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OUR SUPPLEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION to the sent issue depicts four of the newest varies of winter-flowering Carnations, all of which were present at the exhibition of these flowers in the Royal Botanical Gardens on Tuesday last, a detailed report of which appears on another page. Tree Carnations have flowered in this country in winter for many years past, and Mrs. Leopold de Rothschild, Winter Cheer, and Uriah Pike are some of the older varieties that gained considerable popularity. Since the introduction from America of varieties having large, brightly-coloured flowers, which are produced on stalks sufficiently strong to hold them perfectly erect, the winter-flowering section has become more and more appreciated, and their cultivation is extending widely. We have information of several instances where special houses for tree Carnations have been recently erected in gardens which had not suitable structures for them. New varieties are being raised in great numbers in America, and latterly also in England, and in consequence many of the varieties are only distinct from each other in minor characteristics. The Winter Flowering Carnation Society will soon, we think, have reason to keep a list of "too-much-alike" varieties, and in the meantime raisers should be urged to endeavour to secure definite variations in form and colour. They hardly need to be reminded that a yellow variety is much coveted. The novelties included in the supplementary illustration are White Perfection and Mrs. Robert Norman (white), and Robert Craig and St. Louis, both of which are shades of red. The greater degree of fringing may be seen in the petals of the varieties Robert Craig and White Perfection. Robert Craig, White Perfection, and St. Louis have all received the R.H.S. Award of Merit. 'NATIONAL AMATEUR GARDENERS ASSOCIATION. The sixteenth annual dinner is announced to take place on Tuesday, December 11, at the Holborn Restaurant, when Mr. T. W. SAUNDERS, the President, will preside.


NATIONAL POTATO SOCIETY'S SHOW.-We are informed that entries have been received from various parts of the kingdom for the above show, which will be held in the Horticultural Hall, Westminster, on December 13-14. A Potato cooking competition for ladies will be held each day of the show. The non-competitive section will include some of the crop of Solanum Commersoni (swamp Potatos) which Mrs. HANCOCK has successfully cultivated at Horeham Road, Sussex. satisfactory crop has recently been lifted, quite untouched by frost or disease, although the ordinary tubers in an adjoining plot were seriously affected. The usual conference will take place at 3 p.m. on the first day, when Mr. H. HENSHAW, of the Cambridge University Farm, Impington, will read a paper on "Facts about change of seed." Mr. GEORGE GORDON, V.M.H., will preside. In the evening the members' dinner will be held at the Hotel Windsor, Victoria Street, to be followed by the annual meeting.

DAHLIA SOCIETY IN THE UNITED STATES. Not until this year has there existed a Dahlia society in the States, but one has recently been established, which is known as the New England Dahlia Society, consisting at present of 100 members. Mr. H. F. BURT, of Taunton, Mass., is president, a man who devotes almost all his time to Dahlias, and Mr. MAURICE FULD, of the firm of Messrs. W. W. RAWSON & Co., of Boston, is Secretary.

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THE LABORATORY AT WISLEY.-We desire to call special attention to an advertisement from the R.H.S. inviting candidates to apply for the post of Director of the Experiment Station. The director will not only have to devise experiments and undertake research, but will also be expected to instruct the students in the elementary sciences affecting the practice of horticulture. The position is one of such importance that we trust a thoroughly competent man, gifted with insight and initiative, will be selected. The success or failure of the scheme depends essentially upon the man selected and the support afforded him by a sympathetic council. From some points of view this is the most important step ever taken by the society and the results will be anxiously watched.

MR. MITTEN'S MOCSES.-We are sorry to hear that the very rich collection of Mosses made by Mr. MITTEN has been allowed to leave the country and has become the property of the American Government.

M. BUYSMANN, of Middelburg, Holland, is about to settle in the interior of the Eastern part of Java, where he will grow not only tropical plants but also such temperate plants as will grow in that climate at an altitude of 1,200 metres. This portion of the island has, up to the present, not been much explored, so that, no doubt, many interesting plants may be expected from that district. M. BUYSMANN will settle in Java in the course of next spring, and will be glad to communicate with any horticultural firm or botanist desirous of receiving plants or seeds from that island.

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLANT HARDINESS AND ACCLIMATISATION.-The responses to the preliminary letter of inquiry issued in the early part of this year have proved so encouraging that the council of the Horticultural Society of New York, at a recent meeting, decided to proceed with the project, and is arranging to hold the conference in New York City about the end of September, 1907. From all parts of the United States, from several European countries, and from South America and Canada, as well as the West Indian Islands, active interest has been expressed, and, at this early date, a number of papers and contributions have been promised. The conference has the endorsement of the United States Department of Agriculture, and the majority of the directors and horticulturists of the State experiment stations have signified their intention of contributing information or sending delegates. The great importance of the subjects to be discussed in their relationship to practical horticulture, fruit-growing and the nursery trade is evident to every one. A special committee of the society in charge of the arrangements for the conference was appointed as follows:-JAMES WOOD, N. L. BRITTON, P. O'MARA, H. A. SIEBRECHT and LEONARD BARRON, Communications from those interested should be addressed to the office of the Society, Room 60, Bryant Building, 55, Liberty Street, N.Y. City. L. Barron, Secretary.

THE SMITHFIELD CLUB SHOW.-We are reminded that the Fat Cattle Show will be held in the Royal Agricultural Hall, Islington, on December 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. The Board of Agriculture informs us that Lord CARRINGTON will be "at home" to farmers at the offices of the Board of Agriculture, 4, Whitehall Place, S.W., on Tuesday, December 11, and Friday December 14, from 12 o'clock to 2 p.m., and from 3 p.m. to 4 p.m. Lord CARRINGTON will visit the Show of the Smithfield Club on Monday, December 10, and he has accepted an invitation to be present at the Annual Dinner of the Farmers' Club and the Central Chamber of Agriculture on December 11.

