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what supply there would be for commercial purposes has to be determined. The peelings are allowed to rot for one year before they are dug into the land.

The question as to whether it is most profitable to plant small, medium, or large-sized sets is one that has been debated for years past. The results obtained at Reading show that in each instance the largest sets produced slightly heavier yields than those obtained from the medium or small sets. To take one instance, Epicure yielded 2 qrs. 12 lbs. from small sets (2 ozs.), 2 qrs. 14 lbs. from medium sets (3 ozs.), 2 qrs. 26 lbs. from large sets (4 ozs.) and 2 qrs. 13 lbs. from large sets which had been cut. The practical man will probably find that the extra yield from the large sets would not be more profitable, because the cost of the "seed" would be much greater than for medium tubers, which yield almost as heavy a crop. At the same time, it may be pointed out that there were fewer "chats" or small tubers in the produce from the large sets than in that from smaller ones.

The value of earthing-up Potatos was not shown to great advantage in a trial made with the variety Superlative. The earthedup plants produced 3 qrs. 20 lbs., and those growing on the flat 3 qrs. 14 lbs. It must be remembered, however, in connection with this subject that earthing-up has also the effect of preventing any of the tubers from getting "greened," and it serves to protect the tubers from the Phytophthora, which is believed to attack the foliage of the plants in the first instance.


The variety Flourball, having the habit of blooming freely, was subjected to a test to show the effect on the crop of picking off the flowers immediately they appeared, and before berries were formed. The result was in favour of the plants that were relieved of their flowers, the weight being 2 qrs. 21lbs. against 2 qrs. 15 lbs. Mr. Herbert Sutton, who explained the trials on the experimental plots, remarked that Thomas Knight, in a paper published in the Royal Horticultural Society's Journal in 1810, stated, in reference to this question, that probably the saving of sap that might be thus obtained would result in increasing the yield of tubers by about one ounce per root. Messrs. Sutton's experiment showed an increase of nearly four ounces per


A question of botanical interest, and of practical interest, so far as cross-breeding is concerned, was raised in an experiment to prove the possibility, by removing all tubers as they are formed, of causing varieties which do not usually do so to set their blooms and form berries. Knight wrote about 100 years ago that he had found the removal of the tubers had this effect, and it may be granted theoretically it would not be surprising that if a plant having two methods of reproducing itself, and finding one means continually rendered ineffective, should make an extra effort to secure its reproduction by the other means. But Messrs. Sutton's experiment was less convincing. The varieties were Ringleader, which formed trusses of bloom, but no buds opened; Harbinger, which also formed weak trusses; and Evergood, which opened a few very weak flowers. It has to be pointed out, however, that the tendency had to be created in these varieties, for, whilst no bloom has been seen on Ringleader for 15 years past, Harbinger has never been known to bloom

at all. For the purpose of inducing such varieties to flower, it might be advantageous to start them very early in the season in pots, and starve the roots somewhat, over a long period of growth.

A trial of sprouted sets as against nonsprouted and shrivelled sets resulted in all cases in favour of the sprouted sets.

An interesting trial bearing on the question of deterioration of varieties was that of some Magnum Bonums from a stock which was purchased from Messrs. Sutton's in 1876, when this variety was first distributed. The stock had been grown continuously on the same soil, or, at least, in the same locality, and crops now as well as it ever did. In all that time the sets were never cut, and care was taken to plant each year sets which had not become fully matured before lifting.

Further trials were shown of Potato species upon which notes have already been published in these pages, and of varieties resembling Abundance and Up-to-Date, and of Potatos which gave the best results in the Reading University College Trial Grounds and County Council trials last season.

OUR SUPPLEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION represents the inflorescence of Bulbophyllum virescens, a fine species for which Sir FREDERICK WIGAN, Bart., Clare Lawn, East Sheen (gr. Mr. W. H. Young), was awarded a First Class Certificate at the Holland House show on July 10 last, an award which has only been accorded to two other Bulbophyllums, viz., the allied B. Ericssoni (which also received the much more appropriate award of a Botanical Certificate), and was illustrated in the Gardeners' Chronicle, January 23, 1897, and B. Dearei of the Lobbii section. The type Bulbophyllum virescens was first described by Mr. J. J. SMITH, of the Buitenzorg Botanic Gardens, Java. A few years ago Messrs. HUGH Low & Co. imported, from the New Guinea region, a Bulbophyllum which was taken to be the closely allied B. Ericssoni, but on flowering the plant proved to be B. virescens, and it is probably from Messrs. Low's stock that the few plants in cultivation have been derived. The flowers of this species differ mainly from those of Ericssoni in that they are narrower and unspotted, those of B. virescens being greenish white veined with pale green, the face of the column and the hinged labellum being tinged with rose-purple. The other known ally of B. virescens is B. Pahudii, which is probably not in cultivation. All the species thrive best grown in baskets or on rafts and suspended in a warm, moist house. They are evergreen, and require a liberal supply of rain water, especially when they are making their new growths.

