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microscope, of a corky nature, and filled with small colonies of starch granules, whilst in the healthy tissues the starch has been already transformed into sugar. The brown tissues are frequently torn. The explanation of this is simple. During the growth the normal tissues only develop, and when normally expanding the injured cells, which, on account of their dry and corky cell walls, have become inflexible, are torn. The manifestation of life is stopped in these cells, and the change of the starch granules into sugar cannot take place. The remedy for this injury is a supply of water to be repeated at intervals during the dry season. It has been found that when nitrogenous manure had been applied the Apples showed more signs of injury than without manure. Mr. G. MASSEE has also shown experimentally that the same kind of trouble may be caused by cer. tain conditions working together during the ripening process. (See Kew Bulletin, August, 1906.) The trouble is due to a purely physiological cause, and is not induced by the attacks of either fungal or insect parasites.

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Diseased Celery.-Mr. CHITTENDEN reported that the Celery from Colyton shown at the last meeting was attacked by the fungus Septoria petroselini var. apii, and the attack seemed to be a very bad one. The whole of the leaf, blade, and petiole, was covered with the brown spots which show where the fungus was grow ing, and upon each of these little black spots the "perithecia" of the fungus were abundant. Each perithecium contained large number of spores which were set free on wetting the leaf, and would easily be washed on to other leaves, where they would set up the disease afresh. All the diseased parts of the plants should be destroyed by burning, and a Celery crop should not be taken off the same soil next year. Spray. ing the plants at intervals of about a fortnight with ammoniacal solution of copper carbonate would probably prevent the recurrence of the disease in a succeeding year.

Diseased Violets.-Mr. CHITTENDEN also reported that he had found the fungus Ascochyta violæ upon the Violets shown at the last meeting. This fungus is becoming more and more prevalent upon Violets, and the only plan when the disease has once gained a secure footing seems to be to burn the stock and start afresh on fresh soil.

Fruits of Magnolia.-Mr. W. H. DIVERS sent Iruits with ripe seeds of Magnolia Lennei from the gardens, Belvoir Castle, Grantham. The seeds, which are of a bright pink colour and half as large as the seeds of French Beans, are set free by the bursting of the follicles, and hang for some time attached by the long slender funicle.

Fruit of Asclepias fruticosa.-Dr. MASTERS showed on behalf of Mr. HALES, of the Chelsea Physic Garden, the fruits of Asclepias fruticosa. These fruits are large bladdery-looking pods of a white colour, and contain numbers of brown seeds, each furnished with a tuft of silky white hairs at the apex.

Maize varieties.-Mr. S. B. DICKS, F.R.H.S., sent specimens of varieties of Maize grown in the gardens of Mr. C. L. ALLEN, of Long Island, U.S.A., as follows:

1. A cob of the primitive (?) form, in which the grains are each covered with bracts about an inch to an inch and a half long.

2. A cob of Golden Pop Corn.

3. A cob found on a plant of Golden Pop Corn, but having black grains instead of the usual light-coloured ones; a variation not at all infrequent in Zea Mays.

4. Two cobs from a plant, the result of a natural hybridisation between the (Egyptian?) primitive form with long bracts and the Golden Pop Corn. Although these were picked from the same plant, there was considerable variation in the length of the bracts to be seen, one cob having the grains entirely hid den, while in another they were exposed. Narcissus viridiflorus.-Messrs. BARR showed this interesting species of Narcissus wild in Morocco and Gibraltar, in flower, having a tall scape surmounted by two flowers having green segments. [See fig. 144, p. 375.]


Autumn-flowering Snowdrop.—Mr. showed a specimen of Snowdrop, one of many now in flower in his garden. It was apparently a variety of Galanthus plicatus, and it was thought had not previously been seen to flower in autumn in this country.

Bonatea Ugandea (Rolfe).-This Orchid, to which at the last meeting a botanical certificate was recommended, was commented upon by Dr. MASTERS, who drew attention to the remarkable form and size of the rostellum, the length of the caulicles of the pollinia which fitted into long tubes at the sides of the rostellum, and the length of the spur, which reached to between 5 inches and 6 inches.

Uncommon Orchids.-A species of Pleurothallis from R. I. MEASURES, Esq., and Oncidium Waluewa, Rolfe (Leiochilus pulchellus Cogniaux), from H. T. PITT, Esq., of Stamford Hill, were shown at this meeting, and will be further reported upon at the next meeting.

Cattleya Fly.-Mr. BOWLES showed pseudobulbs of newly-imported Cattleyas, which were badly infested with the larvæ of the Cattleya fly, Isosma sp., a pest too well known on Cattleyas. Mr. BENNETT POE suggested that the only way of dealing with the trouble is to collect the affected pseudo-bulbs, which turn black, and burn them.

Change of Food by Birds.-Mr. HOOPER said he had recently met with some remarkable changes in the habits of birds so far as their food was concerned. He had heard from Cornwall of some Tomatos being attacked by blackbirds, but could not hear of Tomatos being injured by any other birds. Again, at Blairgowrie, rooks had been discovered eating Raspberries. Mr. HOOPER is collecting information regarding the food of particular birds that fre quent fruit gardens, and will be glad to receive accounts of any exact observations made upon the subject.


Sempervivum Dying.-Mr. O'BRIEN sent specimen of Sempervivum dead and dried up, one of several that had been affected by some disease. Mr. SAUNDERS will report upon it at the next meting.

YORK CHRYSANTHEMUM. NOVEMBER 14, 15, 16.-An excellent showthe 27th in succession-was held by the above society in the Exhibition Building on the foregoing dates. Nowhere are so many groups of plants displayed as at this autumn show. Cut blooms were fewer in numbers, except in the decorative classes, which were of the usual high standard of excellence. Hardy fruit was shown in less numbers than usual, but it was good in quality. Grapes were excellent. Exhibits of vegetables were numerous and good. Messrs. BACKHOUSE & SON, The Nurseries, York, were given a Gold Medal for a very fine floral display; and a Silver-Gilt Medal was awarded Messrs. W. CLIBRAN & SON for an exhibit of Chrysanthemums.


The leading class in this section was for a group of Chrysanthemums interspersed with foliage plants, and occupying an area of 100 square feet. Four competed, and among these Mr. L. Hanchant (gr. to the FREDERICKS HOTEL, LTD., Harrogate) secured the 1st prize. Mr. G. COTTAM, Alma Gardens, Cottingham, Hull, was a good second.

Mr. J. W. HIELD, Front Street, Acomb, York, won the 1st prize in the class for a group of Chrysanthemums, among four contestants; W. TALBOT AGAR, Esq. (gr. Mr. W. Barnes), Brookfield, York, being awarded the 2nd.

