the assiduous cultivator, who generally knows from long experience where to find his secret enemy, safely concealed-as it doubtless imagines-between two carefully glued leaves. My invariable practice is to detach and then isolate his leafy habitation, without depriv- OLD AND NEW EXHIBITION ing him of his life. After all, this insect, however destructive, is only obeying the instincts that Omnipotence has given him, and knows not what he does. In the case of the innumerable green fly no mercy is possible, if the foliage is to be kept in a healthy condition. Perfect flowers are impossible if the vitality of the embryonic buds is undermined.

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That is amply counterbalanced, however, by the wonderfully fine additions which later years have brought to the lists of excellent varieties: the gain in diversity of tints, in size and substance of the blooms, and in constitutional vigour has been so marked.

In one of the best lists of Roses for the present year 343 varieties are enumerated under the heads of hybrid perpetuals, hybrid Teas, and Teas and Noisettes. Of these 43 are new and hardly sufficiently proved, except in a few instances, for inclusion amongst established exhibition Roses. In the hybrid perpetual class 94 varieties are described, 48 of which have been raised since the National Society began its career. Of the remaining 46 that were the principal Roses in the section before 1877, with cthers that have been quite discarded, I only noted 10 as well represented in a few classes at the National Society's Show in the Royal Botanic Society's Garden this year. These were Alfred Colomb (1865), Charles Lefebvre (1861), Xavier Olibo (1864), three of Lacharme's productions. Duke of Edinburgh (Paul and Son, 1868), Duke of Wellington (Grainger, 1864), Dupuy Jamain (1868), Fisher Holmes (E. Verdier, 1895), Francois Michelon (Levet, 1871), Prince Arthur (B. R. Cant, 1861), and A. K. Williams (Schwartz, 1871). Of these the blooms shown were fully up to the highest quality seen in the old days, though they suffered somewhat in comparison with the giant blooms of the present time.

The hybrid Teas present a far more remarkable contrast, as when the first National Show was held the only two varieties that were recognised in this group were Captain Christy (Lacharme, 1873), and La France (Guillot, 1867), while of these I only remarked the latter in a few winning collections. Yet in the list referred to 100 varieties are described, and a considerable proportion of these were included in the exhibition.

Amongst Teas and Noisettes great changes have also taken place; out of 106 varieties catalogued 23 only were in cultivation before 1877, and of these I found but five at the exhibition a fortnight ago, namely, Countesse de Nadaillac (Guillot, 1871), Marie Van Houtte (Ducher, 1871), Niphetos (Bougère, 1844), Souvenir d'Elise Vardon (Marest, 1854), and Souvenir d'un ami (Defougère, 1846). The old Safrano and Homer, which are still favourite garden Roses, I did not observe in any of the prize stands.

Out of the total of 343 varieties in the three sections named it therefore appears that 73 date from years prior to the work of the National Society, and 270 have been introduced since, and a very large proportion of the blooms shown represented the later roses. Thus in a period of 30 years the great majority of Roses grown at the present time for exhibition purposes have been raised, including the whole of the British seedlings, from the late Mr. Bennett's time to the magnificent modern productions of Messrs. A. Dickson and Son, of the two Paul firms, and of those at Colchester. It is a surprising result, and there can be no doubt that the stimulus imparted to Rose growing and showing by the National Society has exercised a material bearing upon the advance. It has been my fortune to inspect many of the metropolitan and provincial exhibitions since the first national Rose exhibition held at St. James's Hall in 1858, and they have always been invested with the deepest interest, always varied, and also, let it be added, always well managed. L. Castle.



In spite of the great development in plant culture under glass in recent years, how seldom are Orangeries mentioned? To my mind there is room for more of them. I do not mean copies of the semi-dark structures once so general in gardens, although Orangeries may, architecturally speaking, be of a somewhat heavier character than houses put up for most other special purposes. My ideal Orangery would be one directly accessible from the residence, of which it should form a pait. In shape it should be either oblong or square, preferably the former. The sides and ends should be upright and not less than, say, 12 feet to the eaves of the roof. It would be best if the longest side faced the south, which, with ends, should be glazed to, say, within 2 feet of the stone, concrete, or brick walls that carry the whole building. The side facing north should not be glazed to more than one-third of its depth, but in order to keep the internal temperature from sudden fluctuations during the winter months, ventilation should be arranged for just under the eaves of the roof, and might take the form of narrow lights hung horizontally all around. If bottom ventilation be thought advisable, it may be arranged for in the basal walls, being careful to have the internal openings in direct contact with the water pipes to be fixed all around. Sufficient pipes and boiler power would be necessary to keep the internal temperature up to 55° in the winter without too hard firing. The 100f should be a flattish span or spans, according to the space covered, avoiding, as far as possible, lanterns, domes, &c., which, while offering no cultural advantages, have a great tendency to lower the internal temperature in cold weather. It should, above all things, be as nearly drip-proof as is possible. Personally I would have the floor space all open and paved or tiled with some suitable material.