FORESTRY AT OXFORD.-The University now provides a complete course of instruction in scientific and practical forestry, and grants a diploma in forestry to successful students. This course is recognised by the Secretary of State for India, and includes special instruction by Professor SCHLICH and Mr. FISHER, formerly of Cooper's Hill College. Two years of this course are taken in Oxford, and a third (nine months) on the Continent. Candidates for the diploma must-(1) have passed Responsions, or an equivalent examination, or give evidence of having received a good general education satisfactory to the committee appointed for that purpose; (2) have satisfied the examiners in the preliminary examination in the Honour School of Natural Science in Mechanics and Physics, Chemistry, and Botany, or in some examination accepted by the delegates as equivalent. The diploma can be combined with the University degree of B.A., by keeping a year's residence previous to the commencement of the

course (which would be devoted to passing Responsions, and the science-preliminary examinations indicated above), and by obtaining a class in the Honour School of Natural Science, in either botany, geology, or zoology. The selection of candidates for the Indian Forest Service is at present done (1) partly by an examination held by the Civil Service Commissioners; (2) and partly by nomination. At the end of the three years' course, successful candidates receive £100 for passage-money and outfit, and are appointed Assistant Conservators of Forests at a salary of Rs.350 a month, which, with exchange compensation, may be placed at £300 a year. The grading of the department is such that they can rise to a salary of Rs. 2,500 a month, or about £2,000 a year. Indian Forest officers can retire after 22 years' actual residence in India on a full pension, with a maximum of £525 a year, and after 18 years' residence on a proportionate pension. There is also a provident fund managed by Government. The recruiting of the Forest Departments in Ceylon and in the Federated Malay States is effected on lines similar to those applying to the Forest Department of India. Further details can be obtained by applying to the secretary of the delegacy, Professor SCHLICH, 29, Banbury Road, Oxford. Times.


GLADIOLUS WHICH FLOWERS IN THE SAME YEAR FROM SEED.-We have received from M. ROEMER, Quedlinburgh, specimens of Gladiolus which have flowered and produced seeds in the same season as raised from seeds. The strain has been named Præcox, and obtained by constantly selecting early-flowering varieties from the general collection of Gladioli. Seeds are sown in March in a warm pit or frame. The young seedlings commence to show themselves at about the beginning of April, and this season three plants opened their first flowers on July 12. The young plants should be planted in the month of May, in order to obtain strong flower spikes, and the methods of cultivation followed must be those found suitable

for summer-flowering plants. There is great variety in the colours of the blooms, and their size leaves nothing to be desired. Corms of the size of a Hazel nut produce spikes with 12 to 16 blooms. One of the specimens received had a small corm at the base and partially-ripened seeds on the flower spike.

THE KING'S BOUQUET.-Messrs. LITTLE & BALLANTYNE forward us a photograph of the basket of flowers presented by Miss WATT to the King on his recent passage through Carlisle. It shows a light and elegant arrangement in which Orchids predominate. Among the flowers were Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, Cattleyas, Odontoglossums, Phalaenopsis, and Roses with a setting of Asparagus.

PRESENTATION.-Mr. W. R. PRINCE, for the past 5 years gardener to General Sir R. POLECAREW, K.C.B., Antony House, Devonport, was presented, on his retirement, with a watch and chain by the garden, household and estate employees.

APPOINTMENTS.-According to the Kew Bulletin, No 6 (1906), the following appointments have been made recently:-Mr. HARRY DODD as Curator of the Botanic Station at Onitsha, Southern Nigeria; and Mr. W. HEAD and Mr. RUPERT BADGERY as Probationer Gardeners for service in India.

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CHRYSANTHEMUMS IN PARIS.-A great exhibition of Chrysanthemums, together with Orchids and other flowers, fruits and vegetables, will be held in the Conservatories at Cours la Reine from November 3-11.

DR. OUDEMANS.-The death of this botanist is announced. He died at Arnhem, where he had resided since resigning the professorship of botany at Amsterdam. Prof. OUDEMANS took a leading part in the botanical congress and exhibition at Amsterdam in 1865, the immediate precursor of the memorable Congress of 1866 in London. Dr. OUDEMANS' later researches were principally confined to the fungi.

TRAFALGAR DAY CELEBRATIONS.-The Nelson Column in Trafalgar Square will be decorated largely this year with autumn tinted Oak leaves, which will take the place of the Laurel formerly used for the festoons and wreaths. The decorations will be completed by 8 a.m. on the 20th inst. and be removed on the 24th. Messrs GEO. BELLGROVE & Co., Hammersmith, have been entrusted with the work for the seventh consecutive year. AMMONIA Vapour and Plant Growth.-The practice of placing ammonia in Orchid houses in order to ensure vigorous growth is according to Prof. BOTTOMLEY, in a paper read before the Botanical section of the British Association of York, due to the presence of bacteria in the spongy covering of the roots of the Orchids. These bacteria utilise both the nitrates and the nitrites, and absorb the ammonia vapour along with the watery vapour normally condensed by the spongy root covering.

THE FOREST FLORA OF NEW SOUTH WALES. -Mr. J. H. MAIDEN continues the publication of this work, to which we have often referred. In Vol. II., part X. (part XX. of the complete work), we find additional information in regard to the trees dealt with in the preceding 19 parts, no new species being added, the part being supplementary. Vol. III., part I. (part XXI. of the complete work), contains letterpress and plates of Flindersia Bennettiana, Eucalyptus Andrewsi, and Casuarina inophloia.

A PENDULOUS WELLINGTONIA.-The Revue Horticole for September 1, 1906, publishes a description an illustration of a very remarkable pendulous form of Sequoia gigantea growing in the gardens at the Trianon, Versailles. It resembles an umbrella, the bare stem representing the handle, the pendulous branches being comparable to the ribs of the umbrella when closed. As a curiosity it is very striking.

BERBERIS STENOPHYLLA X.-The Revue Horticole announces the occurrence of fruits on this shrub, a hybrid between B. empetrifolia and B. Darwinii. The berries are small and globose, purple in colour. Whether the seeds will prove fertile remains to be seen.

