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T certain seasons of the year even enthusiastic amateurs become to a limited extent rather careless of their favourite plants, and I fear this applies as much to the Auricula as to any other plant. Autumn, about the time of the fall of the leaf, when "Boughs are daily rifted by the gusty thieves, And the book of nature getteth short of leaves,"
is also the time of the year when there is fear of the Auricula being forgotten. The choice Alpine varieties in the open border become covered with drifted wet leaves, at a time when the plants themselves are rapidly losing their outer leaves. The drifted leaves are the best shelter for enemies of the plants, such as slugs and the leather-coated grubs, for they can feast on the succulent young leaves of the plants unperceived. Amateurs who value their Auriculas should see to it that not only are the leaves that have drifted round the plants removed, but all dead and decaying Auricula leaves also, and these should be carefully detached at their base, for if portions of decayed leaves are left they may cause decay. Some persons, amongst them
gardeners of much experience, advise leaving such leaves as have fallen from trees and accumulated around plants, as they protect the plants from frost. My own experience is that it is a haphazard and uncertain kind of protection for most garden plants, and cannot be tolerated by Auriculas.
Auriculas of the Alpine section are being more extensively cultivated as garden plants, and they are exceedingly interesting and have a charming effect if planted in groups in the front row of a border of herbaceous plants or in a well-placed part of the rock garden. Three or even as many as a dozen plants of one variety may be made to form a group, and they will be capable of increasing in size and profusion of bloom year by year if a slight surface dressing of a compost of equal parts decayed manure and loam is placed around them in March each season. They do not thrive so well in light sandy soil, preferring rather an unctuous loam having some holding capacity; in the case of light shallow soils it is better to dig out a few spadefuls and replace this with a compost of decayed, turfy, yellow loam, to which may be added a fourth part of decayed manure. This can be obtained easily in most gardens, as there is, or ought to be, a constant supply of it in every potting shed. A little sand and leafmould may be added if the loam is very clayey or "heavy," as such is apt to tear open in cracks during dry summer weather, damaging the roots of the plants and otherwise injuring them. I am sure no amateur will think these minor details superfluous, and I am always in a mood to impress upon young gardeners the great importance of minor details in the cultivation of plants. Every successful cultivator will bear me out in the assertion that no success worth the name was ever obtained except by careful attention to all these minute details. There must also be a love for the work, and on this point I may have the Editor's permission to quote from Ruskin: "When you are fairly at work, what is the motive that tells upon every touch of it? If being a landscape painter, it is love of trees and hills that moves you; if, being a figure painter, it is love of human beauty and human soul that moves you; if, being a flower or animal painter, it is love and wonder and delight in petal and in limb that moves you, then the spirit is upon you, and the earth is yours and the fulness thereof. But if, on the other hand, it is petty selfcomplacency in your own skill, trust in precepts and laws, hope for academical or popular approbation, or avarice of wealth-it is quite possible that by steady industry, or even by fortunate chance, you may win the applause, the position, the fortune you desire; but one touch of true art you will never lay on canvas or on stone as long as you live."
Let young gardeners ponder these words. They must have a love for their work; and in truth I do not know any work that appeals to the affections so much as does gardening and the culture of lovely flowers.
Besides the Auriculas which are cultivated in the open garden there are those in pots and frames requiring attention; these appeal in the greater measure to the fancier. He cannot trust his choicest favourites to the storms of winter. They are protected in glass frames during that inclement season, but even so they demand careful attention. The
outer leaves decay quite as freely on the plants under glass as on those in the open border. The rain has been falling freely lately, the ground is sodden all round the frames, and no ray of sunshine has been visible for some time. Under conditions such as these there is much danger of the plants decaying at the neck or in the centre, and if decay once sets in there is little chance of saving the plant, and none of its ever forming a good specimen.
During the autumn trusses of bloom are thrown up, and an inexperienced cultivator may break off the succulent stem in order that the autumn bloom may not exhaust the plant and prevent it from developing a good truss of bloom next year. Probably the part of the stem left may immediately decay, and in this state it cannot be removed at the base, and may rot down and so destroy the plant. The flower-buds only should be removed, and in this state the stem will remain green until it gradually dries up and can readily be pulled out. Plenty of ventilation is needed during late autumn and winter, as the plants are in their resting period; the lights may be drawn off whenever the weather is favourable, and as the outer leaves decay they should be removed. It is recommended that the frames containing the plants be placed in a light and moderately exposed position. The plants require very little water at this season, but it is a grave error to allow the soil to become dusty dry. I am often asked-" How often should the plants be watered? To such a question as this it is impossible to give a direct reply. At present the plants may need water once in a week or once in 10 or 12 days. I can only advise that the soil should be kept well on the dry side, and when watering is necessary that it should be done early in the day.
