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ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the PUB. LISHER, 41, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, W.c. Letters for Publication as well as specimens and plants for naming, should be addressed to the EDITOR, 41, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London. Communications should be WRITTEN ON ONE SIDE ONLY OF THE PAPER, Sent as early in the week as possible, and duly signed by the writer. If desired, the signature will not be printed, but kept as a guarantee of good faith. Special Notice to Correspondents.-The Editor does not undertake to pay for any contributions or illustrations, or to return unused communications or illustrations, unless by special arrangement. The Editor does not hold himself responsible for any opinions expressed by his correspondents. Illustrations. - The Editor will be glad to receive and to select photographs or drawings, suitable for reproduction, of gardens, or of remarkable plants, flowers, trees, &c., but he cannot be responsible for loss or injury. Newspapers.-Correspondents sending newspapers should be careful to mark the paragraphs they wish the Editor to see. Local News.-Correspondents will greatly oblige by sending to the Editor carly intelligence of local events likely to be of interest to our readers, or of any matters which it is desirable to bring under the notice of horticulturists.

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Nov. 1

(Nat. Chrys. Soc. Com. meets at
Essex Hall, 3 p.m.
British Gard. Assoc. meet at

Kent County Chrys. Soc. Annual
Exh. at Blackheath (2 days).
Brixton, Streatham & Clapham
Hort. Sh.
Sydenham Fl. Sh.
Linnean Soc. meet.
Nov. 2 Windsor & Eton Chrys. Sh.
(Soc. Franç d'Hort. de Londres

Nov. 3


German Gard. Soc. meet.

Roy. Hort. Soc. Coms. meet. Ulster Hort. Soc. Chrys. Sh. (2 days).

Nat. Amateur Gard. Assoc. meet. Brighton Chrys. Sh. (2 days). Nov. 6 Croydon Chrys. Sh. (2 days).


West of England Chrys. Sh. at
Plymouth (2 days).
Bournemouth & Dist. Chrys.
Exh. (2 days).
Southampton Roy. Hort. Soc. Sh.
(2 days).

Evesham Chrys. Sh.

Nat. Chrys. Soc. Exh. at Crystal Palace (3 days).

Putney, Wandsworth & Dist. Chrys. Sh. at Wandsworth (2 days.

Cardiff Chrys. Sh. (2 days).
Corn Exchange Chrys. Sh., Corn
Exchange Tavern, E.C.

St. Peter's Chrys. Sh., St. Albans (2 days).

Bath Chrys. Sh. (2 days). Newcastle & Dist. Chrys. Exh. (2 days).

Stoke Newington & Dist. Chrys. Sh. (2 days).

Torquay Chrys. Sh.

THURSDAY, Nov. 8 Stirling Chrys. Exh. (2 days).



Nov. 9

Nov. 10 Nov. 12

TUESDAY, Nov. 13

Manchester & North of England
Orchid Soc. meets.
Exeter Autumn Fl. Sh.
Stockport & Dist. Chrys. Exh. (2)

Eccles, Pendleton & Dist. Chrys.
Sh. (2 days).

Dutch Gard. Soc. meet.
(Unit. Hort. Ben. & Prov. Soc.
Com. meet.

(Birmingham & Midland Counties
Chrys. Sh. (3 days).
South Shields & N. Counties
Chrys. Sh. (2 days).
Winchester Chrys. & Fruit Sh. (2
Highgate Chrys. Sh. at Alexandra
Palace (3 days).

Liverpool Chrys. & Fruit Sh. (2)
Rov. Bot. Soc. Exh.

WEDNESDAY, Nov. 14 Chester Paxton Fl. Sh. (2 days). Tonbridge Chrys. & Fruit Sh. (2 days).



(Edinburgh Chrys. Sh. (3 days). Nov. 15 Weston-super-Mare Chrys. Exh. (Linnean Soc. meet.

Sheffield Chrys. Sh. (2 days). Bradford Chrys. Sh. (2 days). Nov. 16 Bolton Hort. & Chrys. Sh. (2 days).

Newport & Dist. Chrys. Sh.
SATURDAY, Nov. 17 German Gard. Soc. meet.
MONDAY, Nov. 19 Nat. Chrys. Soc. Com. meet.
(Roy. Hort. Soc. Coms. meet.
TUESDAY, Nov. 20 British Gard. Assoc. Exec.
Council meet.
Darlington Fl. Sh.