The best group of miscellaneous plants arranged in the form of a pillar 17 feet in height and 6 feet in diameter at the base, was put up by Mr. W. Curtis (gr. to J. BLACKER, Esq., Thorpe Villas, Selby). A class was also provided for a pillar group of decorative Chrysanthemums and green foliage plants Messrs. E. THEAKESTONE & SONS, The Nurseries, York, were easily 1st among five.


The leading class was that for 36 Japanese blooms of distinct varieties. Mr. W. IGGULDEN, Frome, Somerset, secured the leading place with medium-sized, well-arranged blooms, which were not much superior to those shown by Lord LONDESBOROUGH, Market Weighton (gr. Mr. J. McPherson), which were awarded the 2nd prize. The last-named exhibitor won in the class for 18 Japanese blooms, distinct, Lord FAVERSHAM, Duncombe Park, Helmsley (gr. Mr. D. Wil liams), following; but Lord FAVERSHAM was 1st among five competitors for 12 Japanese blooms. Mr. MCPHERSON, with exceedingly fine ex

amples of Edith Smith, won in the class for six blooms of a white variety; and he also secured a similar award for half-a-dozen flowers of F. S. Vallis in the class for yellow flowers. J. H. Silsbury was remarkably well shown by Mr. WILLIAMS in the class for six blooms of any other colour than white or yellow.

Incurved varieties were of a high order of merit, and it was unfortunate there was not more competition. Mr. MCPHERSON easily secured the leading prizes in the classes for 24, 12, and six varieties, with grandly developed examples.

Singles.-Mr. EVERARD had the best half-adozen sprays of single Chrysanthemums in such useful sorts as Roupell Beauty, Crimson King, Mrs. Parkinson and Miss Annie Holden.

SHEFFIELD CHRYSANTHEMUM. NOVEMBER 16, 17.-The annual show of this society was held on these dates in the Corn Exchange. Competition was even greater than was seen last year, although this has not obtained in the majority of flower shows this



The cut blooms formed the leading feature of the exhibition, and an important class was the Lord Mayor's Vase class. This was for eight vases of Japanese varieties, each vase to contain three blooms of one variety. Four growers competed, the best flowers being shown by Mr. W. G. DRAKE, Cathay's Terrace, Cardiff. Among his best examples were Chrysan. themum Montigny, Miss E. Thirkell, and Mme. P. Radaelli; 2nd, The Dowager Lady HINDLIP, Hadsor House, Droitwich (gr. Mr. C. Crooks'.

Twenty-four Japanese blooms, distinct.-Mr. F. S. VALLIS, Bromham, Wilts, easily won the 1st prize among eight exhibitors with a set of full-sized, well-coloured examples of Magnificent, F. S. Vallis, Reginald Vallis, J. H. Silsbury, Mrs. W. Knox, &c. Mr. DRAKE followed with good but smaller flowers. Mr. VALLIS repeated his success in the class for 12 Japanese blooms.

Incurved varieties were remarkably well shown. In the important class for 24 blooms, Mr. DRAKE'S flowers were much superior to those of all other competitors. He had large, well-finished examples of W. Biddle, Godfrey's Eclipse, Mme. B. Hankey, C. H. Curtis, Pantia Ralli, and Doris Rayner. F. W. JAMESON, Esq., Aston Hall, North Ferriby (gr. Mr. J. Jennings), was awarded the 2nd prize. Mr. DRAKE had also the best 12 Incurved blooms in the smaller class for that number of flowers. The one-time important section of the Incurved varieties-the "Rundle" family is still provided for in the schedule at Sheffield, and the flowers are very pretty, arranged with their own foliage. A silver cup is offered for two blooms of each of the varieties Mrs. E. Rundle, George Glenny, and Mrs. Dixon. Mr. H. BRAMMER, Walkley Bank, secured the trophy with clear but somewhat small blooms; 2nd, Mr. W. FENWICK, Rueben Street, Park.

Pompones were well shown in bunches of six by S. R. FLOWERDAY, Esq. (gr. Mr. Topham). Singles.-Seven exhibits were seen in a class for six vases of single Chrysanthemums, J. G. GRACE, Esq., Riverdale (gr. Mr. C. E. Abbott). winning with desirable bunches of unnamed varieties. The premier position in the class for affiliated societies was taken by the Nether Hallam Chrysanthemum Society.


Prizes were offered for a group of miscellaneous plants arranged for effect in a space measuring 100 square feet. The premier prize of a silver cup and £5 was won by Alderman G. SENIOR (gr. Mr. T. C. Baker).

Non-competitive exhibits were numerous.


H. J. JONES, Ryecroft Nurseries, Lewisham, had a fine exhibit of Japanese blooms, for which he was awarded a Gold Medal. Gold Medals were also awarded to Messrs. SEAGRAVE & Co., Sheffield, who had Chrysanthemum plants associated with foliage plants of other subjects. Messrs. FISHER, SON & SIBRAY, Handsworth Nurseries, Sheffield, for Hollies, Ivies, Conifers, &c. Messrs. ARTINDALE & SON, Sheffield, who exhibited floral decorations. Mr. W. G. GODFREY, Exmouth, staged Chrysanthemums and Zonal Pelargoniums, for which he received a Silver-Gilt Medal.

LEEDS PAXTON. NOVEMBER 20, 21.-The eighteenth annual Chrysanthemum show of the above society was held in the Town Hall, Leeds, on these dates. The displays of cut blooms, fruit, and vegetables were a decided improvement on those of any previous exhibition held by this society. The show was opened by the Lord Mayor of Leeds.


Group classes.-The exhibits of groups generally were better than those seen last season. the class for a miscellaneous group of plants occupying an area of 70 square feet, J. PICKERSGILL, Esq., Bardon Hill, Weetwood, Leeds (gr. Mr. J. Donoghue), secured the 1st prize for a prettily-arranged exhibit containing some splen did and well-grown Orchids. The best group of Chrysanthemums arranged in a space measur ing 70 square feet was shown by Mr. L. HANCHANT, Hotel Majestic, Harrogate, and he was followed by O. B. SIMPSON, Esq., Adel, Leeds (gr. Mr. A. Lupton). Other prize winners in the group classes were T. WINN, Esq. (gr. Mr. H. Dennett), P. GREEN, Esq. (gr. Mr. T. Saunders), and J. PICKERSGILL, Esq. (gr. Mr. J. Donoghue). The last-named exhibitor displayed the best table among nine decorated with Begonias, Lily of the Valley, and cut foliage.