The culture of the Auricula was perhaps better understood amongst amateurs 50 years ago than it is now, except that the growers at that day recommended the use of an over-rich compost, which gave a richness of colour to the foliage for the time, but which caused the old plants to die afterwards, although they would certainly be replaced by off-sets. We have also a very much better selection of varieties now than was possible then. There are some who fancy that the old varieties of 50 years ago were of superior merit; but from the point of view of the old florists, and their standard of excellence, which is still retained in the Royal Horticultural Society's "Rules for Judging," the modern flowers excel on all points. There is an excellent paper in The Floricultural Cabinet, October, 1855, headed "Remarks on the Auricula bloom of 1855." The varieties are very numerous, and as they were the best in existence at the time they would be esteemed accordingly. There are 15 greenedged varieties described, most of them severely criticised. Leigh's Colonel Taylor was stated to be the best. I still grow it, but it is never good enough to exhibit as a green edge: the pips are angular and the paste thin. Page's Champion and Booth's Freedom were also stated to be very fine. I have grown both, but they have now disappeared from my collection. There were 14 grey-edged varieties, but Lancashire Hero and Ringleader are the only two that are now in cultivation. They. are both good when in their best dress.
George Lightbody was in cultivation at the time, but the writer did not mention it. When well grown it is still the best grey-edged Auricula. In white-edged varieties 13 were described, and I still cultivate two of them, True Briton and Favourite (Taylor's), but they do not find a place in the best collections. Of " selfs" there were 15 varieties, but they have all been dropped except Othello. In Alpines it was stated that there had been no improvement for many years: Conspicua, Fair Rosamond, and Victoria are all the writer could name, and they do not admit of comparison with modern varieties.
Of the true green-edged varieties, the best six now in cultivation are:-Abbe Liszt, Abraham Barker, Dr. Hardy, Mrs. Henwood, Rev. F. D. Horner, and Shirley Hibberd.
Grey edges.-George Rudd, George Lightbody, Lancashire Hero, Marmion, Mabel and Richard Headley.
White edges.-Acme, Conservative, Mrs. Dodwell, Heather Bell, Rachel, and Wild Swan.
Selfs.-Black Bess, Gerald, Favourite, Mrs. Potts, Heroine, and Ruby.
Alpine Auriculas.-Dean Hole, Duke of York, Firefly, Ganymede, General Buller, J. F. Kew, Melanie, Mrs. Harry Turner, Mrs. Martin Smith, Rosy Morn, The Bride, Teviot Dale, Thetis, Uranie, and Ziska.
There are many others which have been exhibited and obtained Awards of Merit and First-Class Certificates from various societies National and Royal. Some of them may be superior to those I have named, and some probably are of uncertain merit, and will not maintain their first promise. It is of little use giving the names of varieties of Auriculas until they can be obtained through the usual trade channels. J. Douglas.
ORCHID NOTES AND GLEANINGS.
CYPRIPEDIUM INSIGNE SANDERÆ AT WILDERSPOOL.
OUR correspondent, Mr. de Barri Crawshay, in his descriptive note on p. 317, respecting Mr. William Bolton's Orchids at Wilderspool, near Warrington, referred to Cypripedium insigne Sanderæ as being in extraordinary vigour, and said that the plants grew like Tradescantia under a damp stage. He also said the house containing 500 of these plants must be an extraordinary sight when in flower. At fig. 141 we reproduce a photograph of the plants taken since Mr. Crawshay's note was penned, from which it will be clearly seen that his prediction has been fully justified. ODONTOGLOSSUM LONDESBOROUGH.