BURBANK AND HIS WORK.-Professor KELLOGG, as quoted in the Florist's Exchange, gives his impressions in the following summary:-"Let us, in a paragraph, simply sum up the essential things in the scientific aspects of BURBANK'S work. No new revelations to science of an overturning character; but the revelation of the possibilities of accomplishment, based on general principles already known, by an unusual man. No new laws of evolution, but new facts, new data, new canons for special cases. No new principle or process to substitute for selection, but a new proof of the possibilities of the effectiveness of the old principle. No new categories of variations, but an illuminating demonstration of the possibilities of stimulating variability and of the reality of this general variability as the fundamental and transforming factor. No new evidence either to help the Darwinian factors to their death-bed or to strengthen their lease on life for the man' factor in all the selecting phenomena in BURBANK'S gardens excludes all 'natural' factors. Finally, in any summation of the scientific aspects of BURBANK's work must be mentioned the hosts of immensely valuable data regarding the inheritance of characteristics, the influence of epigenetic' factors in development, the possibilities of plant-variability, and what not else important to evolution students, mostly going unrecorded, except as they are added in mass to the already too heavy burden carried by the master of the laboratory, and as they are summed up in those actual results which the world gratefully knows as BURBANK'S new creations.'"'

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WILD FLOWERS AT HOME.-Messrs. GOWANS & GRAY, 35, Leicester Square, W.C., are issuing a set of pretty little nature-books. Of these we note Wild Flowers at Home, first and second series, illustrated from photographs by Mr. CAMERON TODD; Toadstools at Home, illustrated by Mr. SOMERVILLE HASTINGS; and Our Trees and How to Know Them, with photographs by Mr. CHARLES KIRK. Any effort that helps in diffusing a knowledge of the beauties of British country-life should be encouraged, and as each of these little volumes contains 60 pictures and some explanatory notes they should do good work. We are glad to find scientific names quoted, as well as popular and fancy names, and the only thing to be regretted is the unavoidably small size of the photographs. Also, it would have been convenient to have mentioned how much the plants shown are reduced in size in reproduction. There is an attempt to do this in Toadstools at Home, the best of the series, but here the sign of multiplication is used instez of that of reduction.

THE BRUSSELS COURT OF APPEAL.-It will be remembered that one of our Orchid cultivators purchased, for the sum of 30,000 francs (£1,200), five varieties of Orchids on the strength of some coloured illustrations published by the vendor. When the plants produced their flowers it was found that they were not equal to the representations. The purchaser therefore took steps to have the sale cancelled. As the vendor objected, the case was submitted to the Tribunal of Commerce, who, after hearing the evidence, appointed certain well-known experts, all Belgians, to assist them, and in the result the case was decided in favour of the purchaser. The decision was appealed against, and as we now learn from the short report of the case in the Revue de l'Horticulture Belge, the Court of Appeal repudiated the idea of any substitution having taken place and stated that the plants in question are the same as those sold to the purchaser, and that as they do not correspond with the representation made by the seller the sale is annulled. It results that the original purchase money, with interest and expenses, is to be paid back to the purchaser, in addition to the sum of 5,000 francs damages. The law costs to be paid to the purchaser amount, says the Revue, to 8,000 francs (£320,.

THE ART OF THE FLORIST.-At an exhibition of floral decorations held recently at Brussels and reported in the Tribune Horticole for November 3, M. MAUMENE, of Paris, availed himself of the opportunity of speaking on some of the principles of floral decoration, &c. He took for his text the baskets, bouquets, and table decorations as exhibited, explaining the principles which govern the florist's art. These principles are not numerous, but comprise good taste in the choice of colours, observation of the natural mode of growth, a little economy, and a good deal of fashion. To have beautiful bouquets it is necessary to choose vases appropriate in shape to the flowers that they are to contain: short and wide vases for Chrysanthemums and long slender vases for Roses and Orchids. Highly ornamented vases are unsuitable and they are best when subdued in colouring. In narrow vases the height of the bouquet should be about 2 to 3 times greater than that of the vase. flowers must not be crowded, as it is not desirable that bouquets should have too regular outlines. The flowers should, on the contrary, be isolated and suggest their appearance when growing on the plant. Flowers are now not "* mounted," the wire used simply serves to support the stem which can thus be thrust into the damp moss in the vase; the bouquets thus keep much longer. When only short-stemmed flowers are obtainable, as is the case with many spring-flowers, very pretty arrangements can be made by sticking them into bamboo stems put together like the branches of a tree. It is thought undesirable nowadays, especially for the decoration in glass vases, to employ bouquets of flowers which fade quickly, hence the flowers are placed in little tubes immersed in zinc pans full of water concealed by greenery. M.