The chief class was that for 36 blooms of Chrysanthemums, to include 18 Japanese and 18 Incurved varieties, and for which a challenge cup was offered. Mr. DRAKE, Cardiff, staged the premier collection, and he was followed by Mr. THORNTON, Lamb Hall.

In the local classes, for which a challenge cup was also offered, there were three remarkably good exhibits, and there was little to choose between the 1st and 2nd prize groups staged by JOSEPH BYLE, Esq., Asket Hill, Roundhey, Leeds (gr. Mr. C. Shaw), and JOSEPH PICKERSGILL, Esq., (gr. M. J. Donoghue) respectively. The first-named exhibitor was also successful in the principal local classes.


The best two bunches of Black Grapes were shown by Mr. O. PILLING, and the best two bunches of white by A. WILSON, Esq., Tranby Croft, Hull. In the classes for single dishes of Apples and Pears prominent prize winners were Messrs. D. WILLIAMS, O. PILLING, and CROSS


The principal prize winners in the vegetable classes were Messrs. GROUNDWELL, O. PILLING, BAILEY, and SHAKLETON.

Many trade exhibits of excellent quality were staged. J. F. D.

ROYAL METEOROLOGICAL. NOVEMBER 22.-At the meeting of the Royal Meteorological Society on this date, Mr. W. Marriott read a paper on "The abnormal weather of the past summer and some of its effects."

The principal features of the weather over the greater part of England-especially the southeast-were the high state of the barometer throughout the whole of the period, except a portion of August; the high temperature in July, August, and September; the great amount of sunshine; and the deficiency of rainfall. Over the south-eastern portion of England more than 900 hours of bright sunshine were recorded during the four months June to September ; while at a few stations in the extreme south and on the east coast, over 1,000 hours were recorded. The sunshine was more than 200 hours above the average over the Thames basin and on the coasts of Lancashire and North Wales.

The most remarkable feature of the weather during the past summer was the exceptional heat wave which occurred between August 30 and September 3. The temperature rose above 90 over a large part of England on four consecutive days, viz., August 31-September 3. Mr. Marriott has not been able to find any previous record of readings over 90° for a similar period. The air was very clear, and brilliant sunshine prevailed over nearly the whole of the country. Another remarkable feature connected with this heat wave was the great dryness of the air; for on September 1 and 2, differences of 25° [?] were observed between the readings of the dry and wet bulb thermometers, and relative humidities

below 30 per cent. were recorded at many inland places. Owing to the great heat, vegetable matter became very inflammable, and consequently there were more stack fires than usual, and extensive stretches of heather and gorse were also set on fire.

The author said that with the advent of the hot weather the death rate increased considerably, and he pointed out that when the mean maximum temperature for the week reached 72° the death rate at once began to rise. The increase of the death rate was made up almost entirely of infants under one year of age. This was shown to be due to the prevalence of infantile epidemic diarrhoea, which sets in when the mean maximum temperature for the week rises above 72°.

Attention was called to the effect which the high temperature had in turning milk sour, and in rendering it unfit for drinking purposes unless it had been first Pasteurised or sterilised. Not only was the ordinary milk a source of danger to infants during the hot weather, but the great use which is now made of tinned foods also tended to produce ptomaine poisoning and cause diarrhoea.

Owing to the drought, food for cattle was very deficient, and consequently there was a falling off in the milk supply of as much as 30

per cent.

NATIONAL CHRYSANTHEMUM. NOVEMBER 27.--The annual dinner of the above society was held at the Holborn Restaurant on this date, under the chairmanship of C. E. Shea, Esq., president of the society. About 115 members and friends assembled, and included in the company were many ladies. Dinner was laid in the Royal Venetian Chamber, which was prettily decorated with flowers, plants, and fruits contributed by some of the supporters of the society. Among others present we noticed Messrs. C. Harman Payne, Thomas Bevan, J. H. Witty, Henry Cannell, H. J. Jones, D. B. Crane, Eric Such, E. Hawes, S. Mortimer, J. W. Moorman, G. Castelton, Bryan Wynne, W. Howe, &c.

After the usual loyal toasts had been duly honoured, the Chairman proposed the principal toast of the evening, "The National Chrysanthemum Society." He contrasted the Chrysanthemum of to-day with the flower at the time when the National Society was instituted, and he regarded the advance to be due in no small degree to the efforts of the parent society. This progress was greatly the result of competitive shows, and especially was this true in the case of the single varieties, which had lately found great favour with the public. Striving to be first brought out many good qualities in a person, and it was a healthy and ambitious bent to endeavour to excel in competition. The Chrysanthemum was essentially a poor man's flower, and it gave him great pleasure to attend the Chrysanthemum shows in the East End of London, and also to see the brightness the Chrysanthemum brought into the homes of the poor. He instanced the case of one exhibitor at the People's Palace, who informed the speaker that the money which he formerly spent in the publichouse was now devoted to purchasing new varieties of Chrysanthemums. He was proud of the personnel of the society, and congratu

lated the members on their admirable committee. He regretted the loss of their popular treasurer, the late Mr. A. Taylor, but he had confidence that, as the old members drop out, others will step forward to fill the gaps.. He was impressed with the forward movement seen at the shows, and especially with the decorative aspect as distinguished from the mere competitive character of the exhibitions. They must cater for the multitude, and endeavour to atHe tract the public with a beautiful display. was especially pleased to notice in this direction that at some provincial shows, such as at Edinburgh and Birmingham, the show board had been entirely eliminated. However, they must "make haste slowly." The use of vases has two concurrent results: it limits the number of varieties shown and raises the cost of transit. By selecting the best 15 varieties only, much other beautiful material is lost to the show, while the transit of flowers with long stems, &c., is a matter of expense and difficulty. At the recent autumn show he looked in vain for many old favourite flowers. Avalanche was absent, nor could he find a single example of

Edwin Molyneux. He concluded by asking what would our country do without the Chrysanthemum, and what would the Chrysanthemum do without the National Society?

The President then proceeded to distribute the prizes to the successful exhibitors.

Mr. J. H. Witty proposed the toast of "The Donors of the Special Prizes." He pointed to the good example set them by their president in this matter, and regretted that, owing to its having now been won outright, the trophy pre. sented by the Ichthemic Guano Co. was lost to the society, although the committee were hopeful of its being replaced.

Mr. J. A. Botham, assistant manager to the Crystal Palace Company, in replying to this toast, said that he regretted that his society had been unable to fulfil all their promises in the matter of special prizes, but it was due to the action of certain underwriters, who had pressed upon his company, but he was glad to say the Crystal Palace affairs had improved, and he saw better prospects for them in the future. The National Chrysanthemum Society would always be welcomed at the Palace at Sydenham.