FLOWERS of this very distinct species are sent by Mr. H. Haddon, gr. to J. J. Neale, Esq., O. Londesboroughianum Lynwood, Penarth. was first imported from Mexico, and flowered In habit with Lord Londesborough in 1876. and in the bright yellow of its flowers it more nearly resembles an Oncidium than an Odontoglossum, in which genus O. Uro Skinneri is the It with has creeping rhizomes, pseudo-bulbs at intervals of 2 to 3 inches. The scapes are ascending, and often over 2 feet in. length, the upper third bearing showy flowers, the nearly equal sepals and petals being yellow, closely lined with bars of chocolate-brown colour. The lip has a broad reniform blade of a bright yellow tint, the base having a few reddish spots.
Few plants have troubled gardeners to grow successfully more than this, and the cultural note which Mr. Haddon sends may be useful to He writes: "The plant of Odontoglossum Londesboroughianum has a spike of 18
flowers. It has been growing in a basket hanging from the roof of the cool, intermediate house quite close to a ventilator, which has been open night and day during summer. I also left a pane of glass on each side of the ridge above it almost unshaded, the middles of the panes being but slightly dulled. I gave the plant plenty of water during its season of growth, and syringed it in the morning and afternoon of bright days. Last autumn I watered it freely until the leaves turned yellow and dropped off, after which it had a long rest, without any water whatever, and the pseudo-bulbs kept quite plump until growth began again and water was given." This note gives the two points, the neglect of the observance of which generally result in failure, viz., the keeping of the plant in a well-ventilated situation, and the withholding of water after the leaves turn yellow and drop off, which is a sure indication that active growth is completed and a dry rest required.
CATTLEYA LABIATA, PELORIATE.
A THREE-FLOWERED inflorescence of a very effective abnormal form of Cattleya labiata is sent me by Mr. Richard Nisbet, Byrkley Gardens, Burton-on-Trent. The flowers were of the usual colour, but the upper sepals are petaloid, wavy at the edge, broad and slightly stalked. The petals are scarcely wider than the sepals, and there are three lips, the middle one being normal and the two lateral ones made up of the sepals with half a labellum added to each, the upper side being expanded and crimped, as is the normal labellum, and with a similar yellow base, and the lower half formed like the true sepal. column, which is in the middle, is of the usual form and not straightened as is frequently the case in abnormal flowers of this class.
DICTIONNAIRE ICONOGRAPHIQUE DES
WITH an apology for its lateness the August issue of this useful work came to hand, descriptions and coloured illustrations of the following plants being given :
Cattleya lucida.-An interesting hybrid raised by M. Peeters, of Brussels, between C. Bowringiana and C. Schilleriana, the latter species, as in all cases where it has been used, showing strongly in the form of the flowers, which are dark reddish-purple, with a yellow disc to the lip.
Cypripedium Mme. Bleu (bellatulum barbato. Veitchi). The flowers are white, with a yellow tint in the middle of the dorsal sepal, petals, and lip. The dorsal sepal is tinged and striped with purple, the petals being spotted with the same colour.
Cypripedium Phabe (philippinense × bellatulum).-The flowers are white, tinged with green, the dorsal sepals and petals bearing dotted purple lines, the lip being tinged with purple. Both these Cypripediums were illustrated from M. Peeters' specimens.
Cymbidium insigne Sanderi. - The pretty species introduced from Annam, and illustrated in the Gardeners' Chronicle (February 25, 1905, page 115). Flowers white, tinged and striped with rose colour.
Dendrobium crepidatum.-The pretty old species, with rose-tinted flowers, the greater part of the lip being yellow, and which first flowered in the Westonbirt collection in 1850.
Dendrobium Ashworthia.-Habit of D. macrophyllum. The flowers are white, with a tinge of yellow on the sepals and lip, which has purple markings in the centre. An illustration and description were given in the Gardeners' Chronicle for February 9, 1901, page 86. plant now figured bloomed with Baron von Furstenburg.
Epidendrum glumibracteatum.-Allied to E. clavatum, Bot. Reg., t. 1870. The flower-stalk and ovary are 2 inches in length, bracts half as
Lalia majalis.-The well-known rose-coloured Mexican species. Flowered with M. Van de Putte, Meirelbeke-Gand.
Listrostachys pellucida.-The West African species usually called Angræcum pellucidum in gardens. The flowers are produced in pendent They are nearly white at first, and changing to the tawny hue shown in the illus tration. Flowered by Baron von Furstenburg.