Manchester & North of England
( Orchid Soc. meet.
Nov. 23 Aberdeen Chrys. Sh. (2 days).
Nov. 24 Dutch Gard. Soc. meet.


AVERAGE TEMPERATURE for the ensuing week, deduced from observations of Forty-three Years at Chiswick-48 4. ACTUAL TEMPERATURES:

LONDON.-Wednesday, October 24 (6 P.M.): Max. 61°;
Min. 52.

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street,
Covent Garden, London. -Thursday, October
25 (10 A.M.): Bar., 304; Temp., 53'; Weather --
PROVINCES.-Wednesday, October 24 (6 P.M.): Max. 57°
Cornwall; Min. 46' North Scotland.

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Sale of Surplus Nursery Stock at Station Nurseries,
Horsham, by order of Mr. Riley Scott, by Protheroe &
Morris, at 12.

Azaleas, Palms, Roses, &c., by Protheroe & Morris, at 5. 1,278 cases Japanese Liliums and other Bulbs, at 67 & 69, Cheapside, E.C., by Protheroe & Morris, at 3. THURSDAY

Annual Sale of Nursery Stock at Shortlands Nursery, Shortlands, by order of Mr. J. B. Bryant, by Protheroe & Morris, at 11. FRIDAY

Orchids, by Protheroe & Morris, at 12.45.

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as it affects much wider interests than those of a mere "party" nature, and as many of our readers, whatever their political proclivities may be, are vitally interested in the matter, we are glad of the opportunity of laying before them the opinions of Mr. Morgan Veitch, a gentleman who has for a long period paid special attention to the subject:

"Several Acts of Parliament have been passed for the special benefit of those who are tenants of what are technically called Agricultural Holdings. The benefits conferred by these Acts, commonly called The Agricultural Holdings Acts (and which include The Market Gardeners' Compensation Act, 1895), are as numerous as they are important, and include, for instance, such items as (a) a full year's notice to quit, instead of half a year's notice, in the case of a yearly tenant; (b) compensation to a tenant on the expiration of his tenancy for improvements made by him in respect of 27 different matters, including erection, alteration, or enlargement of buildings, drainage and irrigation works, protection of young fruit trees, planting orchards or fruit bushes, manuring land by certain methods, etc.; (c) right to remove various fixtures; (d) landlord's right to distrain limited to one year's rent instead of six years; (e) arbitration in case of dispute between landlord and tenant, with assistance from the Board of Agriculture if necessary.

The question it is now proposed to consider is how far, if at all, nurserymen, seedsmen and florists are entitled to share in those benefits. It will probably come as a surprise to most of those engaged in the nursery or seed trade to find that there is any doubt on the subject, yet when the matter comes to be looked into it will be seen that it is a very serious question whether nurserymen (to take them first) come within the purview of the Acts at all. "Market gardeners are expressly included in the Acts, but not a word is said in any of them about nursery grounds or nurserymen, and, therefore, unless the term "market-garden" is considered to be wide enough to include nurseries and nursery grounds, it is perfectly clear that nurserymen as such are not entitled to the benefits conferred by these Statutes.

Did the Legislature intend to draw a distinction between a nurseryman and a market-gar