Mr. T. Bevan, chairman of the General Committee, in replying to the toast of "The President, Vice-President, and Officers of the Society," appealed for increased support. They now hold four shows, but they have managed to pay their liabilities and accumulate a small reserve fund. The proposed Year Book was a new departure, and this they hoped to issue shortly. The committee were endeavouring to increase the value of the prizes offered at the society's great show during the coming year, in order to attract the best flowers. The society is now affiliated with over 130 other societies, which naturally look to the parent society to lead the way, and they must endeavour to have the best at their exhibitions. Mr. Richard Witty, secretary, also replied.

The chairman vacated the chair at this stage of the proceedings, and Mr. Thos. Bevan was voted in his place.

Mr. Harman Payne, in proposing the "Affiliated Societies and Exhibitors," advocated the holding of a provincial show in connection with the affiliated societies.

Other speakers were Messrs. Henry Cannell, E. F. Hawes, R. B. Leech, W. Harrison, D. B. Crane, H. G. Cove, F. W. A. Scholl, and W. G. Bunn.

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CHALLENGE TROPHY COMPETITION: Interested. Before offering a Challenge Trophy for competition over a number of years, a Committee should take every possible care to state the conditions of the competition so accurately and definitely that alterations will not be called for until the Trophy has been won outright by someone. When circumstances arise that make an alteration necessary the Committee should take into their confidence those exhibitors who have already competed for the Trophy, and if possible obtain their approval. We are speaking, of course, of cases in which it is possible for an exhibitor to acquire the Trophy as his own personal property, and who therefore, having won it once, may be considered to have a kind of vested interest in it. In cases where the Trophy is only held for one year and at the expiration of that time is returned to the Committee, the circumstances are quite different, because an entirely new competition is commenced each year.



leaves are injured by the leaf miner.
ventive measures would include the spraying of
the plants with quassia extract, or other dis-
tasteful liquid in order to prevent the females
from depositing their eggs upon the leaves.
Remove badly affected leaves and burn them.
You will find a page illustration and a note of
this pest in the Calendar of Garden Operations,
to be obtained from our publisher, price 71d.,
free by post.

CUCUMBER SPOT: H. J. P. The spores of all
fungi are very minute, and it need excite no
wonder how the disease entered your stock. You
could easily convey the spores on your clothes,
or it may have been carried by the wind. Spray-
ing the plants with liver of sulphur, half ounce
to two gallons of water, is the best treatment,
but be careful of the paint, which is turned black
by this substance. If your houses are empty
cleanse them thoroughly, using a little carbolic
acid in the water when you scrub the wood-
work, &c.



have recently published much correspondence on this subject. On page 222, April 7, 1906, is given a figure of a simple apparatus for cyanidising plant structures, accompanied by a note on the subject by Mr. J. G. Blakey. Other articles on cyanidising will be found in our issues for February 10, 1906, p. 85, and March 3, 1906, p. 142. DAMAGED PEACH TREES: T. S. L. You have not forwarded the tenancy agreement, the wording of which may materially affect the position. You state that the land was let as a nursery, but the facts you mention appear to imply that the land was used as a market-garden. If you have read the recent legal articles in these columns, you will have observed that nurserymen and market gardeners are entitled at the end of their tenancy to remove even fruit trees in full bearing, provided they are really nursery trees, and not trees of such a size as to render it impossible for them to be dealt with in the way of trade. Similarly the tenant could have removed his greenhouses, and presumably he failed to do so either through ignorance or on account of some special agreement with you. If the land were used as a market-garden under such circumstances as to cause the Market-Gardeners' Compensation Act to apply, then the tenant would be entitled to recover from his landlord compensation for any fruit-trees permanently set out which he may have left behind him. There are no facts mentioned in your letter which would enable the landlord to obtain redress from the tenant; in fact, unless there are special circumstances which you have not stated, it looks as though the tenant had not exercised his full rights, though his intentions may have been malicious. FIGS: J. L IV. We cannot say whether the tree is attacked by the fungus disease (Cercospora) unless we receive specimens. You do not say whether the foliage is spotted or blotched. The falling of the " fruits" at the stage you mention would appear to indicate the presence of disease, or lack of fertilisation of the flowers, which of course grow in the receptacle we call fruits." FUNGUS; G. J. Your specimen is the Hard Puff Ball, Scleroderma bovista. It is not edible. FUNGUS ON ELMS: A. E. J. The fungus is Nectria cinnabarina, a common species on dead and

decaying timber, and one especially common on
the Red Currant. The mycelium is often pre-
sent in the tree much beyond the parts where
the red conidial condition appears. Diseased
branches should be cut off and burned, as should
also rotten sticks lying on the ground. We
suspect the trees were too large to be shifted
without suffering serious check and are dying in
consequence, the fungus being ever present and
ready to assist in the work of destruction.
not know that the Royal Horticultural Society's
interesting gardens at Wisley offer facilities for
the making of a good lecturer. Audiences in
such a place would be, we imagine, very small
and occasional. But the gardens contain a great
variety of interesting plants, a knowledge of
which would go a considerable way towards
furnishing the experience a professional horti-
culturist must acquire, and we take it you must
be a horticulturist first and a horticultural
lecturer afterwards. We do not know what
your present experience and knowledge of the
principles which underlie horticultural practice
amount to, nor to what particular branch of gar-
dening you intend to devote your lectures.
if it is a County Council lectureship for which you
are anxious to qualify yourself, out-of-doors gar-
dening will be most important, particularly the
cultivation of fruits, vegetables, salads, and such
flowering plants as may be grown in cottagers'
gardens. Fencing, hedge-making and cutting,
draining, and all the operations pertaining to
the cultivation of land should be studied, to-
gether with the means available for combating
insect and fungus pests. In these circumstances
we think if you go to Wisley you should make
up your mind to learn as much as possible during
your stay there. Make a change after the ex-
piration of one year.

oblige correspondents as far as we consistently can,
Sut they must bear in mind that it is no part of our
duty to our subscribers to name either flowers or
fruits. Such