THE CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS.-It was a "happy thought" which induced the authorities of the botanical department of the Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, to illustrate the chief epochs in the development of a natural system of classification, that is to say, a system which shows the actual (or assumed) relationships of plants as contrasted with an artificial system which is based the differences presented by one set of organs. This has been done by exhibiting a series of works from the time of DIOSCORIDES, A.D. 40, to that of ENGLER, 1903. The authors, whose principal works are thus shown, are BRUNFELS, TURNER, GERARD, BAUHIN, CAESALPINUS, MORISON, RAY, TOURNEFORT, LINNAEUS, ADANSON, DE JUSSIEU, A. P. CANDOLLE, Robert BROWN, LINDLEY, ENDLICHER, HOFMEISTER, BENTHAM, J. D. HOOKER, EICHLER, and ENGLER. It is obvious that the selection has been a rigid one since BRONGNIART, DECAISNE, BAILLON, VON MUELLER, VON MARTIUS, ALPHONSE DE CAN

DOLLE, and others whom we might expect to find in such a collection are not represented. It may be hoped that the idea here broached may be extended and followed up, and that physiologists such as GREW, HALES, KNIGHT, to name only Englishmen, may find a place in the museum by the side of the systematists.

THE IMPORTANCE OF LIME-WASH ON FRUIT TREES. It is common belief that the whitewashing of the stems and limbs of fruit trees was one of the means of killing parasites of various kinds-animal and vegetable, their eggs and spores and the action of the lime is rendered more effective by the addition of copper sulphate, which, however, does not make the whitewash any darker. Perhaps better than a brush is the application of the wash by means of the garden engine or force pump, or a large syringe. The limewash, according to Dr. KÖCH, of the Royal and Imperial Plant Protection Station at Vienna, does something more than this in preventing the severe frosts of early spring causing injury to the bark and the consequent frost canker that admits water and frost. In early spring the sun, in that part of the world, warms the bark to a considerable degree, and to a certain extent the wood likewise, and the stem increases in bulk. In the following night, if cold, the bark of the stem parts with its warmth rapidly, and is drawn together round the stem, &c., with the result that the bark splits and the injury has begun. Whitewashing of the bark prevents the warming of the same to a great extent, and its injury by night frosts.

AMERICAN MILDEW IN SWEDEN.-The Swedish Pomological Society is taking vigorous measures for the extermination of the American Gooseberry mil ew (Sphærotheca mors uvæ), which has been devastating both nursery and private gardens throughout the country. The Minister of Agriculture granted the sum of 1,000 kronen (£550) towards the publication in the newspapers of a full description of the disease and instructions for ridding gardens of this pest. Gardeners are recommended to root up and burn all infected bushes and to prevent, as far as possible, the spread of the mildew by spraying the bushes thoroughly with a strong mixture of sulphur. Care has also to be taken to guard against the dissemination of the fungus through the clothes and tools of the workmen. Moreover, the Government is for. bidden to import or to transplant Gooseberry bushes and to offer them for sale before the end of the year 1907. Compensation will be given to growers for the loss they have sustained through the uprootal and destruction of their plants, precedence being given to those who have cultivated them for the purposes of trade. The utmost vigilance is necessary, for, were the disease allowed to remain for a year, it would be practically impossible to conquer it. In the neighbourhood of Stockholm large areas are devoted to the growth of standard bushes. These require special attention, as Ribes aureum is often cultivated beneath the trees. Nurserymen are charged not to introduce any wild stock. Currants are also liable to this disease, especi ally the red and black, and in one instance Raspberries also have suffered.

Publications Received.-Report of the Director of Agricultural Education, Monmouthshire. In addition to the ordinary branches of agriculture encouraged by the education committee we note that phenological notes have been taken and tabulated relating to the date of the appearance of flowers, birds, &c. These, if continued, will be of increasing value. -Reports on Experiments with Crops and Stock. Midland Agricultural and Dairy College, Kingston-onSoar. The experiments dealt with manuring of seeds, Hay, varieties of Barley and Potatos, manuring Potatos, Mangels and Swedes, and spraying Potatos. The results are carefully tabulated, and afford a satisfac

tory proof of useful work.-The Jamaica Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture for August contains notes on cocoanuts, Para, Lagos, and Castilloa Rubber, on coffee, camphor, and tobacco dust as a fertiliser and insecticide. The Queensland Agricultural Journal for August includes articles of the usual type upon crops and stock. Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station. Bulletin No. 7, Vegetable Growing in Porto Rico, by H. C. Henricksen. A carefully prepared handbook, which should lessen some of the difficulties attendant upon growing vegetables in Porto Rico, where the chief drawbacks are the scarcity of good seed, and a prolonged wet season. Mr. D. W. May is the agent in charge of the station.-Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. January to April, 1906. The contents include papers upon various species and genera of fish, molluscs, and birds.-Agricultural Bulletin of the Straits and Federated Malay States. Edited by H. N. Ridley and J. B. Carruthers. May and June. These deal chiefly with rubber cultivation.. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Trinidad, edited by J. H. Hart, F.L.S. A quarterly publication full of notes and articles of local value.-A Concise Handbook of Garden Shrubs, by B. M. Gwyn Lewis. (Methuen & Co.)-A Text Book of Fungi, by George Massee. (Duckworth & Co.)-Woburn Experimental Fruit Farm, sixth report, by the Duke of Bedford, K.G., and Spencer Pickering, F.R.S. (Eyre & Spottiswoode.)-A Book of English Gardens, by M. E. Gloag. Illustrated by K. M. Wyatt. (Methuen & Co.)