Odontoglossum Insleayi.-Introduced by the late Mr. Barker, of Birmingham, in 1838, through Ross, who collected for him in Mexico, and since that time it has been a very familiar species in gardens.
Odontoglossum Lambeauianum X.-The fine hy. brid raised by M. A. A. Peeters between 0. crispum var. and O. Rolfeæ ardentissimum, two varieties of which were illustrated in the Gardeners' Chronicle in 1905 (November 4, page 324, and December 23, page 434, var. exquisitum). It is one of the best hybrid Odontoglossums. The flowers are white, tinged with purple, and heavily blotched with dark purplish-red.
Oncidium suave.-A very old Mexican species, with brown sepals and petals tipped with yellow, and yellow lip with reddish crest.
The Chronique Orchidéenne, which accompanies the illustrations, publishes a report of the Orchid meeting in the Brussels Botanic Gardens on July 15, including the Odontoglossum caligi shown nosum, the Royal Horticultural Society on July 17 last, and reported in the Gardeners' Chronicle (July 21, page 56), the parentage being recorded as O. Weltoni x 0. Pescatorei. Oncidium Weltoni is an obsolete synonym of Miltonia Warscewiczii, and when the plant was shown at the Royal Horticultural Society the exhibitor suggested the parentage Miltonia Warscewiczii x Odontoglossum Pescatorei. But the test of the R.H.S. paintings was applied, and it was found to be almost identical with a variety of Odontoglossum Vuylstekei. The exhibitor then entered the plant as 0. caliginosum (cristatum X Pescatorei).
Oncidium Carthaginense album was also shown at the Royal Horticultural Society, but the honorary secretary pronounced it to have no affinity with O. carthaginense, but was in fact O. stramineum Lindi. (Bet. Reg., 1840, t. 14; Bot. Mag., t. 6254), which of the first Orchids collected by Hartweg for the Royal Horticultural Society in Mexico in 1837. It is a pretty species, which would probably be more successfully grown in gardens if cultivated in a cool house. J. O'B.
POLYGALA MYRTIFOLIA VAR.
THERE was published in the Die Garten W for September 29 a note on the genus Polygala from the pen of Mr. H. Riebe, of the Royal Gardens, Kew, together with an illustration of a plant of the above species, grown as a standard at Kew. The species is a native of South Africa, and is one of the most beautiful of the genus, the plant reaching a height of 4 to 6 feet. The plant reached Kew under the name of P. grandiflora, and it is cultivated there as a half standard, in which form its good appearance is increased. The plant flowers in the months of April and May. The flowers are of a bright violet tint, darker as regards the keel, and these appear in short clusters at the extremi ties of the shoots, although in consequence of the simultaneous growth of the new shoots they do not appear so to do. Leaves light green 'n colour, with very short stalks, and longish, oval. F. M.
BUD GRAFTING INSTEAD OF BUDDING OF ROSES.
WHEN one considers that the sap does not rise in the bark or rind of the stem, as has been erroneously supposed, but in the wood just beneath it, and that in bud-grafting the eye or bud comes into direct contact with the wood, it is readily understood why bud-grafting is so successful in most instances; the losses do not amount to more than 5 per cent. The operation is more quickly carried out than budding; the bud runs no risk of injury as by pushing it into place in budding. In the case of failures, there are no ugly scars and every stem can be grafted, whether the bark will "run" or not. The operation consists in making a slanting incision in the stem or branch, and then with a second cut removing the rind and a very little of the wood. In this cut the bud is placed, after
ated in the vicinity of Alba were visited. The gardener at this establishment directed the attention of his visitors to his method of propagating Roses that are not readily rooted by any other means. In the month of July, tin funnelshaped cases of small size are slipped over selected shoots, after first ringing the rind at the point from which roots are desired, the cases being then filled with soil mixed with moss, which mixture is kept in a moist state. The method in principle is the same as that which gardeners adopt with Dracænas, Crotons, &c. A callus soon forms and roots follow, the cutting being ready to plant out or place in a pot in the month of September. Oesterreichische Garten Zeitung.