2. Leycesteria formosa; 3, Berberis empetri- .
folia 4, Berberis Darwinii; 5, Azara micro-
phylla. We wish every one would send as good
specimens and as carefully labelled as you do.-
J. H. J. Planera aquatica.-H. M. C. 1.
Lupinus arboreus; 2, Juniperus communis; 3,
Juniperus sabina variegata; 4, Skimmia japon-
ica; 5, not recognised; 6, Spiræa Thunbergii.
-C. N., Co. Claydon. The upright form of
Cupressus sempervirens.-H. H. Cypripedium
insigne Maulei and Adiantum tenerum.-V. I. A.
1, Oncidium cheirophorum; 2, Oncidium pubes;
3, Stelis ophioglossoides; 4, Pleurothallis
rubens; 5, Mormodes Buccinator.-Nil Desper-
1, Oncidium Papilio, but not fully deve-
loped; 2, Oncidium prætextum; 3, 3a, 3b, are
all forms of Oncidium Forbesii; 4 and 4a.
Oncidium tigrinum.-G. D. Panicum plicatum.
H. R. 1 and 2, Codiæum (Croton) interruptum;
3. Codiæum angustifolium; 4, Sonerila Hender-
soni; 5, Phyllanthus nivosus; 6, Hibiscus


PARADISE STOCK: H. H. This stock, like the Crab
stock, is a variety of Pyrus malus (Apple), which
has a dwarfing effect upon the varieties of Apple
grafted upon it. It is possible that an equally
dwarfing stock could be selected from seedling
Crabs, and there are already several such
varieties known as " Paradise."
POPLARS: Constant Reader. It will depend upon
the position and conditions in which the trees are
growing, and whether they are desired to be
45 feet or 55 feet high. If they offer no dis-
agreeable obstruction, however, the better plan
would be to cut them to the point at which they
were pruned six years ago. You need not con-
sider the capacity of the tree to support the
growth which will result from the pruning, for
the lower you prune, the more growth will the
trce produce.

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POTATO: W. C. S. The tuber is badly attacked with the scab" disease. Add plenty of lime to the soil, mixing them well together.

SPRAYS work entails considerable outlay,

both of time and money, and cannot be allowed to encroach ypon time required for the conduct of the paper. Correspondents should never send more than six plants or fruits at one time: they should be very careful to pack and label them properly, to give every information as to the county the fruits are grown in, and to send ripe, or nearly ripe, specimens which show the character of the variety. By neglecting these precautions correspondents add greatly to our labour, and run the risk of delay and incorrect determinations. Correspondents not answered in this issue are requested to be so good as to consult the following numbers. Gib. Blenheim Pippin.-D. R. 1, Leon Leclerc de Laval; 2, Beurré Ananas; 3, Claygate Pearmain; 4, Harvey's Reinette; 5, Mère de Ménage; 6, Malster.-T. H. 1, Wealthy: 2, Cornish Aromatic; 3, Beurré Bachelier.-Exon. The Pear was decayed. Apple, Wyken Pippin. -W. S. We cannot name such tiny Apples. The Pear is Black Worcester.-J. C. W. & Son. Hanwell Souring.-T. Down. 1, Passe Colmar ; 2, Knight's Monarch; 3, Blue Pearmain; 4, Scarlet Leadington; 5, Stirling Castle; 6, Baldwin; 7, Orange Pippin; 8, French Crab. -Pinehurst. Baron de Mello.-F. P. Nanny Apple.-G. B. 1, Gascoyne's Scarlet Seedling; 2, Harvey's Wiltshire Defiance; 3, Too poor to be named; 4, Bergamot d'Esperen.-W. D. S. Golden Ducat.— IV. 1, Hanwell Souring: 2, Grange's Pearmain; 3, Belle Dubois; 4, Melon; 5, Pitmaston Nonpareil; 6, Aston Town.-E. C. 1, Dumelow's Seedling (Wellington); 2, Reinette du Canada; 3, Golden Harvey; 4, Margil; 5, a poor specimen of Cox's Orange Pippin. NAMES OF PLANTS: J. Smith. 1, Nephrodium molle; 2. Scolopendrium vulgare cristatum; 3, Davallia dissecta; 4, Davallia canariensis; 5, Pteris serrulata; 6, Scolopendrium vulgare. -S. T. B. Verbascum nigrum.-G. McG. The leaves are those of Ginkgo biloba, or as it used to be called, Salisburia adiantifolia. The common name Maidenhair tree" has been given the species owing to the cuneate or wedgeshaped leaves being similar in form to the pinnæ of Adiantum cuneatum. The species was introduced into this country from Northern China, and it is perfectly hardy. It belongs to the natural order Coniferæ.-G. C. L. You have mixed your labels. Your No. 2 is Libocedrus chilensis. Your No. 1 is either Cephalotaxus pedunculata or C. drupacea. We cannot tell which from the leaves only. It is certainly not C. Fortunei.-G. M. G. 1, Euonymus europæus ;

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OF CHRYSANTHEMUMS: W. W. The committee should have worded the schedule somewhat as follows: "Six vases of single Chrysanthemums, distinct, each vase to contain six sprays, and each spray to have not fewer than flowers. Or, if no thinning at

all was to be insisted upon, the word 'disbudded ' should have been inserted before the word 'sprays,' deleting the remaining part of the sentence." You will see that we have assumed that the committee intended to have unthinned. or only partially thinned exhibits, and we do this because they employed the word spray.' which in horticultural usage is generally intended to describe something other than a stem which has been thinned to one flower, or as, in the case of composite plants, to one " head" of flowers, We can sympathise with you in suffering the disqualification, because it is partly attributable to the somewhat indefinite manner in which the schedule was compiled. That readers may understand we will quote the wording as it appeared in the schedule: "Six vases of single Chrysanthemums, distinct, each to contain six sprays."

TURF FOR ANALYSIS: W. D. We do not undertake to analyse soil, but if you are a Fellow of the Royal Horticultural Society you can have it analysed for a small fee by the Society's consulting chemist, Dr. A. Voelcker, 22, Tudor Street, London, E.C. The turf sent is a good sample. When using this for the cultivation of Grapevines you should incorporate with it a little phosphatic and potash manures, such as bone manure and wood ashes. For stone fruits a little lime rubble will be an additional advantage. Work plenty of farmyard manure in the soil of the kitchen garden.

VINES: Constant Reader. You do not say whether
the vines are growing indoors or out-of-doors.
You should cut back the laterals to two or three
buds on each. Dress the vines in the manner
recommended to J. F. in this column in last
week's issue.

omission rectified in our present issue L. B., New
York-S. P.-R. A., Antibes-E. S. S.-Sir F. L.-
Interested-A. D. W.-J. J.-C. E. P.-M. J. S.-J. W.-
F. T. T.-J. H. M., Sydney-S. Schneider-H. F. McM.,
Ceylon-W. Duncan Tucker.-P. & S. We have com-
municated with our reporter-Woottoniana. The words
were printed as sent us by the secretary-F. E.-C. W. T.
-W. A.-W. R. C.-C. S. & Co.-Mac.-W. H. B.-W. N
-E. W.-F. T.-J. S.-W. P.-V. C.-W. F.-W. B.-
W. K.-W. W. R. & Co.-- Aqua regia-J. F.-J. W. I.-
C. H. W.