FLORISTS AND THE FACTORY ACT. AT the Marylebone Police Court recently a case of importance to florists was decided by Mr. Paul Taylor. A florist, of Crawford Street, Marylebone, was summoned by Charles C. W. Hoare, a factory inspector, for contravening the Factory and Workshops Act by failing to affix an abstract of the Act in his workshop.

Mr. Muir, barrister, instructed by Mr. Freke Palmer, defended. The proceedings were in the nature of a test case, it having been an open point hitherto whether the work carried on in florists' shops brought those shops and the workers within the Factory Act. Evidence was given that the defendant company employed a number of young women permanently all the year round for the purposes of making up bouquets, wreaths, and floral decorations. This work, it was contended, brought the workers within the Act, but no abstract of the Act was exhibited in the workshop, and the company refused to exhibit it. Mr. Muir submitted, in defence, that the work done was not "manual labour" within the meaning of the Act, but required a highly artistic sense. He also contended that natural flowers adapted for sale in the form of bouquets, &c., did not come within the meaning of an "article," which was a thing that had been subject to manufacture. That being so, the company claimed that they were not subject to the Factory and Workshops Act, and for that reason they refused to exhibit the extract.

Mr. Paul Taylor referred to the fact that he had already held that the company's workshop did not come within the Act by reason of the work carried on there; but after going more fully into the matter, he said he was decidedly of opinion that it did not come within the Act, and the summons would therefore be dismissed.

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with it as do Messrs. Hill & Son. When visiting the nursery some time ago I saw thousands of plants in various sizes from seedlings just germinated onwards to those in 5-inch pots.

Asplenium laceratum (see fig. 107), which was shown in the group already referred to, was awarded a First Class Certificate. At first sight it would appear to be a variety of A. nidus having thick fronds with a bright surface, but narrower, and cut down into irregular lobes, but instead of the leafy portion extending to the base, each frond has a black stripe about 3 inches long. It was introduced from Brazil, and may prove to be a distinct species or a natural variation of a known species. The descriptive name may be a little misleading, as there is a variety of A. præmorsum already named laceratum. The plant shown had fronds about 15 to 18 inches long, but, as with A. nidus, with age they may attain to much larger proportions. The nearest description of any Brazilian species I can find is that of A. serratum, which does not appear to be in cultivation; it is referred to in Hooker's Species Filicum.

Asplenium lucidum.-This is a useful Fern for market supply. In a small state it is very pretty, and one of the most serviceable. When fully developed it has pinnate fronds about 15 to 18 inches in length and about 6 inches in breadth; the fronds, which grow early erect, are of a thick, coriaceous texture, and will last almost as well as the leaves of an Aspidistra. It is of very slow growth. Some authorities consider the plant to be a variety of A. obtusatum, but as I have known them, they are very distinct in appearance.

Asplenium Mayi.-This appears to be of hybrid origin, and was raised by Mr. H. B. May, Edmonton; it was given a First Class Cert:iicate in 1894. It is somewhat intermediate be. tween A. pteridoides and A. Baptisti; it is of more lax growth than the above, and the deeply serrated pinnæ are narrower and longer. I saw this in large quantities when visiting Messrs. May & Sons' nurseries a short time age; it appears to come true from spores. I may add that the fronds of this plant have the bright, deep-green surface, and are of good substance. A. Herbsti is another from the same parentage, with rather broader pinnæ and more erect fronds. A. Drueryi is another, with crested fronds, which distinctly shows its affinity to 4. Baptisti. There are also several other distinct varieties of the same type. The one disadvan tage is that they are of very slow growth, bu: once they attain to a useful size they keep in good character for many years. A. H.



(The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed by his correspondents.)

THE ROYAL GARDENS, FROGMORE. The completion of the work of improvement undertaken in the Royal gardens since the King ascended the throne is rapidly nearing completion; indeed, it is probable that ere the year closes the conversion will be completed. It is the King's wish that Frogmore, as a garden, shall be of the most perfect and complete description, and he has been enthusiastically sup ported by his Treasurer, Sir Dighton Probya, who is an earnest and devoted gardencr, and by Mr. McKellar, the gardener at Frogmore, who has, indeed, cause to look upon the results of his work with the greatest satisfaction. From Orchids and stove plants down through fruit houses and vineries, even to Tomatos, every. thing is in splendid condition. In one long span-roofed house are some 200 Tomato plants in 10-inch pots of the variety Veitch's Dwarf Red. The plants are standing in double rows on either side of the house, and their average height is 30 inches. So short. jointed and compact in habit are they that each plant is carrying in that short length of stem fully 61b. of very handsome and particu. larly solid, rich-coloured fruits. The whole of these plants were raised from seed sown in June.

It would indeed be difficult to find an equal show of such perfectly-developed fruits on an equal number of such dwarf plants. Those readers of the Gardeners' Chronicle who, in spite of some recent correspondence, still seem to think that the days of successful outdoor Peach and Nectarine culture have passed, should next year endeavour to see the Peach wall at Frogmore, as that would demonstrate the fallacy of their belief. A wall in the Royal gardens of good height and 1,000 feet in length has three-year-old trees trained on it, and these trees now average 10 feet in breadth, and they are of a corresponding height. There are scores of these trees, and they are all in robust health, and they have generally this year fruited well. In another three years the wall promises to be so furnished that hardly a brick will be seen through the trees. The long border is now cropped, one half with Cauliflowers and the other half with Spinach. Perhaps the most remarkable sight of all in these gardens is the splendid herbaceous borders. Imagine a broad roadway, 15 to 16 feet in width and 1,000 feet in length, and on either side a border of the same great width, planted to the fullest extent with thousands of hardy plants, intermingled with which are a few tender plants and annuals. Lovers of hardy flowers would indeed revel in a sight of such beauty. D.