MAUMENE mentioned the excellent effect of mixing autumn leaves with Chrysanthemums. He insisted on the necessity for contrast in colouring, mauve and yellow, of which there were many examples, giving a good colour, harmony. Green is a neutral colour for florists, and that is why pink Carnations contrast so well with foliage. The use of ribbon in bouquets is rather out of favour: it has been much criticised because ribbons brighter than the flowers were employed. Baskets were much less numerous than bouquets at the exhibition. The lecturer showed a basket of foliage plants where Dracenas struck a prominent note of red; cut flowers were inserted in the mould and when these faded and were removed there still remained some beautiful plants for room decoration. Table decorations received much attention from M. MAUMENE, These should be elegant, light, and interspersed with pendent clusters of flowers, enabling the guests to see across the table easily. Light foliage, such as that of Asparagus, is much used. Those flowers should be chosen which look well under artificial light: Cattleya, pink Carnations, and Parma Violets fulfil these requirements; ordinary Violets on the contrary seem darker in a lighted room. A somewhat novel plan has been adopted for dinners at separate tables, each table being decorated with different flowers, such as Carnations, Roses, Lilies of the Valley, Mimosa (Acacia), Parma Violets, Cattleyas, &c. ; buttonholes and bouquets of the same flowers being distributed to the guests, who thus easily find by this indication the particular tables reserved for them.

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THE SAN JOSE SCALE.-The National Nurseryman, of Rochester, N.Y., gives details of the success which has been obtained in combating this pest. One gallon of Scalecide" was mixed with 12 gallons of water, and with this the trees (pears) encrusted with scale were thoroughly sprayed in October and twice subsequently. The lime-sulphur wash also used (Professor SLINGERLAND). The results were so successful that an offer of a dollar for every living scale has now been offered, but no one has as yet claimed the reward.


THE ETHERISATION OF LILACS.-In Dresden, according to an article in Möller's Deutsche Gärtner Zeitung, several firms working in association with the Research Station have obtained excellent results with etherisation, and now employ the process regularly. It is sufficient to avert any chance of failure if the directions given by Prof. Johannsen in the first edition of his book are carried out fully. A second edition, which appeared this year, is considerably enlarged, and contains everything that has been published concerning etherisation, besides remarks on the remarkable appearances which the plants present on the completion of the process. The larger cultivators at Dresden, finding that the sort of etherising chamber recommended by Johannsen was too small for their purpose, cultivate dwarf Lilac plants, and knowing the property of ether vapour to sink to the bottom, make the chambers much broader than high, and fill them with tiers of plants laid on their sides. Etherisation may be carried out in a frame placed in a glasshouse; and although much of the ether escapes into the house when the frame is cleared of the plants, no harm results to the inmates of the house; but, as Johannsen states, the dilute mixture of air and ether may excite growth in them. The frame or chamber must le hermetically closed, and it should be opened for an hour or longer time after using it before any person ventures therein. According to observation, etherised Lilac bushes do not need to be placed in a warm house directly they are removed from the chamber, under the belief that the narcotic effects of the drug will evaporate. The effects, in the autumn months more especially, do not go off, so that the growers in Dresden, Hamburg, Kiel, or anywhere else, may safely send etherised Lilacs, &c., to their customers long distances, ready for forcing, a circumstance which has lengthened the Lilac season to an extraordinary extent. It may be said, according to Prof Johannsen's statements in his book, that any gardener can have flowering Lilac from the end of the month of November, if he carries out the instructions given and possesses a sufficient acquaintance with varieties, some forcing readily in the autumn, and others very slowly, or not at all.

PUNCH'S ALMANACK.-The approach of a new year has been marked by the appearance of Punch's Almanack for more seasons than we care to count. The present issue is full, as usual, of amusir g skits, written and drawn by well-known humorists.. The actual almanack is a double-page supplement illustrating "All the Year Round in Fairy Land," and it is a seasonable pastime to trace many childish friends in the dainty landscape in which Mr. ARTHUR ROCKHAM has arranged them. In fact in every detail our old friend is more than up to his usual standard of excellence.

LA REVUE DE L'HORTICULTURE BELGE.-This periodical was established more than thirty years ago with the object of giving publicity to new plants, of bringing to remembrance old favorites, of recording progress in horticulture and botany, to serve as a guide to amateurs, and as a medium for the use of nurserymen. It was founded by a group of ardent horticulturists, headed by Count de KERCHOVE, EDWARD PYNAERT, and other friends whose memory will always be held in deep reverence and gratitude by those who had the privilege of their acquaintance. F. BURVENICH, the last survivor, is happily still amongst us. It would not be easy to exaggerate the services the men we have mentioned rendered to horticulture in general, and to that of Belgium in particular, The Revue is only one of their good works. It has faithfully adhered to its programme, and is now about to extend its usefulness by appearing twice in the month instead of once only. The number of illustrations will be increased, but the rate of subscription will remain unchanged. Floreat!

SUTTON'S RECREATION CLUB. The employees of Messrs. SUTTON & SONS, Reading, who recently amalgamated their various sections of sports under the above title, assembled on Friday, November 23, on the occasion of the first annual supper in connection with the club. Mr. LEONARD SUTTON presided over a company of more than 200 of the members.

THE NEXT GREAT QUINQUENNIAL, 1908.— The committee is already hard at work drawing up the schedule and making other preparations for this great undertaking. Truly we may say, recalling the late President, Uno avulso non deficit alter. A similar remark applies to EDWARD PYNAERT, who is succeeded by his son, as well as to others of the committee.


OLD-FASHIONED FLOWERS. BY MAURICE MAETERLINCK. (London: GEORGE ALLEN.) This book has no preface to explain the writer's intention, and we are only told that it was composed by Mr. MAETERLINCK, translated by A. TEIXEIRA DE MATTOS, and illustrated by G. S. ELGOOD. sulting the pages, we find for once neither gardening instructions nor a jumbled description of plants, persons and opinions. It is a book in praise of old-fashioned flowers, not necessarily those that have been longest known and grown, but such as we and our immediate ancestors have raised and loved. While sharing the admiration expressed we need not feel obliged to sympathise with the writer's style of writing, nor with all his opinions. He is welcome to dislike scientific names, and to be inconsistent even in this where he mis-spells some names, and uses others even longer than those to which he objects. As to the language, an extract from the book will enable our readers to judge of it for themselves. Speaking of News of the spring," he says: "The Peach trees are now no more than a rosy miracle, like the softness of a child's skin turned into azure vapour by the breath of dawn. The Pear and Plum and Apple and Almond trees make dazzling efforts in drunken rivalry; and the pale Hazel trees, like Venetian chandeliers resplendent with a cascade of gems, stand here and there to light the feast." There are some hundred pages of this sort of writing. The coloured pictures are truthful yet bright, and therefore pretty and pleasing; and the whole book is attractive, in spite of florid rhetoric displayed in it.