dener, and, if so, wherein does the distinction lie? That some distinction is popularly recog. nised as existing between the two trades must surely be conceded, although it is by no means easy to say precisely where the line between them should be drawn. In the trade the distinction is well recognised. Many nurserymen do not describe or recognise themselves as market-gardeners, neither do market-gardeners hold themselves out as nurserymen. The definition of a "market-gardener" given in most dictionaries is "one who grows fruit and vegetables for the market" (nothing being said about flowers or plants), and this no doubt exactly corresponds with the meaning ordinarily attached to the words in popular speech. If, however, this definition is to be accepted as a full legal definition of the term as used in the Agri. cultural Holdings Acts, it will certainly exclude at least a very large proportion of those who call themselves "nurserymen." The latter term seems in strictness to be confined to those whose business it is to grow trees, shrubs, and other plants from the seed or from cuttings for the purpose of transplanting, and who thus may be said to "nurse" plants in their infancy, but in popular language it appears to be understoo to include both seedsmen and those who cultivate flowers for the purpose of sale, and slightly different considerations would apply to each of these classes. It is, however, clear that a man carrying on business as a nurseryman in the narrower sense of one who grows from the seed or from cuttings for the purpose of transplanting would not be included under the definition of a market-gardener given above. The same remark applies to those who grow flowers for the purpose of sale, whether wholesale or retail. The case of the seedsman is perhaps not quite so clear, for in its very widest sense seeds have been defined as fruit. (See the definitions of "fruit" in the "Century" and "Murray's" Dictionaries.) [This definition will make a botanist stare, for he, of course, considers the seed to be contained within the fruit and perfectly distinct from it.] It might, therefore, possibly be argued that a seedsman answers to the description of one "who grows fruit or vege tables for the market." On the other hand it may be fairly argued that this would be to place an undue strain on the words of the definition, since the words "fruit and vegetables," as there used, are obviously intended to be confined to fruit and vegetables intended for food. These considerations are sufficient by them. selves to raise some doubt as to whether it was the intention of the Legislature to extend the benefits of the Acts to any of the three classes now under discussion, and this doubt is considerably strengthened when we find that in other Acts of Parliament which confer special privileges on "market-gardeners" the Legislature has taken the express precaution to insert additional words extending their benefits to nurserymen. An instance of this is supplied by the Public Health Act, 1875, which provides that in an urban district the occupiers of any land used "as market-gardens or nursery grounds" shall be assessed for rates levied under that Act in the proportion of one-fourth part only of the net annual value of the lands. Another example is to be found in the Agricultural Rates Act, 1896, which exempted the occupiers of agricultural land from one-half of the rates payable in respect of buildings and expressly extended this privilege to (amongst others) occupiers of "market-gardens and nursery grounds." The express mention of nursery grounds, in addition to market-gardens, in these two enactments would seem to justify the inference that Parliament recognised that a distinction existed between the two classes, and considered that the latter term was not wide enough to include the former; otherwise, why did not Parliament rely merely on the term "market-garden these Acts in the same way as it did in the case of the Market-Gardeners' Compensation Act, 1895, and the other Agricultural Holdings Acts?


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Again, if the Legislature intended market-gar. dens" to include "nursery grounds," how does it happen that the Agricultural Holdings Act, 1900, which confers benefits on agriculturists, refers only to market-gardens, whereas, when it comes to imposing liabilities, the Workmen's Compensation Act, passed in the same year, is very careful to provide that for the purposes of that Act " Agriculture" shall include "horticulture" as well as the growth of fruit and vegetables? In further support of the contention that the term "market-gardener " was meant to be confined to those who grow fruit and vegetables intended for food, one may point to the fact that The Market-Gardeners' Compensation Act, 1895 (which is one of the series of Acts included under the general heading of the Agricultural Holdings Acts), while it expressly authorises market-gardeners to remove truit trees which have not been permanently Set out, makes no mention of any other class of trees, bushes or shrubs such as nurserymen are in the habit of growing. In like manner, the same Act expressly provides for compensation to be paid in respect of the planting of fruit and vegetables, but not in respect of any other class of crops.

On the other hand, it might be contended that it is difficult to see what reasonable grounds could exist for drawing a distinction between growers of fruit and vegetables and growers of ther kinds of garden-produce, and for extending to one class the benefits of the Agricultural Holdings Acts whilst excluding all others.



One of the main objects of the Acts was to mitigate the hardship entailed upon farmers in consequence of the refusal of the Common Law to extend to them the privilege, which it extended to those whom it recognised "Traders," of removing fixtures erected for the purposes of their business. If the law had recognised the nurseryman as a trader, but not the market-gardener, one could have understood the latter being included in the Agricultural Holdings Acts and the former excluded. this does not appear to have been the case. The ommon (or unwritten) Law does not seem to have drawn any such distinction between these two branches of the gardener's calling, and whatever doubts existed at one time as to the precise rights of the trade in respect of the removal of fixtures applied at Common Law to market-gardeners and nurserymen alike. There would, therefore, seem to have been no valid reason for extending the Acts to the one class and not to the other.