CHRYSANTHEMUM ELEANOR DUCHESS OF NORTHUMBERLAND. This is a good, large, white variety. The only fault I can find with this variety is that it flowers too early. Flowers from first crown buds are now (October 2) at their best, the blooms being 25 inches in circumference. I shall be glad to know if any grower has found it come good and large on second crown buds. It is certainly one of the best Chrysanthemums of recent introduction. A. J. Long.

POLYGONUM POLYSTACHUM.-Why is not this Himalayan Polygonum more frequently grown? It is both beautiful and sweetly scented, and most valuable at this season. A. Kingsmill, The Holt, Harrow Weald, October 3, 1906. [We agree with our correspondent as to the merits of this plant, and the fragrant flowers he has sent us are much appreciated.-Ed.]

FRUIT GATHERING.-As the season advances he work in the fruit garden increases. The fruit nas to be gathered, the late kinds to be stored for future use, and the soft (non-keeping) kinds prepared for immediate sale. Most of the late varieties of Apples are ready for gathering, and if wet weather sets in after the season of long drought, a large quantity will fall and have to be sold as wind-falls, and although "drops" always find a ready market at home, prices for them rule very low. We have been gathering Bramley's Seedling, and although the fruits are not such a fine sample as they were last season, they are a valuable asset both for home use and for marketing in the New Year. This Apple is a first-rate grower, a gem tree in the plantation, being sturdy and of symmetrical shape, developing with a minimum quantity of inside spray wood. It is certain to be a favourite variety as a good late Kitchen Apple for a long time to come. Lord Derby is another variety which as a rule crops heavily, and the fruit keeps well until December. The fruits are now ready to be gathered and will be stored. Late Apples are being gathered a trifle earlier this year. Blenheim Pippin is ready and must be got in. Cox's Orange Pippin is all harvested. Tom-tits have spoiled many of the fruits, and wind caused quantities to fall. They will need a lot of attention while in store this year. Cox's Pomona were a good sample and sold well. Gascoyne's Scarlet Seedling, a lovely Apple, has been in a fortnight and will soon be fit for marketing, in fact they are quite ready now. Lane's Prince Albert and Allington Pippin are both still hanging on the trees, as is also Smart's Prince Arthur. The tree is not a first-class doer in a plantation, and it requires much room, is loose and fine in growth, but produces fine, late-keeping Apples. Wellingtons are small and are all picked. Pears are hanging well, but they will require a lot of attention in keeping. Tom-tits have been a great plague among these fruits, but they will have their numbers thinned during the winter shooting. The time for pruning operations is at hand. Raspberries are cleaned ready to cut, and many of the Gooseberry bushes are finished. Black and Red Currants will be the next to receive attention, and lose behind follow the manure and diggers, H.R., Maidstone, October 5, 1906.


ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. OCTOBER 9. The ordinary fortnightly meeting of the Committees took place on Tuesday last in the Society's Hall, Vincent Square, Westmin


Orchids were shown in considerable numbers, and the ORCHID COMMITTEE recommended two First-Class Certificates and five Awards of Merit to novelties.

The FLORAL COMMITTEE recommended one First-Class Certificate and four Awards of Merit. The FRUIT & VEGETABLE COMMITTEE recommended an Award of Merit to a variety of Potato.

In the matter of display the chief features were those of Dahlias, tuberous-rooted Begonias, early-flowering Chrysanthemums, and even Roses, all from the open garden, proving that very little frost has yet been experienced. But growers realise that we are now in the danger zone, and a scene of more or less destruction may greet them on some morning when they least expect it.

In the afternoon a lecture on "The Origin and Peculiarities of Climbing Plants" was delivered by the Rev. Prof. Geo. Henslow.

Floral Committee.

Present: W. Marshall, Esq. (chairman), and Messrs. T. W. Turner, Jno. Green, Chas. E. Pearson, H. B. May, James Walker, C. T. Druery, R. W. Wallace, W. Howe, J. Jennings, H. J. Cutbush, C. Blick, C. Jeffries, W. Bain, Chas. Dixon, E. T. Cook, R. C. R. Neville, J. T. Bennett-Poé, Chas. E. Shea, W. P. Thomson, E. H. Jenkins, W. J. James, Geo. Paul, Wm. Cuthbertson, Ed. Mawley, and R. Hooper Pear


Messrs. J. HILL & SON, Barrowfield Nurseries, Lower Edmonton, showed a very complete collection of Davallias, Polypodiums, and Nephrolepis. The exhibit was of very large propor tions, and it was probably the best group of Ferns the Hall has up to the present contained. Twenty-four species and varieties of Nephrolepis, 60 of Polypodiums, and 40 of Davallias found a place in the group, and these numbers will convey some knowledge of the importance of the exhibit. We can only enumerate a few of the very choicest, such as Polypodium lepidopteris sepultum, the tall P. aureum giganteum, the drooping P. rigidulum, P. aureum Mayii, P. Dryopteris, &c. Then of Davallias there were seen such gems as D. parvula alpina, D. tenuifolia Veitchii (a magnificent plant), D. epiphylla, D. polyantha (the younger fronds being tinted red). The Nephrolepis were represented by the graceful N. Piersonii, N. Fosteri (a very fine specimen), N. davalloides furcans, N. crispata congesta, &c. (Gold Medal.)