BLACKIE'S NATURE-KNOWLEDGE This is a memorandum-book ruled into columns wherein notes are intended to be made upon the weather and such natural objects as birds, insects, trees, wild flowers, &c., as children meet with in their daily life. Mr. W. P. WESTELL prefaces the book with some notes on nature study in which he shows how the diary should be used, and how facts observed should be entered in it in the spaces prepared for such notes. To encourage school children, Messrs. BLACKIE & SON (Dublin, London and Bombay) offer to present six books yearly for the six best kept Nature Knowledge Diaries. To use these books properly will necessitate neatness, as well as calling out powers of observation which it is highly desirable should be cultivated.

DRESDEN INTERNATIONAL HORTICULTURAL EXHIBITION, MAY, 1907.-We have received copies of the schedule of this important exhibition. Applications should be made to the secretary of the exhibition, Neumart 10, Dresden.

Budding Life. This is a "book of drawings" by JESSIE M. KING, published by GoWANS & GRAY, of London and Glasgow. It consists of less than a score of outline illustrations on note-paper size. The execution is very Japanese in character The drawings are natural, elegant, and faithful as far as they go, but with not sufficient detail to be useful to botanists or gardeners.

SEED LIST.-The list of seeds of herbaceous plants and of trees and shrubs available for exchange at the Royal Gardens, Kew, has been issued. It must be borne in mind that the seeds mentioned are only exchanged with botanic gardens and regular correspondents and not with the general public.

EPSOM SALTS FOR AZALEAS.-It is generally admitted that lime is detrimental to the growth of Rhododendrons and allied plants. In the Garden Magazine (New York), Mr. HOGENSON says that the evil effects of lime in the soil may be counteracted by the addition of sulphate of magnesia (Epsom Salts). For pot plants one quarter of an ounce of magnesia sulphate was mixed with 5 pounds of soil, or at the rate of a little over 3 tons per acre. The photographs of Rhododendrons and Azaleas grown in lime-soil with and without the addition of the magnesia, bear out Mr. HOGENSON'S statement.

A BOOK OF ENGLISH GARDENS.-Written by M. R. GLOAG, illustrated by KATHARINE MONTAGU WYATT, and published by METHUEN & Co., 36, Essex Street, W.C. We have in this book chatty accounts of some of the famous old gardens of England. The introductory chapter is a discourse upon gardens in general and a brief chronological account ranging from the Garden of Eden (of course) to our own times. We find here all the time-honoured allusions to the hanging gardens of Babylon, to Pope's Grotto, and to equally familiar eccentricities of intermediate date. The succeeding pages of the book deal with gardens still left to us, showing the work of our forefathers and the fashions of past times. The estates described are Abbotsbury, Albury, Ampthill Park, Ashridge, Beckett, Brownsea Island, Ham House, Hatfield, Holland House, Hutton John, Knole, Sutton Place, and Wrest Park. The chief attractions of these to the makers of the book appear to be their antiquity, and the general sense of repose and pleasure that they afford the visitor. Of horticulture we find but little, and of botany nothing at all. Perhaps it was difficult to separate these gardens and their associations from the history of the houses to which they are attached. In every case we read a good deal about the families owning the .estates described, even when their affairs have nothing to do with the gardens. The illustrations deserve notice, as they give a pleasing, though often an inadequate, idea of certain specially beautiful nooks and corners. They are brightly coloured and appropriate to the style of the book. Every reader interested in the "Stately Homes of England'' will enjoy turning over these pages and find many stray pieces of information worth remembering, while to the many persons connected with the various estates the letterpress and pictures will of course be of equal importance.

BRITISH ALPINE PLANTS. To those who want to know something more about "Alpines" than that they are beautiful and attractive, we commend a paper on the distribution of Alpine plants in Britain, read before the Southport Society of Natural Science by Mr. W. H. STANSFIELD. In simple but most interesting manner Mr. STANSFIELD traces the origin, ancestry and migrations of our mountain plants. J. J. RILEY, Guardian Office, Lord Street, Southport, is the printer.

“HELIANTI."-Under this name M. R. DE NOTER calls attention to the well-known Helianthus decapetalus. According to M. DE NOTER it produces tubers in great abundance; so great that we hesitate to cite the figures he gives. The tubers can be used as food like those of its congener, the so-called Jerusalem Artichoke, but specially for the extraction of starch and the production of alcoho. The stems can be utilised for forage and the fibre for paper-pulp. The culture is simple and the profit large. At any rate, M. DE NOTER'S assertions may be easily tested.

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GARDEN-MAKING.-Mr. JOSEPH CHEAL has published a small pamphlet on this subject, wherein he lays down the general principles of gardenmaking, dealing with the choice of site, the approaches, the formation of lawns and plantations, the treatment of water, the designing of gardens in various styles, the formation of wild gardens, woodlands, Rose-gardens, and other accessories. The pamphlet is copiously illustrated, and the comments sensible and to the point. We suggest that a rustic timber bridge is not the most appropriate, though it is doubtless the most common, means of crossing a rocky defile, where the stratification of the rocks, natural or artificial, is very apparent.