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T is not long since we commented on the fact that, although many of the leading horticulturists of the United States are of British origin, yet that we heard comparatively little of them after they have left their old home.

So far as Scotsmen are concerned, the deficiency is supplied in a very interesting manner by Mr. Wallace, of the Florists' Exchange, who has contributed to the Scottish Horticultural Association the following details, which we are privileged to publish :


Commercial horticulture in the United States may be said to have had its beginning in the early years of the nineteenth century. There were, of course, long before that time, many excellent private gardens in the country, in which many exotic plants were grown, yet those gardens were isolated in proportion to the popula


Prior to, say, 1825, but little greenhouse glass was to be seen in this country used for the grow ing or forcing of plants. The best market for plants, flowers, and vegetables in those early days was found in Philadelphia, and to that city gardeners from the Old World were first attracted. Incidentally, it may be stated as significant that many of the men who then came to America in the capacity of private gardeners,

after they had accumulated a little money, em. barked in business in a commercial way; and the same remarks hold true to-day.

The growing of plants, flowers, and vegetables for profit, however, soon became very general, progressing with leaps and bounds until the breaking out of the Civil War in 1860, when the industry received a set-back which was felt for the next six or eight years. When the country again became tranquil, say about 1870, there were several thousand commercial plant and flower-growing establishments in the United States. Fifteen years later, in 1885, a writer going into statistics, estimated that 8,000,000 cut Roses reached New York market alone in that year, and that the aggregate number of Roses grown around Boston, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Chicago, Washington, and other places could not have been less than 24,000,000. The number of Carnation flowers grown was said to be at least 120,000,000. Furthermore, it was estimated that one-fourth as many Roses and Carnations were grown by private establishments. The amount of space occupied by floweringplants and bulbs in the open air was estimated to aggregate at least 12,000 acres, in addition to several thousand acres used for seeds.

The latest statistics, those compiled by Dr. Galloway, of the Department of Agriculture at Washington, D.C., in 1900, show that there were at that time probably not fewer than 9,000 com. mercial florists' establishments in the United States, having a glass area of 22,500,000 square feet. The income to the producer was set down as averaging 50 cents for each square foot of glass, or $11,250,000; and double that amount when viewed from the standpoint of the retailer. It was estimated by Dr. Galloway that the retail value of cut flowers sold annually is $12,500,000; the estimated apportionment for this sum being, for Roses, $6,000,000; Carnations, $4,000,000; Violets, $750,000; Chrysanthemums, $500,000; miscellaneous flowers, including Lilies, &c., $1,250,000. The retail value of the plants sold is placed at $10,000,000. To handle the business in its entirety requires probably an average of not less than one man for every 1,500 square feet of glass. Fifteen hundred square feet of glass per man may seem a low estimate, and such is the fact when considering commercial establishments of any size, says Mr. Galloway. The larger the area of glass, other things being equal, the more square feet one man can handle. As a matter of fact, some of the large Rose-growing establishments do not employ more than one man for each 10,000 square feet. The census of 1900 gives a total of 2,029 commercial nurseries-devoted to the growing of trees, shrubs, &c.-with a total acreage of 165,780, 82.9 per cent improved. The total value of the products was $10,086,136. the same year the census shows that there were 2,421 seed farms in the United States, with sales of products valued at $826,019, from an area of 40,4234 acres.


Large as is our own production, it was found necessary, or prudent, to import bulbs, trees, and plants, to the amount of $6,528,756 in the decade 1890-1900. Since these statistics were compiled, the number of plant and cut flower establishments has increased, and the glass area added to, probably to the extent of from 10 to 15 per cent. All this indicates a gratifyingly prosperous condition of the country, which is likely to remain some time, if no greater calamity befall us than the adoption of Andrew Carnegie's simplified spelling.

As may be readily imagined in a cosmopolitan country such as the United States, representatives of almost every European nationality are engaged in gardening, the Turk proving perhaps the only exception. While a number of older Americans also follow the florist's profession, it is one to which the younger "Yankees" do not seem to take, its demands being too exacting, and the dollars too slow in accumulating to suit the spirit of the age.

The restless, roaming character of the average Scot is proverbial, and that class designated gar. deners has not escaped the national characteristic. It is but natural, therefore, that some of them should set their faces toward the West, the Land of the Free, where, as the poet puts it:

"A man is a man

If he's willing to toil,
And the humblest may gather
The fruits of the soil."

And speaking, of toiling I am reminded of a pas. sage written by the talented but irascible Cobbett (himself, by the way, at one time an American horticulturist, or at least, a horticulturist in America), as follows: "Scotchmen toil hard enough in Scotland, but when they go from home it is not to work, if you please. They are found in gardens, and especially in gentlemen's gardeas, tying up flowers, picking dead leaves off exotics, peeping into Melon frames, publishing the banns of marriage between the 'male' and 'female' blossoms; tap, tap, tapping against a wall with a hammer that weighs half an ounce. They have backs as straight and shoulders as square as heroes of Waterloo; and who can blame them? The digging, the mowing, the carrying of loads, all the break-back and sweatextracting work, they leave to be performed by those who have less prudence than they have. The great purpose of human art, the great end of human study, is to obtain ease, to throw the burden of labour from our own shoulders, and fix it on those of others."

The history of Scotch gardeners, in America at least, does not bear out Cobbett's assertion. Here they work, work hard, and through the faithful performance of that work, combined with their native ability and characteristic perseverance, very many raise themselves above the common herd. There is no branch of American horticulture or floriculture in which Scotsmen cannot be found, with the possible exception of the wholesale cut flower commission business, which claimed one solitary representative of the Land of Cakes, who is now dead.

Scotsmen occupy, in the United States, the positions of head-gardeners and superintendents of estates; they are park-superintendents, cemetery-superintendents, and land. scape gardeners, and two or more are curators of botanic gardens. They own and manage some of the largest seed stores in the country. They conduct extensive commercial plant and flower-growing establishments, and take a foremost place in the retail branch of the business. They are prominent in the work of horticultural societies, florists' clubs, and similar organisations throughout the land, and in every way act well their part in promoting whatever tends to the advancement of their chosen calling.