I need not go any further into constructional ideas, as doubtless any of our leading horticultural builders would gladly supply good plans if called upon to do so. Experience has proved to me that a house erected on something like the lines here shown is suitable for Orange tree culture and other plants that may be associated with them.

This brings me to the pith of my subject. My first heading was Orangeries and Palmetum ; but, knowing that these notes were going to the Gardeners' Chronicle, and not to a lay paper, I struck it out and began again. From the outset I had (or thought I had) an instinctive idea that no one would put up merely an Orangery, as being too formal and stiff in these days of a more free and better taste in horticultural matters. Hence the idea of Palmetum. What more congenial companions could there be in the vegetable world than a well-arranged mixture of some of the better strong-growing Palms and well-grown specimen Orange trees in full fruit seen during the dull mid-October months from to mid-March? Imagine a house built on the lines given, and, say, 60 feet in length by 20 feet in width. On each side of the central path match pairs of specimen plants of Rhaphis flabelliformis, Kentia Belmoreana, and Oranges in variety in full fruit. I am careful to say "in variety," as I would not confine myself to edible oranges. Close to where I am writing these notes there is a nice young tree of the Taranto Shaddock, full of fruit. The effect betwixt these fine pendent golden fruits and the green, healthy leaves of the tree, with a background of young Kentias, would be, to say the least, very inspiriting dur ing the dull, foggy days of November. I would have all the occupants named grown in matched pairs of plant-tubs, now so much more handsome and come-at-able than those in days gone by. What more delightful retreat than such a house

in the dull, dark days or long nights of winter? The plants named would, at that time, be pcrfectly happy in a temperature, both as to heat and moisture, congenial to its human occupants. Seats and rugs might be placed on the floor wherever required for pleasure and conveni


Nowadays, when the fruit and planthouses are, in many cases, erected close to the dwelling-house, what a nice vestibule such a structure as I have suggested would be to them. There would be no fear of too much moisture being in direct contact with the mansion, as is the case with ordinary conservatories filled with a miscellaneous collection of flowering and foliage plants requiring water on most days even in winter.

I have described the cultural details of the Oranges and Palms suggested, as no doubt those who are in a position to erect such a building would have some specimens by them. In no case would I think of commencing with ordinary sized plants, as it would take some years before any good effect was enjoyed.

I may here mention that the internal atmosphere of houses erected with upright sides and ends is quite different from that in an or dinary span or lean-to greenhouse, even where the internal temperature is equal. There is an absence of that clinging stuffiness in the former nearly always present in the latter when the temperature exceeds 55°.

As bearing on my subject, I may mention in closing that we sent in last season dessert fruits of Embiguo or Navel Orange, which, I am told, were very good, one thing in their favour being freedom from pips." It is a free-fruiting variety. Henry J. Clayton, Grimston Gardens, Tadcaster.

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IN Cologne the main street-Ringstrasse-as in some other continental cities, occupies the site of the old fortifications encircling the town. It is 3 miles long and planted with Limes, an American type of Elm, Planes, and Horsechestnut-none very good. Sycamore is also seen, and there is one avenue of the purple form. Such trees as Judas tree, yellow and red Horse-chestnut, are fine, and in one square two Catalpas-no doubt C. speciosa-are 40 feet high and 20 to 25 feet through. The chief public gardens are the Zoological and the Floraneither very remarkable.

The country from Cologne to Berlin for the first 100 miles or so is bare of vegetation, but covered with furnaces and factories. The landscape round Essen as far as the eye can reach is black with the smoke of countless chimneys. Nearer Hanover the land is systematically planted with Scotch Pine and Birch, and the Pine may be seen in every stage from the planted seedling to the cut log in the railway truck. Much of the land is cultivated, chiefly with cereals, but Potatos are also a main crop. Asparagus and Turnip from time to time also appear. The villages are freely planted with trees, and standard fruit trees sometimes line the country roads in mid-Germany.

BERLIN AND ITS VICINITY. Berlin is a fine city, covering 25 square miles, occupying the whole valley of the Spree. It is probably the first manufacturing town of continental Europe. The Thiergarten, 630 acres, is the private property of the Crown, and the Sieges-Allée is on a grandiose scale. The major portion is left as natural forest; the large areas between the roads-running in all directions-thick with magnificent trees. No park that I have seen in the old or new world in any way approaches this. Oak, 80 feet to 100 feet

high, by the thousand, young and vigorous, will last another century. The trees are so closely planted that they have formed straight and even stems, each and all splendid "sticks." Limes and Poplars at their best, and Ash with stems 4 feet to 5 feet through-giants on the forest-carpet. Beech is rarely seen, and it is doubtful if Beech can be excelled outside several of certain private estates in England. The public are not allowed to walk on the grass, which is apparently always cut with the scythe. The Column of Victory is isolated and approached by four walks, each bordered by lines of thorns. Undergrowth is luxuriant beneath the shade of the taller trees, and consists largely of Snowberry, Elder, Alder, and Nut. Virgilia lutea is to be seen in vigour; Tulip trees, 70 feet to 80 feet; and on the stately mansions facing the park the Dutchman's Pipe (Aristolochia Sipho) 20 feet to 25 feet high,

The Zoological Gardens are extensive, and there are several good specimens, two male ostriches being quite exceptional. The main entrance is in the Chinese style, and the buildings in some instances are built to represent the form of structure prevalent in the country of which the animal it shelters is a nativethe bison house in Red Indian style, Indian clephant shed in the style of a native temple. The birds are in no way comparable with those in London or the Jardin d'Acclimatation at Paris.