Mr. L. R. RUSSELL, Richmond, Surrey, showed a collection of Ivies, principally in the arborescent form. Golden and silver-leaved varieties were freely represented, one of the best of the latter type being Hedera arborea elegantissima. A curious variety is Hedera arboren Russelliana, the growths being fastigiated, and the foliage arranged alternately and in a most regular manner. H. a. angularis aurea, H. a. lati-maculata, H. a. digitata aurea, and H. grandis are among the more handsome varieties shown. (Silver Banksian Medal.)

MESSRS. THOS. ROCHFORD & SONS, Turnford Hall Nurseries, near Broxbourne, Herts, showed a magnificent group of Codiæums (Crotons). The colouring in the foliage of the various varie ties was remarkable, and, in addition, the plants were clean, well furnished with leaves at their bases, and altogether they showed excellent culture. The variety turnfordiensis has a groundwork of gold colour, and this is bordered by a broad band of deepest green. Some grand specimens of C. Reidii are deserving of especial mention. Messrs. ROCHFORD also showed a num. ber of Nephrolepis, these plants also being in splendid form. (Silver-Gilt Flora Medal.)

Mr. J. BRUCKHAUS, Twickenham, staged a bright collection of Codiæums (Crotons) in most of the best decorative varieties. The plants were in small pots, and they were well furnished with their showy foliage to the surface of the potting medium. A row of Pandanus Veitchii formed

a suitable finish to the group. (Bronze Flora


Messrs. Wм. BULL & SONS, King's Road, Chelsea, showed a dozen plants of the beautiful Dracæna Victoria.

Mr. GEORGE PRINCE, the Oxford Rose Nuran excelseries, Longworth, Berks, showed lent group of Roses, Rose-hips, and Rose foliage. The Roses were very bright, and of very good quality considering the lateness of the season. The display of foliage was interesting, and showed the great diversity of form that exists between the several species: R. rubrifolia has very dark-coloured leaves, R. sinica has very broad leaf segments. The centre of the exhibit was occupied by a number of blooms of Frau Karl Druschki and the pink-coloured Amadis. (Silver-Gilt Banksian Medal.)

Messrs. HUGH Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, N., showed plants and cut flowers of Carnations, Ericas, Statice profusa, Chironia ixifera, Bouvardias, (Silver Banksian Medal.)


Mr. H. B. MAY, Dyson's Lane Nurseries, Upper Edmonton, showed a large number of Bouvardias in many varieties: Veronica Andersoni with white, red, and blue flowers, and interspersed among the flowering plants a number of hardy Ferns. Bouvardia President Garfield is a double-flowered variety of a soft rose shade; the variety Vulcan is of beautiful scarlet colour. (Silver Banksian Medal.)

Miss WILLMOTT, Warley Place, Great Warley (gr. Mr. J. Orton), showed a batch of hybrid Nerines of much merit. The colours of some of the flowers were charming, especially those of soft shades of pink, &c.

Mr. ROBERT BOLTON, Warnton, Carnforth, set up a number of vases of Sweet Peas of some of the newer varieties.

Messrs. HOBBIES, LTD., Dereham Nurseries, Norfolk, displayed a very large number of Cactus Dahlias, and some good garden Roses. (Silver-Gilt Banksian Medal.)

Messrs. CARTER PAGE & Co., 52 and 53, London Wall, London, E.C., showed some good Cactus and other Dahlias. Adjoining these flowers was a beautiful display of border Chrysanthemums-the variety Horace Martin (yellow) was exceptionally fine. (Silver Banksian Medal.)

Messrs. CHEAL & SONS, Crawley, Sussex, staged single, Cactus, and Pompon Dahlias, sprays of coloured foliage and branches with berries of shrubs and trees. The charming colours seen in such subjects as Quercus coccinea, Acer eriocarpum, Liquidambar, &c., were much admired. (Silver Banksian Medal.)

Messrs. H. CANNELL & SONS, Swanley, Kent, exhibited Dahlias extensively. The flowers were chiefly of the Cactus type, but some of the broad floret kind were noticed, and some of these appeared to possess considerable merit. One labelled Mad. Van der Dael is very pretty, the florets are suffused and tipped with pink on a white ground; Yellow Colosse is another good flower. Mad. A. Lumièré is an attractive flower of this type, the white florets are flushed with red. Messrs. CANNELL also exhibited a pink form of Anemone japonica. (Silver Flora Medal.)

Messrs. BARR & SONS, King Street, Covent Garder, showed a number of choice border flowers. Spikes of Cimicifuga simplex were very handsome. Asters, Rudbeckias, Sunflowers and other Composites formed the principal subjects in the exhibit.

Messrs. WM. CUTBUSH & SON, Highgate, London, N., arranged an exhibit of seasonable hardy flowers in a highly decorative manner, the group being exceedingly pretty. The principal subjects were border Asters, and of these a very complete collection was staged; Pentstemons, Sunflowers, Chrysanthemums, Physalis Franchetti, &c., were also included. On an adjoining table the same firm arranged vases of winter-flowering Carnations, and baskets of the dwarf Polyantha Rose Mrs. W. H. Cutbush. (Silver-Gilt Banksian Medal.)

Mr. FRANK BRAZIER, Caterham Hardy Plant Nursery, Caterham, Surrey, staged a very large group of hardy plants-Chrysanthemums, Dahlias, Phloxes, and other border flowers. (Silver Banksian Medal.)