JOINT RAILWAY AND PARLIAMENTARY COMMITTEE. We are informed that at a meeting of the Joint Railway and Parliamentary Committee held on the 28th ult., Mr. MONRO (President) and Mr. W. CUTHBERTSON reported that they had met several members of the House of Commons at Westminster to discuss railway rates, &c., and had been given a favourable and encouraging reception from members representing all political parties. One of them reminded the committee of a hint given by the President of the Board of Trade, that a discussion was likely to shortly take place in the House on owner's risk and kindred questions, and he suggested that the committee should use all pcssible means to raise such a discussion, as it would bring the matter prominently before the Government, and would also tend to facilitate matters when the Bill which the committee now have in hand was brought up in the House.

"AMATEUR GARDENING."-Our contemporary Amateur Gardening issues an attractive Christmas number, with a coloured and gay cover illustrating the Time of Roses. There are many other pictures, reproduced from photographs, and therefore truthful as well as pleasing. The letterpress is, of course, not to be overlooked, and in addition to light and seasonable reading there will be found here the usual practical and helpful information.


WHAT IS DONE IN EDINBURGH.-We are so accustomed to read of the magnitude and superiority of everything American, that we feel as if a load were removed from us when reading President DUCKHAM'S address to the Chrysanthemum Society of America as reported in the American Florist. had great pleasure in attending the Edinburgh (Scotland) show, 1905, and I must confess I was completely overwhelmed by it, both by the magnificent blooms shown and the attendance. There were over 70,000 paid admissions in three days. Think of that and be humble! Nay, think of that, and lay plans day and night to rouse our people to a similar interest! What could we accomplish if we had a constituency like that?' The old country it seems is not quite played out yet!

DOGS ACT, 1906.-"Section two of the Act which comes into operation on January 1st, 1907, empowers the Board to make Orders under the Diseases of Animals Acts for the following purposes-(a) for prescribing and regulating the wearing by dogs, while in a highway or in a place of public resort, of a collar with a name and address of the owner inscribed on the collar or on a plate or badge attached thereto : (b) with a view to the prevention of worrying of cattle, for preventing dogs or any class of dogs from straying

during all or any of the hours between sunset and sunrise and (e) for authorising a Local Authority to make Regulations for either of these purposes. The Orders and Regulations will take effect under the Diseases of Animals Act, 1894, and the Orders may provide that any dog in respect of which an offence is being committed against the Orders may be seized and treated as a stray dog." If some Act could be enforced requiring the owners of a dog or dogs that disturb their neighbours' peace of mind, especially at night, to wear a collar issued by the police, no doubt the nuisance which residents in the suburbs now suffer would be materially abated.

Publications Received.-Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States (July), Edited by H. N. Ridley and J. B. Carruthers. Contents: Tapioca as a Catch-crop, by Mr. W. Dunman; Rim Rubber Company, Ficus elastica, &c.-Reports on the Botanic Station, St. Vincent (1905-1906). Mr. Sands, Agricultural Superintendent, reports continued success and extension of the Cotton industry, and good work was done in the Gardens and other departments.California Agricultural Experiment Station. Mosquito Control, by H. J. Quayle. A campaign against mosquitos was begun in May 1904. It was found that there were four especially troublesome species around Burlingame, and experts indentified these and traced their life histories. The chief measures undertaken for the control of the pests were the filling in of some waters and the oiling of others. The success so far achieved in this important work should encourage further efforts in this direction.



IT is not many years ago since we used to receive from American growers like Spaulding, Nathan Smith, Hill, Waterer, Craig, and others an annual consignment of novelties. On going my rounds this season here and there, I have been reminded of the days when American Chrysanthemums were a factor to be reckoner with, for a chance variety in some group or other has aroused many memories. They are still a few, but they are rarely to be met with in the big stands of the leading prize winners at our great shows. Hairy Wonder and J. II. Runchman are to be seen in several of the parks. They remind us of the large collection of seedlings raised by Pitcher and Manda, which ultimately passed into the hands of Mr. H. J. Jones. Louis Boehmer is still grown in the parks. This was the second hairy variety introduced, the original one, Mrs. Alpheus Hardy, having, sc far as my experience goes, completely disap peared. Simplicity (a white Japanese), Esau (a pale pink hairy), and Col. W. B. Smith (a bronze-yellow Japanese) are all in the collections in the London parks. In Anemones we still have with us Judge Benedict and Delaware. Several fine blooms of Good Gracious, one of the most distinct varieties there ever was, have been recorded. G. W. Childs (a vivid crimson) I have seen only at Finsbury Park. In France, as here, not many American varieties remain. Julian Hillpert is largely grown for the market, and was one of the Pitcher and Manda seedlings. W. H. Lincoln is occasionally met with; also Wm. Tricker, the Egyptian, Modestum, Col. Appleton, and Mrs. H. Robinson. It is only natural to suppose that every raiser has his day. Salter's seedlings are gone, Delaux's are scarcely known, and so we may expect even the best varieties of the most modern raisers will in their turn give place to others as time rolls on. "Sic transit gloria mundi." C. Harman Payne.