It seems more reasonable to suppose that nurserymen find themselves in their present inferior position simply through supineness and want of proper organisation on their part, until recent years, with the result that their interests have inadvertently been overlooked. If one Could ignore the significance of the fact that in other Acts of Parliament the Legislature has thought it necessary to insert express words extending to nurserymen the benefits which it was granting to market-gardeners, and could concentrate attention solely on the apparent absence of any valid reason for drawing a distinction between the two classes, it might be possible to argue with some force that the definition of a market-gardener" given in the dictionaries must not be regarded as exclusive as well as inclusive, but that the word, as used in the Acts, must be taken to have been intended to embrace all who cultivate gardens (using the word in its widest sense) as a regular trade or business as distinct from those who cultivate them for pleasure nly. If this were the correct view, it might follow that the Acts would include both nursery. men and seedsmen, in addition to those who confine themselves to the growing of fruit and vegetables for market.

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In connection with this point, it will be well to mention a case under the Allotments Act in which judicial approval was given to the definition of a garden as a piece of ground enclosed and cultivated for herbs or fruits for food, or laid out for pleasure." This definition would certainly not be wide enough to include the gardens or grounds of the majority of those who call themselves nurserymen or seedsmen, and, indeed, it was expressly held in the very case just alluded to that the grounds of a seedsman did not fall within the term "garden" as used in the particular Act then under consideration. The above quoted definition, however, is much narrower that some of those given else. where (e.g., in Murray's and other standard dictionaries), and the case referred to is no authority for applying the narrower construction to the word "garden" when used in other Acts of Parliament, there being special reasons for using the word in its narrower sense in the Allotments Act. Indeed, it would even be possible to extract from the judgments in that case arguments in favour of applying the wider meaning to the word when used in the Agricultural Holdings Acts, but on closer examination the judgments do not throw much real light on the question now under discussion, and cannot be regarded as supporting either the one view or the other.

Enough has now been said to show that the question whether the benefits of the Agricultural Holdings Acts are extended to nurserymen and seedsmen is one which is surrounded by very considerable difficulties, and where so much doubt exists one naturally hesitates to prophesy how the Courts would deal with the matter should it come before them judicially. However, after much hesitation, the writer has reluctantly formed the opinion (now expressed with all due diffidence) that if this question ever comes before the Court to be decided, it is, on the whole, more probable that the decision will be in favour of the view that the term "marketgardener" is confined to those who "grow fruit and vegetables for the market," and that in consequence the majority of seedsmen and florists are excluded from the benefits of the Acts. In any case, it will be seen how grave are the difficulties with which a nurseryman would be confronted should he seek to convince the Court that he is, in effect, a market-gardener within the meaning of the Acts. The arguments against such a contention are at least quite sufficient to induce a wealthy opponent to take the action from Court to Court until the nurseryman found himself confronted with the heavy responsibility of deciding, on the one hand, whether he should abandon the case and pay the costs on both sides (assuming compromise to be impracticable), or, on the other hand, undertake the serious financial risk of making a final fight in the House of Lords. It is certainly curious to note how prolific in appeals to Higher Courts cases concerning the nursery and market-garden trades have been, and it is equally remarkable to find how frequently the judges have held varying opinions among them. selves in such cases, and this after "reserving judgment" for the purpose of considering at leisure the points involved. There is an old legal maxim to the effect that it is desirable for the State to save litigation, and every business man will agree that prevention is better than cure, and that to have one's legal position defi nitely secured by statutory authority is distinctly preferable to the problematical chance of winning (or losing) a law suit.

The remedy is simple: Parliament has merely to declare (by means of a clause added to a Bill now before it) that in the Acts passed for the benefit of market-gardeners the term ** Market-Garden" shall be deemed to include also a Holding or that part of a Holding which is cultivated wholly or mainly for the purpose of the trade or business of a nurseryman or seedsman." The benefits involved are clearly of such importance as to call very urgently for the slight legislation which is necessary to assure such

benefits to nurserymen and seedsmen beyond the possibility of doubt or argument.

As soon as the necessary arrangements are completed, full particulars will be given of a movement undertaken with a view to invoking the early assistance of Parliament.

Finally, it may be of interest to know that, having regard to the vital importance of the subject, the opinion of counsel (Mr. R. E. Moore) has been taken, and such opinion entirely supports the views above expressed. H. Morgan Veitch."