GRANT THORBURN.-The first Scotsman to carve his name on the roll of honour of American horticulture Grant Thorburn, who founded the first seed house of New York City, and who probably was the first merchant to handle plants in a retail store way in the American metropolis. Grant Thorburn was born on February 18, 1773, in a small village, or clachan, named West Houses, near Dalkeith. His father was a nail maker, and the son also followed that trade. Grant, accompanied by his brother, sailed for America from Leith on April 13, 1794, the voyage lasting until June 16. (No ocean greyhounds in those days.) On arrival in New York, he worked at his vocation for some time, subsequently engaging in the grocery business, and it was in 1801, while he was a grocer, that he became a seed and plant dealer. This is how he tells the story, which gives us an account of the beginning of an enterprise which has since achieved an international reputation:

"About this time the ladies of New York were beginning to show their taste for flowers, and it was customary to sell the empty flower pots in the grocery stores; these articles also comprised part of my stock. In the fall of the year, when the plants wanted shifting preparatory to their being placed in the parlour, I was often asked for pots of a handsomer quality or better make. All at once it came into my mind to take and paint some of my common flower pots with green varnish paint, thinking it would better suit the taste of the ladies than the common brickbat coloured ones. I painted two and exposed them in front of my window. They soon drew attention, and were sold. I painted six pair; they soon went the same way. Being thus encouraged I continued painting and selling to good advantage; this was in the fall of 1802. One day in the month of April following I observed a man for the first time selling flower-plants in the Fly Market, which then stood in the foot of Maiden Lane. As I carelessly passed along I took a leaf, and, rubbing it between my fingers and thumb, asked him what was the name of it. He answered, a Rose-Geranium. This, as far as I can recollect, was the first time I ever heard that there was a Geranium in the world; as, before this, I had no taste for, nor paid any attention to, plants. I looked for a few minutes at the plant, thought it had a pleasant smell, and that it would look well if removed into one of my green flower pots to stand on my counter to draw attention. Next day someone fancied and purchased plant and pot. Next day I went, when the market was nearly over, judging the man would sell cheaper rather than have the trouble of carrying them over the river, as he lived at Brooklyn, and in those days there was neither steam nor horse boats. Accordingly I purchased two plants, and having

sold them began to think something might be done this way; and so I continued to go at the close of the market, and always bargained for the unsold plants. The thing being a novelty began to draw attention, people carrying their country friends to see the curiosities of the city would step in to see my plants. Then they would ask if I had no seed of such plants; then again, others would ask for Cabbage, Turnip or Radish seed, etc. These frequent enquiries at length set me to thinking that if I could get seeds I should be able to sell them; but here lay the difficulty, as no one sold seed in New York, not one of the farmers or gardeners saved more than they wanted for their own use, there being no market for an overplus. In this dilemma I told my situation to George Inglis (also a Scotchman), the man from whom I had always bought the plants in the Fly Market. He said he was now raising seeds with the intention of selling them next spring along with his plants in the market, but if I would take his seeds he would quit the market and stay at home and raise plants and seeds for me to sell. A bargain was immediately struck. I purchased his stock of seeds, amounting to $15, and thus commenced a business on September 17, 1805, that already is the most extensive of the sort in the United States."

Grant Thorburn died in New Haven, Conn., January 21, 1863. The business he founded a century ago continues in New York, and his patronymic is still associated with it.

DAVID HOSACK.-Leaving the practical side of American horticulture for a moment, let us turn to its early scientific aspect. It was to a native Scotsman (or the son of a Scotsman born in America: authorities differ as to his birthplace) that New York City owes its first botanical garden, which was founded in 1801 by Dr. David Hosack, a man of great learning, and during his life a patron of every movement in art, science, and literature. While professor of botany at Columbia Cottage, New York, Dr. Hosack purchased from the city the land he transformed into what he called "The Elgin Botanical Garden," in memory of his father's birthplace, Elgin, Morayshire. The garden was sold in 1810 to the State of New York for $73,000. It was in turn committed to the Regents of the University of New York, the Faculty of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, and, finally, to Columbia College, which latter body by an arrangement with the State Legislature in 1816, annexed the garden, which by that time had been allowed to fall into decay. Dr. Hosack's memory is preserved in the genus Hosackia, which includes some 16 species of plants belonging to the Leguminosa family. His Hortus Elginensis, printed in 1807, gives the names of 2,000 species which his botanical garden contained. It may not be without interest to state that two of the doctor's former students became celebrated in the scientific world, namely, Dr. Torrey and Professor Asa Gray.

DAVID DOUGLAS.-Though not resident in the United States, reference to the work of that illfated, intrepid plant discoverer, David Douglas, for American horticulture, should not be omitted. He explored California, Oregon, and British Columbia in 1823 and 1829. He found and described some of the wild bulb gardens of the Pacific Coast in 1827-1833, and sent bulbs of many species to England. He was a native of Scone, Perthshire, and perished in the Hawaiian Islands at the age of 34, by falling into a pit made for the capture of wild animals.

THOMAS HOGG.-Among early American horticulturists after Thorburn, probably no man was better known than Thomas Hogg, senr. He was born at Polwarth, Berwickshire, on February 20, 1778. He was first apprenticed as a printer on the Liverpool Mercury. Going to Edinburgh, his taste for horticulture induced him to enter Dickson's nurseries at Hawick. Thence he went to London, engaging with Lee & Kennedy, of Hammersmith, subsequently taking charge of the famous gardens of William Kent, where he became acquainted with the foremost horticulturists of the day. His health becoming im. paired, he was advised by his physician to take a sea voyage. He arrived in New York in 1821 with the intention of going to Canada, but was prevailed upon by Dr. Hosack to stay in New York. Here he began business in 1822. The country being then young, he found great difficulty in disposing of the plants he cultivated; the taste of the people had not yet been educated. A story is told of how Yankee enterprise came to Mr. Hogg's assistance on one occasion. He had a large batch of Pelargoniums which were then just being raised from the native species into the beautiful varieties we now have, These he could not sell in the ordinary way, so an editor friend of his suggested to him to dispose of the plants at auction. Mr. Hogg saw the auctioneer, who was to conduct a sale

of dry goods shortly, and that individual was agreeable to the plan being tried. So he an nounced in the catalogue that there would be "auctioned off Pelargoniums-a new and beautiful article." The plants were kept from sight in an upper floor of the auctioneer's store, and when all the dry goods had been sold, the public were invited upstairs. Thither they flocked, expecting to see what they thought an entirely new article in women's wear, only to find a grand array of Pelargoniums. They accepted the situation, overlooked the trick that had been played on them, and bought up all the plants, Hogg realising double what he would have sold them for through the usual channels of trade. When Don and Douglas were sent out to this country to collect American plants, they were recommended to the charge of Thomas Hogg. Among the plants which he was the means of introducing into England from the United States was the Rhododendron arboreum [?]. He introduced into America the Primula sinensis and Wistaria sinensis. It is said that he was the first to cultivate successfully Nelumbiunt speciosum and Nymphæa cœrulea. He was a successful grower of New Holland plants, and had one of the choicest collections of Cactaceæ in America. The late Thomas Hogg, junr., his son, also was a noted horticulturist and Oriental traveller, introducing many Japanese plants into this country, among them the Hydrangea which bears his name.