I Do not remember a season to have gone by in the past when so many grand examples of yellow Chrysanthemums have been met with. F. S. Vallis, in my opinion, heads the list, for it has been seen in magnificent form; the finest blooms ever shown anywhere must have been those staged by a new amateur, Monsieur Dubuisson-Foubert, at the Paris Show. He had staged in a vase seven of this variety that measured about 18 inches across from tip to tip. Lieut. Colonel Ducroiset is another grand yellow that has been seen in fine style. Mrs. F. W. Vallis, Mrs. W. Knox, Buttercup, Alger

non Davis, Mrs. R. Hooper Pearson, Merstham Yellow, Sensation, Bessie Godfrey, Le Peyron, Leigh Park Rival, Souvenir de Bailleul, Ministre Morgeot, Ami Nonin, Le Bouvier, Mme. G. Rivol, Calvat's Sun, Emblême Poitevine, Naples, Roi d'Italie, and several others in various shades have all been seen in first-class form. C. H. P.


SOME of the finest Chrysanthemums seen in Covent Garden Market are those sent by Mr. Joseph Tulley, Rose Nursery, Enfield Highway. I recently visited this nursery, and the plants seen in the houses impressed me as being quite of the best. Some 18 span-roofed houses are now accommodating some 38,000 Chrysanthemums in pots. Two houses were filled with the variety William Holmes, which, at the time of my visit (November 14), was at its best condition. Dazzler, the bright scarlet crimson variety, had been partially harvested, but there still remained a rich cutting. The bulk of the plants were carrying from 10 to 12 blooms each. The variety Mdlle. Louise Charvet was excellent, the crop being the most promising one I have ever seen both for size of bloom and for colour. Of the variety Mdlle. Th. Panckoucke the flowers were developing too early in the best buds. A house contained the pink variety A. J. Balfour, but none had been cut. Tuxedo is of splendid colour, and suitable for florists' sprays. Eynsford White is still one of the best varieties for decorative purposes. Putney George, although mised many years ago, is still one of the best market kinds, and sells freely in the market. Klondyke, Mabel Butler (the dark Tuxedo), Early Yellow, Mytchett Beauty, and Nagoya were all noticed. One house containing the variety Cullingfordii, the plants being grown under cold treatment in pots, was alone worth journeying to see. The house was filled with 2,000 plants, the flowers being of the deepest colour I ever saw in this variety. Every house was well arranged, the taller plants being in the centre and the dwarfer ones at the side. The nursery is well equipped and up-to-date in every respect. Stephen Castle.


FOR the opportunity of illustrating this rare species, fig. 150, we are indebted to Mr. Millard, Malabar Hill, Bombay, who sends the following interesting note with the photograph:-"I send you by this mail a photograph of Cassia remigera in flower in my garden. In Hooker's Flora of British India, the flowers are described as unknown; but, of course, that was written many years ago. The tree, which is now about 20 feet high, was sent to me seven years ago by a friend in Rangoon, where it seems to be fairly common. It is the most beautiful Cassia I have seen-even superior to C. marginata and C. grandis. The branches are clothed with the light pink blossoms, each about to 1 inch in diameter, with prominent yellow stamens. The tree remains in flower for a period of nearly two months. It reminds one somewhat of a Cherry tree in England."



IT does not appear to be generally known that, apart from the damage to commercial reputation or the risk of blackmail run by those who commit a criminal offence under the "Prevention of Corruption Act," there is a serious financial liability incurred by those who give "secret discounts to buyers or other agents. In the present article it is not proposed, however, to deal with this aspect of the matter.

Dealing with the question of criminal liability, one must, at the present moment, necessarily rely to some extent upon the wording of the Act itself, coupled with the possible bearing on the point of reported decisions of the Civil Courts under circumstances more or less similar.

The provisions of the Act (see p. 279) have already appeared in these columns, and need not

be again set out here, but readers will recollect that for the purposes of the Act, the expression "consideration" includes valuable consideration of any kind, while an "agent" includes any person employed by or acting for another. It will also be remembered that the maximum penalty on conviction is, if the case is dealt with at the Assizes, imprisonment, with or with. out hard labour, for a term not exceeding two years, or a fine not exceeding £500, or both fine and imprisonment. A magistrate has, however, power to deal with the matter in a Court of summary jurisdiction, but in this case the penalties which he may impose are not to exceed four months' imprisonment, with or without hard labour, or a fine not exceeding £50, or a

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sumably being careful to know nothing of the matter) yet apparently the gardener who received in England, or even asked for, any such pay. ment would none the less find himself liable to fine and imprisonment.

It has been suggested that the Act would not touch a trader who gives to a buyer or other agent a secret discount or commission after the transaction is completed, but note that the Act specifically includes the words "having done or foreborne to do." It has also been suggested that a nurseryman only makes a customer's gardener a small present to induce the latter to give every care and attention to the seeds or plants supplied while they are in course of cultivation, but this argum nt invites the obvious



combination of both fine and imprisonment. On conviction by a magistrate, the prisoner has a right of appeal to Quarter Sessions; also it is important to bear in mind that (presumably as some precaution against the obvious possibility of frivolous prosecutions) there is a provision in the Act to the effect that a prosecution under this Act shall not be instituted without the consent of the Attorney-General or SolicitorGeneral.

This Act not only makes it a criminal offence to give, or agree to give, any payment of the kind now under consideration, but it renders equally liable any person who accepts, or agrees to accept, or even attempts to obtain any such payment. Therefore, although it may be difficult to get at foreign nurserymen carrying on business abroad (their agents in England pre

rejoinder that the gardener is already paid to do his duty, and whether he is adequately remunerated or not by his wages is, in the eyes of the law, entirely a matter between himself and his employer.