The Royal Botanical Garden, Dahlem, Steglitz, bei Berlin-director, Herr W. Perring --is quite new and as yet incomplete. It contains many of the plants removed from the old garden formerly in the Potsdamstrasse. The soil is not congenial, and at present there is throughout the garden no shade whatsoever. The nomenclature of the plants is not in every case that accepted at Kew, but is said to be based on the original authentic name. Large sums have already been spent on glass and iron erections, and more houses are in course of construction. For the completion of this garden many years will be required. The plants are in the main arranged according to their geographical source, and planted accordingly. It is streng verboten for any of them to die. The disregard of this autocratic order is, however, becoming rather obvious, as plants in several countries within a limited area grow naturally at greatly varying altitudes.


HERR SPATH, fifth head of the firm in direct line, owns the largest nurseries in Europe, 0) acres in extent, with a staff of 500 hands. The establishment is decentralised, and managed on the basis of individual responsibility and with that thoroughness SO characteristic of the German nation.

The arboretum extends to the private res:dence, and is entered betwe.n two tres planted by Von Moltke and Bismarck respectively. The collection of deciduous trees and shrubs is very complete, but, with few exceptions, coniferous subjects are hardly at home. Caryas, Oaks, many species of Juglans, J. Vilmoriniana particularly fine. Cercidiphyllum from Japan, Virgilia lutea, Sophora japonica, and Ater carpinifolium are all represented. The Keaki, that most valuable Japanese timber, is represented by a good specimen, as are also Idesia polycarpa and Phellodendron amurense, the bark forming serviceable cork.

The main stocks in the commercial part of the establishment consists of avenue trees and fruit trees. The avenues in the newer parts of Berlin are very fine, and rival those of the cities of the eastern United States, an avenue of Silver Lime, leading to Charlottenburg, numbering close upon 400 symmetrical and vigorous

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NOTEWORTHY on account of its graceful habit, equalled only by that of T. Nelsoni at its very best, this pretty hybrid between T. pauciflora and T. citrina should prove an acceptable garden plant indeed. The leaves are grassy and less than a yard long; the flowers, in slender racemes, are coloured canary-yellow throughout, and are borne in quantity from June till frosts occur in early winter. The plant originated in the nurseries of Messrs. Wallace & Co., of Colchester, and has proved its hardiness by withstanding the winters of 1901 and 1905 without suffering harm Several other hybrid Tritomas, each with T. pauciflora as one parent, were raised at the same time, but none of the crosses yielded flowers so good as those of T." Goldelse." Those interested in Tritomas, or Kniphofias, as they are more properly called, may be referred to a series of articles in Gardeners' Chronicle, pp. 81, 100, 117, of vol. xxxix (1906), in which most of the species and varieties possessing garden value are described at some length. C. B. M.



SENECIO (EUSENECIO) FABERI. Eighteen years ago I published (Journ. Linn. Soc., Vol. xxiii., p. 452) a description of a Senecio under the above name, drawn up from a small dried specimen, collected by Faber on Mount Omi, Szechuen, Western China. Messrs. James Weitch & Sons recently sent to Kew a very fine fresh specimen of the same species, raised from seed collected by Mr. E. H. Wilson in the same locality. I am thereby enabled to complete my description, though there is not much to add except in the matter of dimensions. The genus Senecio is so numerous in species, and there are so many in cultivation, that it is difficult and somewhat hazardous to adjudge the claims a new species has to a place in a garden of moderate dimensions. S. Faberi is a robust, fleshy, and, perhaps, some would say, a coarse herb, that would form a conspicuous object in a wet part of the wild garden. The inflorescence reminds one of the Central American S. Warscewiczii, and the foliage is similar to that of the sow-thistle, but much larger. Under cultivation, it forms clumps 4 to 5 feet high, and is glabrous or glabrescent in all parts. Stems many angled, hollow. Leaves pinnatifid and coarsely toothed, with a large terminal lobe and usually two pairs of lateral lobes, the rest of the blade being reduced to a narrow wing running down the very thick stalk and expanding at the base into two large auricles, half clasping the stem. Radical leaves as much as 2 feet long; terminal lobe rotund-deltoid, 6 to 8 inches long and broad; lateral lobes 1 to 4 inches long; lower stem leaves nearly as large, but gradually smaller upwards; terminal lobe acusely triangular, 9 inches by 7 inches, coarsely toothed and obscurely lobed. The inflorescence is a dense, compound, flat-topped corymb, 6 to 8 inches across; flower heads very numerous, small, composed of three to five ray, and eight to twelve disc flowers, all of a deep yellow. W. Botting Hemsley.

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