Messrs. J. PEED & SONS, West Norwood, staged a beautiful array of tuberous rooting Begonias in single and doubled-flowered varie. ties. Adjoining the Begonias were many pans of Alpine and rock-garden plants, including many succulents. (Silver Banksian Medal.)

Mr. ERIC F. SUCH, Royal Berkshire Nurseries, Maidenhead, staged an extensive display of Chrysanthemums, principally of the border and Pompon types. Nellie Blake (red) and Murillo (pink) are two decorative kinds that were shown well by Mr. SUCH.

Messrs. CRAGG, HARRISON & CRAGG, Merrivale Nurseries, Heston, Middlesex, put up a very large exhibit of Chrysanthemums from the open. The collection included all the best border kinds, and also varieties suitable for market purposes. Crimson Pride, King of the Earlies (white), Etoile d'Or, and Soleil d'Octobre (yellow) are good varieties of the large flowered market type. The display also included flowers and plants of the decorative and Pompon types. Perennial Asters interspersed among the Chrysanthemums added further beauty to the group. The same firm also displayed a good strain of Pansies, such as are sold largely in the spring for bedding purposes, and an interesting collec tion of Cactaceous plants. (Silver Flora Medal.)

Mr. G. REUTHE, Hardy Plant Nursery, Kes. ton, showed many of the best varieties of perennial Asters, and other hardy flowers.

Mr. R. C. NOTCUTT, Woodbridge, Suffolk, showed a seasonable assortment of hardy flowers, among which the long, drooping sprays of Desmodium penduliflorum were conspicuous objects. (Bronze Flora Medal.)

Miss M. H. DAY, Guildford (gr. Mr. R. Sinnard,, displayed a dozen vases of border Chrysanthemums.

Mr. H. J. JONES, Ryecroft Nurseries, Lewisham, exhibited his new Chrysanthemum Tapis de Neige, and another white variety named Moneymaker.

Messrs W WELLS & Co., Merstham, Surrey, had most of the best varieties among border Chrysanthemums-Polly (bronze) and Lille (pink) are two desirable kinds. A few of the larger-flowering Japanese kinds such as Mrs. A. T. Miller, Miss Elsie Fulton (white), A. L. Stevens (yellow), and Amy Laidman (a new white flower) were also displayed by this firm. (Silver Banksian Medal.)


Carnation Mrs. Robert Norman.-A pure white, winter-flowering Carnation, with slightly fringed petals, and possessing a moderate degree of fragrance. The Committee considered the variety to be better than that known as Lady Bountiful. Shown by Messrs. W. CUTBUSH & SONS. (Award of Merit.)

Colchicum Bivonae.-This, as shown growing in a pan, is a very strong-habited Colchicum, with sufficiently strong flower stems to hold the blooms in a perfectly erect position. The flowers are of very large size, possess much substance in the segments, and the colour is of an unusually rich shade of purple, becoming whitish towards the centre of the flower. From Messrs. BARR & SONS. (Award of Merit.)

Nephrolepis Todeaoides.-There have been many new Nephrolepis shown during the past year or two, but we think this one will be appreciated with the best of them. Its name very well describes the appearance of the fronds, the older ones especially being so plumose, so divided, and yet so overlapping as to resemble the beautiful fronds of Todea superba. Shown by Messrs. THOMAS ROCHFORD & SONS. (First Class Certificate.)

Nerine Crimson King."-A very large flowered variety, with broad, recurved, slightly - twisted segments of brilliant crimson colour. Shown by Mr. H. ELLIOTT, Hassocks Nursery, Sussex. Rose Nellie Johnstone.-A pretty tea-scented variety, with moderately-sized flowers of good form as a bud, and possessing a very attractive shade of pink colour. It was raised by the exhibitors, probably from the varieties Madame Berkeley and Catherine Mermet. The committee welcomed the variety as a good autumn bloomer and pure "Tea." From Messrs. PAUL & SONS, The Old Nurseries, Cheshunt. (Award of Merit.)

Orchid Committee.

Present: J. Gurney Fowler, Esq. (in the chair), and Messrs. Jas. O'Brien (hon. sec.), Harry J. Veitch, De B. Crawshay, H. Little, W. Cobb, J. Colman, Francis Wellesley, R. G. Thwaites, A. A. McBean, J. Wilson Potter, H. T. Pitt. J. Charlesworth, A. Dye, H. G. Alexander, W. H. Young, W. H. White, G. F. Moore, J. W. Odell, W. Bolton, C. J. Lucas, and W. Boxall.

Messrs. SANDER & SONS, St. Albans, staged a good group, for which a Silver Flora Medal

was awarded. Cattleya bellatula (Warscewiczii X Iris) was a pretty novelty, in which the shape and colours of the flower follows C. Warscewiszii closely, but the labellum is trumpet-shaped. Several good forms of Cattleya Hardyana, including the handsome variety augusta, C. Ella, C. Pittiana, C. Boadicea, Brasso-Cattleya heatonensis, and other good hybrids, including the handsome Odontoglossum amabile Bella, which has clear white flowers handsomely blotched with claret-purple, were noted; and among species and varieties, Vanda Sanderiana, Cattleya Gaskelliana alba, C. Warscewiczii Sanderiana, Miltonia vexillaria Lawrenceana, with a very distinct dark crimson mask at the base of the lip, &c.