It may be suggested that many employers really do not object to their gardeners receiving such presents, since it makes the latter contented with lower wages, but it is difficult to believe that employers, as a body, would deliberately choose to countenance the practice. Suppose, for example, nurserymen were to send out their catalogues or invoices with a heading to the effect that "commission at, say, 5 per cent. on the amount of all orders will be allowed to gardeners on production of their employer's written authority to receive such commission." is it likely that such authority would be farth

coming in the majority of cases, and is it not far more probable that most employers would argue thus: "Oh, well, if the nurseryman can afford to allow my gardener 5 per cent. commission, why should he not allow it to me instead? Besides, it is only placing temptation in the man's way to let him feel that the more money he spends with my nurseryman the more he will get for himself." The effect of such an offer would probably be to excite prejudice in the employer's mind against the nurseryman suggesting it.

It will be observed that the Act also makes it an offence for any person knowingly to give to any agent, or for any agent knowingly to use with intent to deceive his principal, any receipt, account, &c., which contains any statement which is false or erroneous or defective in any material particular, and which, to his knowledge, is intended to mislead the principal. No doubt this clause is aimed at those firms who have made it a practice to supply two forms of invoice with the goods, one showing discount deducted, and the other showing the sale price in full (the latter document only being intended for the principal's inspection). It may be instructive in this connection to mention a case which occurred not very long since. An official holding a diplomatic appointment under the British Government was directed to obtain certain seeds with a view to seeing how they would grow in the locality where he was resident abroad. Accordingly he wrote to a firm of seedsmen, directing them to send him seeds to a certain value, and referred them to his solicitor in England for payment. The seedsmen actually forwarded the solicitor in question two invoices, one for the full amount, and the other containing a deduction in respect of "discount." It is scarcely necessary to explain the object with which these two invoices were forwarded!

One ned hardly deal seriously with the argu.. ment that a present between a grower and a customer's buyer is on an equal footing with a "tip" to a waiter at a restaurant or a Christmas. box to one's postman. One has only to recollect that the sanction of the Attorney-General or Solicitor-General has to be obtained before any prosecution can be instituted, and one cannot imagine such sanction being given in the case of a person who has given a waiter or a postman a few pence in accordance with the recognised custom of the country.

It is obvious that in any criminal prosecution under the Act for giving or receiving secret dis-, counts the whole question as to whether the accused is "guilty" or "not guilty" will turn largely upon whether the discount is deemed to have been given or received “corruptly" (N.B.the Act. does not even say "fraudulently "), and it remains to be seen whether commercial, men will care to take their chance of its being discussed at a criminal trial what the word "corruptly means. (It is certainly significant to find that the Horticultural Trades' Associa-. tion of Great Britain and Ireland and the Dublin Nursery and Seed Association have already passed unanimous resolutions deciding to discontinue the giving of private discounts to customers' gardeners.)

In considering this point of view it is impossible to disregard a certain case in which Lord Justice Romer delivered judgment in the Court. of Appeal a few years ago.

The judgment itself appears to have been overlooked by many, including most of the official reporters (though fully set out in some reports). It will be well, therefore, to quote the judgment fully here.

LORD JUSTICE ROMER spoke as follows:"The Courts of law of this country have always strongly condemned, and, when they could, punished the bribing of agents, and have taken a strong view as to what constitutes a bribe. I believe the mercantile community as a whole appreciates and approves of the Court's views on the subject. But some persons undoubtedly hold laxer views on the subject. Not that these persons like the ugly word bribe, or would excuse the giving of a bribe if that word be used, but they differ from the Courts in their view as to what constitutes a bribe. It may, therefore, be well to point out what is a bribe in the eyes of the law. Without attempting an exhaustive definition I may say that the following is one statement of what constitutes a bribe. If a gift be made to a confidential agent with the view of inducing the agent to act in favour of the donor in relation to transactions between the donor and the agent's principal, and that gift is secret as between the donor and the agent-that is to say, without the knowledge and consent of the principal-then the gift is a bribe in the view of the law. If a bribe be once established to the Court's satisfaction, then certain rules apply. Amongst them the following are now established, and, in my opinion, rightly established, in the interests of morality with the view of discouraging the practice of

bribery. First, the Court will not enquire into the donor's motive in giving the bribe, nor allow evidence to be gone into as to the motive. Secondly, the Court will presume, in favour of the principal, and as against the brier and the agent bribed, that the agent was influenced by the bribe, and this presumption is irrebuttable. Thirdly, if the agent be a confidential buyer of goods for his principal from the briber, the Court will assume as against the briber that the true price of the goods as between him and the purchaser must be taken to be less than the price paid to, or charged by the vendor, by, at any rate, the amount or value of the bribe. If the purchaser alleges loss or damage beyond this, he must prove it. As to the above assumption we need not determine now whether it could in any case be rebutted. As at present advised, I think in the interests of morality the assumption should be held an irrebuttable one, but we need not finally decide this, because in the present case there is nothing to rebut the presumption."

In another civil action the Court of Appeal has emphasised the law in a way which may prove of iuterest to those who contend that their motives are not "corrupt." In the case in question LORD JUSTICE COLLINS said :

"It is quite possible that the plaintiff might have honestly believed that there was no harm in a would-be vendor agreeing to give a commission to the agent of the purchaser, but his mental and moral attitude on this point could not alter the legal effect of his acts."

In another case LORD JUSTICE JAMES said :"According to my view of the law, I take it to be clear that any surreptitious dealing between one principal and the agent of the other principal is a fraud on such other principal, cognizable in this Court."