OUR SUPPLEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION represents one of two large plants of Impatiens Oliveri, which have been a great feature in No. 4 greenhouse at Kew during the past two years. The plants are about 9 feet in height, and the same in diameter. They were rooted from cuttings inserted in February, 1904, so that they are about two years and eight months old, and, except for the first two months after planting, they have been in flower during the whole of this time. Professor D. OLIVER described the plant under the name of I. Thomsoni in the Journal of the Linnean Society for 1906, when dealing with the plants collected by the late Mr. JOSEPH THOMSON on the mountains of Eastern Equatorial Africa. As a Himalayan species had previously been described as I. Thomsoni (see Journal of the Linnean Society for 1860 and Botanical Magazine, t. 7795), this name had to be dropped, and that of I. Oliveri was substituted, under which latter name it is figured in the Botanical Magazine, t. 7960. Only dried specimens appear to have been brought home by Mr. THOMSON, and it was left to Sir JOHN KIRK to introduce the plant to cultivation. This gentleman found it growing between 300 and 400 miles inland, by the side of the Uganda Rail. way, at an elevation of 6,000 to 8,000 feet, the bushes averaging 4 feet in height. He collected seeds, and presented them to Kew, in which institution the plant first flowered in July, 1903. Like most of the Balsams, it is easy of propagation and culture. There is an abundance of seed-pods present on the Kew plants, and seedlings in number have germinated beneath and around the plants, wherever they could obtain root-hold.

In a wild state, the flowers are

said to come white and to measure 11 inches
across. Under cultivation, however, they show
a pale lilac shade, with almost a rosy tint in
bright weather, and measure 2 inches in dia-
meter. In colour and general appearance the
flowers very much resemble those of Miltonia
vexillaris. The lip of the flower is narrowed
into a curved spur 1 to 2 inches in length.
Some persons have found fault with the plant,
because the flowers are not particularly showy;
but how many other plants are there which will
flower for
two years continuously? The
plant branches freely from its base, and thrives
in a cool house. During summer it can be used
as a bedding plant, the chief requirement being
to have well-grown plants at the start. Another
purpose for which it is especially suited is for
use as specimen plants in tubs on the terrace, or
in sheltered sunny positions around the man-

LINNEAN SOCIETY.-The session will cpen on Thursday, November 1, 1906, at 8 p.m., when the following papers will be read:-1, Sir DIETRICH BRANDIS, K.C.I.E., F.R.S., F.L.S, The Structure of Bamboo Leaves"; 2, Dr. J. G. DE MAN, "On a Collection of Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda, chiefly from the Inland Sea of Japan, with descriptions of new species"; 3, Prof. A. J. EWART, D.Sc., F.L.S., "On Hectorella cespitosa, Hook. f., with remarks on its systematic position." Exhibitions:-1, The PRESIDENT, Young plaice hatched and reared in captivity "; 2, Mr. GEORGE TALBOT, "Abnormal specimens of Equisetum Telmateia, Ehrh."

THE BOARD of AgricultURE AND FISHERIES. -The President has appointed Professor THOMAS HUDSON MIDDLETON, M.A., M.Sc., to be an Assistant Secretary to the Board in the place of Dr. W. SOMERVILLE, resigned.

Viking Club.—The Viking Club, a society for northern research, is proposing to issue a quarterly journal of Miscellany and Records." The object

is to bring together materials for the history of Orkney and Shetland from all available sources. This should appeal to all interested in the neighbourhood, and its Norse and other histories and legends. All desiring to co-operate in the scheme should apply to the hon. treasurer, Mr. A. JOHNSON, 59, Oakley Street, Chelsea. We hope the natural history including the details relating to the cultivation of hardy plants, fruits, and crops generally in these northern islands will receive attention.

SOUTH EASTERN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. -We are informed that the annual meeting of the governors was held at the Charing Cross Hotel on Monday, October 22, the Right Hon. Lord AsиCOMBE presiding. The principal (Mr. M. J. R. DUNSTAN) reported that the autumn term commenced on October 1 with 113 students (the largest number yet recorded) in residence. Amongst the appointments on the staff were Mr. S. S. PARKINSON as lecturer in Botany, Mr. C. A. EALAND as lecturer in geology, and Mr. J. MORISON as farm superintendent.