CULTURAL NOTES FOR DECEMBER. ALL arrears of planting should now be brought to a close, providing the ground is in a fit state. In town and suburban gardens, where
much crowded head growths, should have a portion of the current year's wood well thinned out to the old wood. This admits light and air to the tree without impairing its vitality. This rule will apply to most of the hardy climbers, including hardy perennials, hardy Chinas, and ramblers. The remainder of the established pot Roses outside that have finished flowering can now be brought under glass and be kept under cool conditions and rather dry at their roots for another month, but soon after Christmas they should be re-potted. The plants that potted in October will now be best placed under cover, either in a cold frame or in a light, wellventilated house. A portion of the batch can now be pruned, the stronger growing varieties to about a third, and the weaker to about half of the current year's growth. Always prune to an outward pointing, but to keep the middle of the plant as open as is possible and to prevent
cutting to fit it exactly. That done, another cut can be made on the opposite side of the stem, and a second bud inserted at the same height. Both buds are now bound in with bast or worsted, beginning at the bottom, the short end laid on the stem or shoot, and the longer end used to encircle the buds, binding fairly tightly immediately below and above the bud. The buds being now bound in, the short end and the longer remaining end of the bast can be tied in a knot. This kind of Rose grafting is making its way, and taking the place of budding in many parts of the continent, even among old Rose cultivators. F. M.
AN ITALIAN GARDENER'S MODE OF STRIKING CUTTINGS OF ROSES. A USEFUL note on the above subject is supplied by Herrn Karl Mader, director of the Agri. cultural School at St. Michele, in the Tyrol. In the course of a student's journey to Piedmont the gardens of Carboni Giovanni that are situ.
(For text see page 366.)
smoke and fogs prevail, the planting can be left until March, which will be just before vegetation becomes active again. Standard Briars recently planted should be carefully examined, and if any are loose in the soil the soil should be well trodden about their roots. All standard Briars should, if possible, be planted before Christmas, and the surface of the ground about them be well mulched. for if they are planted before the New Year commences fewer are lost than when planted in the spring. The Manetti, Seedling Briar, and Multiflora stocks can, if other work is pressing, be "heeled in " carefully and be planted during the spring, as, having many fibrous roots, there is not much risk of their failure. All classes of Roses may still be planted with the exception of the tender kinds of Noisettes, Teas, hybrid Teas, and Chinas ; but in planting all Roses the nature of the soil and the climate of the district must be taken into account. Established ground plants, with
a crowded central growth of shoots. It is not too late, providing the wood is well ripened and the buds are dormant, to plant some more cuttings outside in the same manner as advised for October, choosing moderately strong growths from about 8 inches in length. Although rather late in the season, 35 to 40 per cent. of the cuttings of the hardier kinds can be depended upon to root. Cuttings of the Manetti, de la Grifferaie, and Briar stocks can still be planted, with a fair measure of success in rooting, especially if the weather remains mild. All materials for protection, such as straw and dried Fern, should be in readiness, so that if sharp weather prevails, they will be ready for protecting the "head" of the tree which may be done by affording a loose covering of the material and by placing some over the soil about their roots. Plants on walls can be protected by a mat or two nailed to the wall; especially should this protection be afforded to tender varieties. J. D. G.
TEXT-BOOK OF FUNGI. By George Massee. (Duckworth & Co.)
The portly text-book of Botany which served past generations of students, is now rapidly giving place to a series of smaller works each devoted to some special branch. The "TextBook of Fungi" will fill a gap in the series, and is therefore welcome. The translation of De Bary's "Anatomy and Biology of the Fungi" has hitherto been the principal work in English, but it has never been a popular book for earlier studies. This new "Text-Book is in part a re-statement of old facts, but the author has woven into it the results of his own active labours as an investigator, as well as all the prominent discoveries of recent years by other workers. It was no light task to select the best out of the enormous literature dealing with the fungi, but Mr. Massee has succeeded in producing a book of a size and price (6s.) within reach of all, and which, at the same time, gives a clear, concise, and orderly account of all the is aspects of fungus-life. The "Text-Book " divided into three sections, the first dealing with form, structure, and life-history, the second with pathology, and the third with the classification of the fungi. The book is not intended to include a complete description and the method of identifying all species of fungi native to Britain; for that branch Mr. Massee has already written a most useful "British Fungus Flora." Nor do plant-diseases and their cure fall within the scope of this book, although it contains a considerable amount of general information on this topic. Confusion may be avoided by pointing out that the "Text-Book of Fungi is distinct from the "Text-Book of Plant-Diseases" published by Mr. Massee in 1899, the two books are companion volumes issued by the same publisher.