ROBERT BUIST.-Robert Buist, a florist, seedsman, and author, was born at Cupar, Fife, November 14, 1805, and died in Philadelphia, July 13, 1880. He received his early training at the Edinburgh Botanical Garden, and came to America in 1828. After working for two years as a gardener, he entered into partnership with Hibbert, whose florist-establishment was one of the first notable ones in Philadelphia. Mr. Buist became a noted grower of Roses. He also greatly improved the Verbena. He introduced Poinsettia pulcherrima into the trade, and his sale of the double form is said to have been the first transaction of the kind accomplished by ocean telegraph. He was the author of several books on horticulture, among them the American Flower Garden Directory, the Rose Manual, and the Family Kitchen Gardener, all of which enjoyed a considerable sale for many years. The seed business he founded in Philadelphia still bears his name.

JOHN SHERWOOD.-Another Scotsman who added his quota of new plants was John Sherwood, of Philadelphia, Pa., a grower of Roses and Camellias. He originated Sherwood's Musk Cluster, a popular Noisette Rose, and Camellias Sherwoodii and Mrs. Cope. He died in 1883 in his 77th year. The late Professor Thomas Meehan said of him: "To have an hour with Sherwood was always regarded as better than medicine, and possibly few have ever passed from gardening circles in Philadelphia more sincerely esteemed." Mr. Sherwood was one of the oldest supporters of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society.

PETER MACKENZIE, a noted Scotsman, resident in Philadelphia, was at one time gardener to Henry Pratt, of Leinon Hill, where in 1836 he successfully grew the Poinsettia. He entered the commercial florist business about 1842, and became well known as an importer of new and rare plants. He conducted an extensive business, shipping south before the Civil War such plants as Camellias, Azaleas, Daphnes, Olea fragrans, Gardenias, and other hard-wooded stock adapted to the southern climate. He raised the famous Camellia Jenny Lind, which was sold to a London purchaser for 200 guineas.

Contemporary with Mackenzie as another noted Philadelphia plantsman was ANDREW DRYBURGH, who made a fortune growing Camellia japonica for its flowers, which at that time (1842) were in great demand. He had the finest and largest collection of specimen plants in the United States, and probably has never been equalled as a cultivator of Camellias anywhere.

DAVID FERGUSON, who died suddenly in 188', was best known as an importer and grower of new and rare plants. He established the Laurel Hill Nurseries about 1842, and introduced many novelties from all sources in this country. His great speciality was Acacia pubescens, the propagation of which he understood thoroughly, distributing many thousands. It is still in

demand as a decorative plant, but cannot be procured in quantity.

JAMES RITCHIE, a worthy Scot, resident of Philadelphia, was a member of the firm of Ritchie & Dick, who excelled in growing Camellias, Roses, and Azaleas. He contributed a number of articles on steam-heating of greenhouses, which commanded considerable attention; much of the wonderful progress in that department of greenhouse accessories is the result of the interest his papers created. Mr. Ritchie, who was one of the leading members of the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, and who served with Professor Thomas Meehan for six years in the City Council Chamber of Philadelphia, died from suffocation from coal gas, March 11, 1885, in his 77th year.

ISAAC BUCHANAN (1808-1893) was a native of Cardross, Perthshire, and at one time a leader in horticulture in the Eastern States of America. He received the rudiments of his training as a gardener at the Duke of Montrose's famous seat, Buchanan House. Later he was gardener at Cramond Castle, near Edinburgh, and Caprington Castle, near Kilmarnock, and subsequently worked in the Edinburgh Botanical Gardens under the late Wm. McNab; also at Chiswick. He came to America in 1836, first securing employment with his countryman, Robert Buist, of Philadelphia, ultimately managing on his own account a store in New York City and a growing establishment at Astoria, Long Island. Buchanan in his younger days was an Orchid collector, and for many years was the only successful grower of Orchids in the United States. He was one of the first to grow Gladiolus in this country, and considerably improved that flower by cross-fertilisation. He raised Hyacinths on the low, marshy ground in Astoria, propagating them in the same manner as that adopted by the Dutch growers. He also improved the Petunia. The common, coarse-growing, white-flowered Brazilian species had been cultivated for several years previous to 1830, when the more delicate P. violacea was introduced from Argentina. Isaac Buchanan hybridised these two species and produced mottled and striped seedlings, the foundation of the magnificent varieties now so widely grown.

JOHN SPALDING, a native of Woodside, Perthshire, came to this country as a private gardener, and later entered the florist business, in which he became successful, conducting an establishment at New London, Conn., from which more than one of our present day prominent commercial florists have graduated. Mr. Spalding's ancestors received a grant of the lands of Ashantilly, Perthshire, from Robert the Bruce, for services rendered that monarch. Before coming to America Mr. Spalding served with his father, a famous Scotch gardener in his day; also in the Botanical Gardens of Dublin, Ireland, and on several estates in England. His mind was a literal store-house of history, poetry, botany, geology, and entomology. He died in February, 1905, at the advanced age of 91 years.

JOHN DICK (1815-1903) was a native of Edinburgh. He had a growing establishment at Philadelphia, excelling in the cultivation of Camellias and hardy Roses.

JOHN NISBET (1816-1886), a native of St. Mary's Isle, Kirkcudbright, achieved success as a landscape gardener, laying out several estates in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. For 14 years most of his spare time was given freely as a moral instructor in the State prison.

ROBERT REID, who started what was probably the first retail flower store proper in New York City, was a native of Langholm, Dumfriesshire. He enjoyed the friendship of Dr. Lindley, Donald Beaton, George Glenny, and other eminent horticulturists of the time, and was a frequent contributor to the Gardeners' Chronicle. (To be continued.)

He died in 1863.


A RUBBER BUTTON-HOLE HOLDER. Rubber is now used for very many purposes, and one of the latest uses to which it has been put is for the making of little holders in which the stalks of flowers used for buttonholes are sometimes inserted in a little water, and hidden beneath the lappel of the coat. These rubber holders are pliable and secure when in the coat, and the stem of the flower is clasped securely by the rubber cup, which in a great measure prevents the water from escaping. The patentee is Mr. W. J. Titley, Terrace Walk, Bath.

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