FLOWERS IN SEASON.-From Mr. SMITH'S interesting nursery at Newry come flowers of Escallonia pterocladon, an evergreen species which blooms throughout the summer and autumn. Its dark green, shining leaves render it attractive at all times. The white flowers are disposed in long clusters at the ends of the shoots. Mr. SMITH also sends a spike of a hybrid Verbascum flowering profusely for the second time this season, the new flowering shoots emerging from the old stem between the remains of the old flowers. Such renewals of growth are to be expected after such a season as we have had.

NATIONAL AMATEUR GARDENERS' AssociaTION. There will be a meeting of the association at Winchester House, Old Broad Street, E.C., on November 6, at 7 p.m., when Mr. T. W. SANDERS, F.L.S., will deliver a lecture on Beautiful Gardens, illustrated with limelight views.

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BRITISH GARDENERS' ASSOCIATION. - A meeting will be held at Bournemouth on Monday next, October 29, when Mr. E. F. HAWES Will attend as a delegate from the Executive Council. Other meetings will shortly be held at Richmond (Surrey) and at Bath. The Executive Council invite further applications from districts desirous of holding similar meetings.

THE EUROPEAN GOOSEBERRY-MILDEW ATTACKING THE RED CURRANT.-Mr. E. S. SALMON sends us the following communication: "Mr. C. J. ALEXANDER, a student of Wye college, directed my attention a few days ago to a white mildew on the leaves of some Red Currant bushes in the college fruit plantations. Conspicuous white patches of mildew occurred n the upper surface of the leaf, and on these, as well as scattered over the under surface, the minute blackish fruit-conceptacles (perithecia) of the fungus were being formed. On microscopical examination the fungus proved to be the European Goosebery-mildew (Microsphæra Grossularia [Wallr.] Lév). From each concep tacle a number of minute processes or append. ages radiate, while inside the conceptacle is a number of little sacs, or asci, each containing four or six winter spores (ascospores). Each appendage is branched at its apex in a repeatedly dichotomous manner, characteristic of the species. Creeping over the surface of the leaf, and bearing the fruit-conceptacles (perithecia), is the mycelium or spawn of the fungus,

composed of a number of very fine white threads or hyphæ, which are branched and interwoven. Each hypha sends at frequent inter. vals a sucker or haustorium into an epidermal cell of the leaf, by means of which the fungus obtains its nourishment, but the whole of the fungus is otherwise external to the tissues of the plant on which it is feeding. Hitherto this mil. dew has been recorded in Europe only on the Gooseberry, and it seems curious, considering how frequently Red Currants and Gooseberries are grown together, that the former plant has remained unattacked-or has never been recorded as being attacked-until this season. In the present instance the Red Currant trees attacked (of which there were some dozens) are young trees of the Raby Castle variety, and stand close to Goosebery bushes attacked by the same fungus.

The European Gooseberry-mil

dew, when it attacks Gooseberry bushes severely, may cause a premature shedding of the leaves; this can, however, be prevented by spraying with a fungicide, viz., potassium sulphide (liver of surphur '), 1 oz. to two or three gal. lons of water. The same fungicide should be used if the mildew becomes troublesome to Red Currants. It may be noted that this season, both in Ireland and in Denmark, the Red Currant has been attacked-for the first time in Europe-by the American Gooseberry-mildew (Sphærotheca mors-uvæ [Schwein.] Berk.). I should be very glad if anyone meeting with a mildew on the Red Currant would kindly for ward me a specimen, with particulars of the outbreak, to the address given below.-E. S. SALMON, F.L.S., South-Eastern Agricultural College, Wye, Kent."