The introduction reveals the fact that the author is disturbed by certain "cytologists" who have recently invaded the domain of fungi in a somewhat noisy manner. Mr. Massee has been led to defend the labours of the systematist, but this is surely unnecessary, for the first essential in the study of plants is to have careful descriptions of their characters, and as much information as possible regarding their habitat; the number of new fungi which are still being discovered in Britain is a sure sign that good systematists are essential.
The morphology, physiology, and biology of the fungi are dealt with in chapters relating to the cell, anatomy, &c., a method which greatly facilitates reference. A list of papers utilised by the author is given at the end of each division, and these lists will serve as a useful guide to the iterature, although they are by no means exhaustive. The great advance of knowledge regarding the minute structure of the fungi is evident on comparing this, the latest book, with De Bary's work. Some statements are, however, made in a way likely to cause confusion, one sentence which purports to explain the turgidity of the cell (p. 19) is a case in point. It is to be regretted that in dealing with the formation of spores and modes of reproduction, the author has not used a more exact nomenclature as regards the terms spores" and "conidia"; for example, "the conidiophore consists of at single, erect, non-septate hypha, bearing a single sporangium at its apex." The word "gonidia," used by many English writers, is, so far as we can see, not once used in the book; if the author prefers 'conidia," a statement to this effect with a reference in the index would save confusion to the student accustomed to the earlier term. It is quite true that Brefeld, one great authority, differs in his use of the word spore from those who regard the spore as the product of the sexual generation, and it is not easy for an author to pronounce an opinion. Yet one essential of a "Text-Book" is clearness, and a defi
nite English standard of nomenclature would find many followers.
The excellent account of recent work on sexual reproduction of the fungi is opportune at the present time, and the summaries on methods of spore and conidial dispersal are so interesting that one feels tempted to wish the author had made them longer. The divisions which deal with the mineral food of fungi, the effect of light, temperature, and other agents, the colours and chemistry of the fungi, and other topics appear at first sight fragmentary, but the fault is not the author's, for his summaries give about as much information as is known at the present time.
The biologic forms of fungi are explained in a clear manner, especially the work in this direction done by Mr. E. S. Salmon. "Personal Views on Phylogeny" is a statement of the author's views on a complex problegi; the argu. ment is not altogether convincing, the sequence is indifferently expressed, and altogether it is rather difficult to ascertain what the author's views really are.
The section of the book on Pathology gives a brief account of the evolution of parasitism amongst fungi, and of the effects on the plants attacked. The origin of Potato disease from diseased tubers is an important topic dealt with at some length, and one on which Mr. Massee has recently conducted interesting investigations. An article on Legislation and Disease is given, which originally appeared in the Gardeners Chronicle (December, 1905, and January, 1906).
The section devoted to classification of fungi is the best in this book. A preliminary table shows the systematic arrangement in a way which is easily grasped. Keys are supplied for distinguishing the chief genera of each order, sub-order, and, in some cases, the family. The short, concise descriptions of important fungi are excellent, and in many are accompanied by illustrations. The numerous figures are a feature of this book, and will be appreciated by all readers. The book nominally has 141 " figures," but the actual number of illustrations is much larger, since many of the figures are plates with as many as eight or ten separate drawings. Several photographs have been reproduced with success. The majority of the illustrations are reprints from the Text-Book of Diseases," and two plates from that book showing Sclerotinia are included, although the genus finds no place in the classification given. Thirty-five illustrations are repeated, and in one case (Figs. 6 and 87) two different synonyms of Tilletia tritici are used. In the text we also notice that the Potato disease is placed in the genus Phytophthora in one place, and in Plasmo para in another. Several printer's errors were noticed; for example: "conidia germinate once" (p. 103) should surely be "at once"; there is a misspelling in the title near foot of p. 51-azygospore is meant.
Oversights of this kind are almost inevitable in the first edition of a book, but that the "TextBook of Fungi" will live through many editions we may confidently forecast.
The "Text-Book of Fungi" is an important addition to our literature, and it ought to find a place on the shelves, not merely of the fungolo. gist, but also of everyone who studies botany. Students preparing for the National Diploma for Agriculture or university examinations will find the book especially useful and up-to-date in those general principles, which it is so important they should grasp clearly.