Of course, it by no means follows that in criminal cases the Court would observe precisely the same rules as in the Civil Courts, especially having regard to the difference in penalty. Rightly enough, the law is very jealous in its protection of the liberty of the subject, and indeed it is a matter of common knowledge that Acts

of Parliament dealing with criminal offences are construed far more strictly (and, therefore, with far less liberality in following the apparent intentions of an Act, as distinct from its actual wording) than in the case of statutes which deal with civil matters. At the same time the remarks of the Jords Justices above quoted are very explicit of the view taken by the Court, in civil matters at all events, and are therefore instructive, as showing the possible trend of a judge's mind when similar facts come to be dealt with, as must inevitably occur before leng, in a criminal prosecution.

There has naturally been considerable discussion in commercial circles as to whether the Prevention of Corruption Act will, or will not, have any lasting effect on commercial custom. There are some sanguine individuals who declare their opinion that the Act will practically be treated as a dead letter, and that one will find no prosecutions instituted thereunder. Others take the view that, whether or not the Act may have any lasting effect, there is no gainsaying the fact that undoubtedly criminal prosecution will be possible, and that so far as they are concerned, they do not care to take their chance of standing in the dock in a-state of uncertainty as to whether their acts will be considered corrupt or not. Others, again, are doubtless bearing in mind that even if they may successfully emerge from a criminal prosecution, there remains a further point to be considered, viz., whether even an abortive prosecution would not seriously damage their reputation for commercial morality among their customers, that is to say, the general public. There remains, finally, a large class which considers that even apart from the question as to whether they run any risk of wearing "the broad arrow at a future time or not, the Act furnishes a remarkable opportunity for any trade to endeavour to put an end, once and for all, to what they consider to be a pernicious practice, an opportunity, in fact, which, if neglected now, may never occur again. With all these divergent views, an article on the purely legal aspect of the case has, of course, nothing to do. The matter is one which for his own sake any trader, who has not yet made up his mind on the subject, will doubtless anxiously consider from all points of view, and having had the legal position put squarely before him, it is of course for him to decide, and decide quickly, as to the course which he proposes to adopt.

Summing up the whole position, it would seem clear that those who wish to keep on the safe side of the law have only one possible course before them, namely, to set their face steadfastly against the giving or receiving of any discount, present, or commission (as between a vendor and a purchaser's agent or buyer) without the previous written consent of the agent's employer. H. Morgan Veiten.


(The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed by his correspondents.)

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THE BRITISH GARDENERS' AssociatioN.-I have noticed what Mr. T. Smith has written about young men being ready in the evening with the hand on the door ready to go home, &c., and venture to think if Mr. Smith had my experience he would be glad when that time came. Being in a mediumsized place, which is under-handed, where mostly tinkers are employed, and never enough done to satisfy the employer, I think he would alter his opinion as to working together towards a common end. I have to work 11 hours each day and through the "tinkers I have duty to do myself. every Sunday without extra pay, and through their ignorance of gardening I have to neglect the houses to put things in order for them outside, and they are paid nearly the same wage as myself who started when I left school at gardening in a large. place. If only those still outside the professional fold would exhibit a little more esprit de corps and not sit on the fence so long, we should soon become a strong organisation. I think Mr. Smith must admit we are about the worst-paid and bestworked body in the Kingdom at present. A Member of the British Gardeners' Association.

Mr. Smith's (of Newry) reply to the mild letter of protest from the pen of Mr. Watson, against the inclusion of amateurs in professional gardeners' associations, is in keeping with his own attitude towards gardeners. That there are " good gardeners and excellent gentlemen" amongst amateurs no one will gainsay, but the point is this that a deep gulf lies between the two. In the case of the amateur, gardening is a hobby; in that of the professional, it is his means of living. The B.G.A. was formed to attain a definite object, viz., to raise the status of the professional gardener. The need for such an organisation as the B.G.A. has been felt for many years, but owing to the lack of initiative on the part of those best qualified for the work, it has only recently taken on a definite form. In common with other unions of workers, the B.G.A. has to contend against the suspicions of the employer and also those of a large number for whose benefit the association has been formed. As Mr. Smith says, "there are gardeners and employers who pull together in a sympathetic manner, discussing methods and working together towards a common end." True! but the "common end," in most cases, consists of improving the condition of the garden and not the condition of the gardener or gardeners. For one employer who is fair, there are many who are not. To put forward the statement that gardening is a hobby, or in other words a luxury, is mere twaddle. It is as much a necessity as motoring, racing, hunting. golf and other recreations of the employer, all of which, in spite of increased cost, are still on the increase. When an employer, with a taste for gardening, finds he cannot obtain a professional gardener unless he pays him a certain wage, he will pay him that wage. It is not to the best interests of the gardener to quarrel with the employer who is disposed to be friendly and who recognises his ability in a suitable manner. Such an employer will certainly not fall foul of the B.G.A. It is to those employers, who do not possess this tolerant spirit, and who wish to keep the gardener in his present position of dependence, that a united stand will have to be made against sooner or later. Those who have studied these matters, fully know how little has been gained without personal sacrifice on the part of the workers. It is the same in all struggles between capital and labour. no attention is paid to the appeal of the individual; but collectively the force of public opinion has often been sufficient to bring about the desired result without recourse to drastic methods. C. P. Raffill.

THE CURRANT BUD GALL MITE.-My attention has been directed to a report which appears in the Gardeners' Chronicle, of November 24, p. 356, respecting some experiments carried out by Mr. Massee under the auspices of the Royal Horticultural Society, and, presuming that this report is correct, in common fairness to myself and other workers, I should like to draw attention to the fact-which seems to have escaped your attention and, most strange to say, Mr. Massee's also-that the discoveries (!) credited to Mr. Massee have long been in black and white, and further that the statement that attempts to eradicate this pest

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