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. - Mr. FRANCIS DARWIN, M.A., M.B., F.R.S., is delivering a course of six lectures on The Physiology of Movement in Plants," at the Chelsea Physic Garden, at 4.30 p.m. The first lecture was delivered on October 19 on "The principle of association stimulus in relation to adaptation," and the rest are as follow:-Lecture II. (October 26),

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THE "CORRUPTION BILL. We hear that there is a feeling among some members of the horticultural trade that a discount of 5 per cent., payable to the gardener, should be treated as a recognised legitimate custom, and not be deemed "corrupt." Of course, if the master who pays the bill is aware of the practice, and raises no objection, the odious word corruption would have no place. The master in this case knows that it is he who in some way or another pays the tax, though why he should be called on to do so is not apparent. A much better plan would be for the master to pay a fair price for his purchases, give higher wages and not expose his servant to the temptation of receiving "unearned increment." We believe the solution of this matter rests with the traders themselves. If they would cooperate and agree to take no unfair advantage of their neighbour we should not hear so much of discounts, bribes, commissions, or "grafts' To say that a gratuity, by whatever name it be called, is of necessity "corrupt," and to enact that it shall cease forthwith is to use vain words. We cannot in every case define where corruption" comes in. In most instances we must leave that to the consciences of the


persons concerned; all we can do is to quicken the conscience both of giver and receiver-especially of the giver, and to plead for such a rate of remuneration as shall render the offer or the receipt of secret discounts, commission, presents, or whatever they may be called, an offence against morality.

RUBBER. About 50,000 acres in Ceylon are now planted with rubber trees (Hevea). A like area is devoted to the culture in the Malay States. Such is the demand for rubber that our tropical Colonies are vieing with each other as to which shall be foremost in cultivating these valuable trees. At the same time the collection of native rubber from various plants in the Congo and other tropical countries goes on apace. So many are the uses to which rubber is now put that there is no present risk of increasing the profitable supply beyond the de


NITROGEN IN RAINFALL.-When we read of the tropical downpours and the luxuriant vege. tation which ensues, we have no reason to bemoan our deficiency in nitrogen, for, according to Dr. MILLER, in the Journal of Agriculture Science, the amount of nitrogen in the rainfall at Rothamsted may not only be proportionately, but even absolutely, greater at the Hertfordshire station than in British Guiana. A. heavy rainfall therefore does not always coincide with a large proportion of nitrogen.

BOTANICAL TRAVELLERS.-We learn that Prof. BOULGER is about to visit the Hevea rubber forests. of Peru, in order to report on the commercial prospects of certain districts in the Amazon basin. Mr. E. H. WILSON is also about to proceed once more to China with a view to collect and introduce new plants. Mr. WILSON, on this occasion, goes out under the auspices of Prof. SARGENT. The most cordial good wishes of all interested in horticulture and economic botany will attend the travellers.

SLUGS. A writer quoted in the Journal de la Société Nationale d'Horticulture de France speaks in the highest terms of the use of sulphate of iron as a means of destroying slugs. The quantity used was 300 kilos (660lb.) to the hectare (2 acres approx.). The remedy is simple, not costly and "sovereign."

ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY.-President GARMAN'S address to the Association of Economic Entomologists is published by the United States Department of Agriculture. It has so much in common with the subject of general education, scientific method, and practical cultural work, that we may commend it to the attention of all our readers interested in such matters. The crowded state of our columns forbids us from making extracts, but we may recommend those concerned in teaching science to procure the Proceedings" from the United States Depart ment of Agriculture at Washington.


Publications Received.-Proceedings of the Agri-Horticultural Society of Madras. April to June 1906. This contains a description and illustration of a curious instance of syncarpy in a Pineapple, six fruits having grown together into a mass weighing about 12 lbs.-Reports on the Botanic Station, &c., Dominica, 1905-6. Mr. W. R. Buttenshaw reports a large increase in the number of plants distributed and useful work with economic plants carried on by Mr. J. Jones.-A Selection of Flowering Climbers. By J. F. Bailey, Director of the Botanic Gardens, Brisbane. This little pamphlet should prove very handy for reference. It consists of a paper read before the Horticultural Society of Queensland last August.—Annual Report of the Queensland Acclimatisation Society, for year ended 31st March, 1906. Some important new property has been acquired by the society, and the overseer, Mr. Jas. Mitchell, furnishes a very satisfactory report. From the West Virginia University Agricultural Experiment Station, Morgantown.-The Ripe Rot or Mummy Disease of Guavas. By John L. Sheldon. An illustrated report of a fungoid disease that corresponds to the "anthracnoses" of a number of fruits and vegetables.-U. S. Department of AgriculBureau of Plant Industry, Bulletin No. 92. Date Varieties and Date Culture in Tunis, by Thomas. H. Kearney.-Farmers' Bulletin, No. 257. Soil Fertility, by Milton Whitney.


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