A CONCISE HANDBOOK OF GARDEN SHRUBS. By H. M. Gwyn Lewis. (Methuen & Co., 3s. 6d. net.)
This is an alphabetical list of hardy and halfhardy shrubs that are grown in British gardens, with occasional cultural details. Trees like the Ailanthus and the Tulip tree are included as well as shrubs, to which we should raise no objection,
but we are puzzled when we find Abutilon vitifolium described as a climber suitable for walls, and not to be regarded as hardy anywhere. We saw a big bush of it lately in Dover, where it is grown in the open without protection. We are surprised also to find Aristolochia elegans included among hardy garden shrubs. In spite of a few eccentricities of this kind, and the omission of some of the newest introductions, such as Davidia and Olearia Gunniana, this is a useful little book to be commended to growers of shrubs, the more so as it comprises a copious index, and for a book of this kind it is very free from errors. The exceedingly brilliant autumnal colouration of Pyrus arbutifolia should have been mentioned.
(Concluded from page 352.)
This is the Irish home of the Marquis of Lansdowne, who adds to his great political reputation that of being a keen amateur gardener and an excellent landlord. His garden of some 30 acres is on the south side of Kenmare River, and here, as in other gardens that we saw, the conditions favour the cultivation in the open air of what are known as sub-tropical plants. The most striking features of the garden are magnificent masses of Indian Bamboos and gigantic coniferous trees. I have never seen Abies Nordmanniana so perfect and luxuriant as at Darreen. Gaultheria Shallon was 8 feet high, Griselinia littoralis planted in 1882 was 30 feet high, Veronica Traversii 15 feet, Acacia dealbata 50 feet, Eucalyptus Globulus 80 feet, Azara microphylla 25 feet, Olearia Forsteri 20 feet by 20 feet, Euphorbia mellifera 10 feet through, Erica arborea 10 feet, Myrtus Luma 20 feet, Ilex crenata 15 feet by 15 feet, Leptospermum lanigerum 15 feet; enormous plants of Cordyline, one measured had a stem 3 feet in circumference; Kalmias like Portugal laurels; Leptospermums like Privets; Metake Bamboo 12 feet high, and Falconer's Bamboo 25 feet high, 40 feet spread, with 1,000 canes, all in flower-a marvellous sight.
This is also on Kenmare River, and is the property of Dr. Heard. It is practically an island, and some 20 years ago was almost waste land, with scarcely a tree upon it. By planting first shelter trees and then many kinds of Australian, New Zealand, Himalayan, and Californian trees and shrubs it has been turned into a jungle of exotic vegetation. Simon's Bamboo 15 yards across, Aralia Maximowiczii 20 feet high, Acacia decurrens 30 feet, A. melanoxylon 20 feet, A. falcata 30 feet, Eucalyptus urnigera 40 feet, Olea europæa 15 feet, Melaleuca hypericifolia 10 feet, Cassinia longifolia 15 feet, Hakea saligna with a 12-inch stem, Agonis marginata, great shrubs; Brugmansia sanguinea, Pittosporums, Escallonias, Kunzeas, Ozothamnus, Callistemons, Boronias, Camellias, Daphne indica and Asparagus plumosus. These are a few of the plants noted as being successes in Dr. Heard's garden. It is clear that, with shelter from the strong sea winds, a very large number of plants from subtropical regions may be grown on the southwest side of Ireland. We were unable to get to the garden of Lord Dunraven, at Garrish, but we were informed that it is of similar character to those of Lord Lansdowne and Dr. Heard.
This, the seat of Lord Barrymore, is famous for its garden, the noblest in Ireland, and one of the most delightful in the world. I saw it 15 years ago, and was astonished by the change that had taken place in so short a time. Truly, plants grow rampantly in Ireland. Fota is a place of trees, especially Conifers. An evergreen Oak, with a trunk nearly 7 feet through, a cork-barked Tulip-tree, and groves of Cordyline and Yucca gloriosa near the entrance give the
note for the whole place. All Falconer's Bamboos have flowered, and there are hundreds here, the children of those which flowered at Fota 30 years ago. A list of the big trees in this garden would be longer than space will permit. The special things that may be mentioned are Fagus Cunninghamii, 50 feet; Embothrium coccineum, 30 feet by 30 feet; Benthamia fragifera, 40 feet by 50 feet; Berberis nepalensis, 12 feet by 20 feet; Pittosporum Mayi, 40 feet; Ilex latifolia, 40 feet; Genista racemosa, 12 feet; Eriobotrya japonica, a grand old tree; Acacia dealbata, a tree; Clianthus puniceus, 30 feet through; Dasylirion longifolium; Asparagus retrofractus, a great mass against a wall; Phoenix senegalensis, two big specimens outside for 12 years. The great trees of Pinus Ayacahuite, P. insignis, P. Montezuma, Picea Morinda, P. Alcockiana, Abies grandis, A. numidica, A.
the peltate leaves 2 feet high and 15 inches across, and the scape 6 feet: I had never seen this plant so good, although Kew introduced it about 15 years ago. Olearia insignis against a wall bore nine flowers; Freylinia cestroides, 10 feet; Daphniphyllum glaucescens, 18 feet by 18 feet; Pterostyrax hispida, a tree draped with its lovely white flowers; Plagianthus Lyallii, Xanthoceras sorbifolia, Buddleia Colvillei, Eucryphia pinnatifolia, E. cordata, Romneya Coulteri, Escallonia langleyensis X, Veronica Hectori, and V. Lindsayi were seen in fine condition. Mr. Gumbleton also makes a speciality of Begonias, Pelargoniums, Disas, and, of course, herbaceous plants.
The stately home of Lord Ardilaun is more like an English nobleman's residence than any that I saw in Ireland; and this is true of the
ing, and Mr. Beamish has made the most of it. The whole garden is well conceived, and the con. struction of the rockery is most picturesque. Plants grow exceptionally well there, and, as the proprietor spares neither money nor pains to secure the best, his garden is sure to prosper. W. Watson, in Kew Bulletin, 1906.
A MODEL BOTHY.
FIG. 142 represents a view of the new bothy recently constructed in the Rt. Hon. Lord Rothschild's gardens at Tring Park, Tring. It is a very ornamental structure, and the timber from which the massive Oak pillars and other heavy woodwork in the front was fashioned, was furnished by trees grown at Tring. On the ground floor is a spacious kitchen fitted with all necessary appliances on a very liberal scale; a large and airy dining-room, a fine sitting-room and reading-room
bracteata, A. religiosa, A. Webbiana, A. cephalonica, Tsuga Brunoniana, and Cryptomerias are grand to see, and the groves of Bamboos, Phormiums, Cordylines, Chamærops, Aralias, &c., are noble. Water gardening is a special feature, and in swampy situations there are many kinds of flowering and foliage plants that love moisture.
A few miles from Fota is Mr. Gumbleton's garden, the home of many rare and interesting plants, the proprietor being a very keen collector and tester of plants of all kinds. Mr. Gumbleton knows more about garden-plants than any amateur that I have ever met, and his knowledge has full play in his own garden. We were unfortunate in having to see the garden on a pouring wet day. Some of the plants noted were Anemone Fanninii, a mass 6 feet through,
garden also. The keep of the place is good, the collections of plants are comprehensive and well cared for, and there is an air of cultivation wherever one looks. Lady Ardilaun is a keen gardener, and loves to experiment with plants of doubtful hardiness, providing shelter fences and hurdles for those supposed to need it until they are well established. Buddleia Colvillei, a bush 12 feet high, was in flower; also big bushes of Cassia corymbosa, Carpenteria californica, and Pentstemon coccineum. Roses and Carnations are splendidly grown there.
Mr. Beamish has formed here a delightful garden, which in a few years will most likely be much talked about. It is partly on a steep slope, with the bare rocks showing here and there, a situation that lends itself to rock garden
[which are both very comfortably carpeted and furnished], and lavatories and storage accommodation. On the upper floor a corridor runs from end to end of the building, with lavatories and bath-rooms at either end. Ten spacious bed-rooms are provided, and at one end, quite shut off from the rest of the building, and with a separate entrance, is an isolation sick-ward with bed accommodation, nurse's quarters, bath-room, &c. The whole building is lighted by electric light and is heated by the large Trentham boilers recently erected, which also heats the whole of the plant houses and offices. In addition to the comforts supplied in the building itself, the young men have free use of perhaps the finest private horticultural and botanical library in existence, and which the Hon. Walter Rothschild has had arranged near to the bothy.