Messrs. HEATH & SONS, Cheltenham, staged a very effective group, composed mainly of Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, with a few of the allied D. Statterianum, and nicely-flowered examples of D. formosum, at one end being a selection of Cypripediums, &c. (Silver Banksian Medal.)

R. I. MEASURES, Esq., Cambridge Lodge, Camberwell (gr. Mr. Smith), arranged an interesting group in the centre of which was a specimen of Oncidium ornithorhynchum album with several spikes. Of interesting species were Pleurothallis lateritia, Stelis pubescens, Lælia Dayana delicata, Phalaenopsis violacea, and Cypripedium Godefroyæ leucochilum. Of hybrids noted were Cattleya Mrs. J. W. Whiteley, Lælio-Cattleya Parysatis, L.-C. Perriosa (L. Perrinii x C. granulosa), and L.-C. tene-Gottoi (L. tenebrosa X L.-C. Gottoiana). (Silver Banksian Medal.)

Major G. L. HOLFORD, C.I.E., C.V.O., Westonbirt, Tetbury, showed a very beautiful light-coloured form of Cattleya Hardyana with six flowers on one spike and four on the other. The plant, which was in robust health, had been grown from a very poor specimen. A Cultural Commendation was voted to Mr. H. G. ALEXANDER (Orchid grower at Westonbirt). Major HOLFORD also showed the curious Brasso-Cattleya Digbyano-Forbesii, with greenish flowers slightly marked with purple.

FRANCIS WELLESLEY, Esq., Westfield, Woking (gr. Mr. Hopkins), showed Cattleya Mantinii The Premier, with large and finely-formed bright rose flowers with rich ruby lip having gold lines at the base, and Cattleya Mrs. Frederick Knollys (granulosa Buyssoniana x C. Bowringiana), a neat and pretty hybrid of novel shape. The flowers, which are of thick texture, have flatly-arranged sepals and petals of rosepurple colour. The labellum, which is closely folded over the column at the base, is white in that portion. The broadly ovate front lobe is purple with a white, slightly-fringed margin and a few purple lines on light ground at the base.

JEREMIAH COLMAN, Gatton Park (gr. W. P. Bound), showed three new hybrids, viz., Cattleya McMasteræ (Schilleriana X Mendelii), a large rose-tinted flower of good substance, the extended labellum being white at the base, the isthmus yellow, and the front rose-purple ; Lælio-Cattleya Goodyii (C. Wendlandiana L.-C. Clive var. broomfieldiensis), and which has the shape of C. Mantinii, the rich dark rose flowers having an intensely dark ruby-claret lip with gold veining at the base, &c.


H. S GOODSON, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. Mr. G. E. Day), sent Cypripedium H. S. Goodson (Swinburnei T. B. Haywood), a good large flower; Cattleya Goossensiana, and a very fine form of C. Wendlandii.

Messrs STANLEY & Co., Southgate, showed Miltonia Binotii var. Harrisii, with broad segments closely barred with light-brown, and finely displayed violet-purple labellum.



DE B. CRAWSHAY, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables), sent Odontoglossum (crispum X nevadense rosefieldiense). Howers are white, with very distinct blotching of brown colour on the sepals and petals, the bases and tips of which are white, and on the basal half of the fringed labellum. Miltonia Bluntii rosefieldiensis, a very fine form, &c.

Messrs. HUGH Low & Co., Bush Hill Park, Enfield, arranged a small group, in which were Cypripedium highfieldense, Low's variety (Law. renceana × Drurii), with greenish-yellow flower having some purplish markings; C. Niobe, Westonbirt variety, C. Juno, Cattleya St. Gilles, and other hybrids.

E. ROBERTS, Esq., Park Lodge, Eltham (gr. Mr. Carr), showed Cypripedium Bingleyense

superbum, a large and richly-coloured flower.

A. HUTH, Esq., Oakley House, Putney (gr. Mr. Fisher), showed a splendid specimen of Odontoglossum grande with five spikes, bearing together twenty-three flowers, and for which a Cultural Commendation was given.



Cymbidium erythrostylum, from J. GURNEY FOWLER, Esq. (gr. Mr. J. Davis), and J. BRADSHAW, Esq. (gr. Mr. Whitelegge). A very beautiful new species of the C. eburneum class, introduced from Annam by Messrs. SANDER & SONS, and now exhibited for the first time, although it was described from Glasnevin last year. The foliage is very graceful and the flowers, which are produced on arching spikes, resemble in some respects those of C. eburneum, but are borne from three to seven on a spike; the fine specimen shown by J. GURNEY FOWLER, Esq., having two spikes of five flowers each, one of six, and one of seven. The broad sepals are white with a slight blush tint and some light rose spots at the base. The petals are extended over the column, and are similar in colour to the sepals. The three-lobed lip, in which the front lobe is short, is yellowish, closely lined with red purple, and the column is bright crimson.

Cattleya Mrs. J. W. Whiteley, Rosslyn vareity (Bowringiana x Hardyana), from H. T. PITT, Esq., Rosslyn, Stamford Hill (gr. Mr. Thurgood). A very handsome, large, and finely-coloured variety. Sepals and petals of a bright magenta-rose colour, lip dark ruby-crimson with gold lines at the base. The plant bore one spike of 10 flowers. AWARD OF MERIT.

Lalio-Cattleya Phryne, Gatton Park variety (L. xanthina x C. Warscewiczii), from JEREMIAH COLMAN, Esq., Gatton Park (gr. Mr. W. P. Bound). One of the best of the L. xanthina Flowers of good shape. Sepals and petals light canary-yellow; front of the lip dark rose; disc yellow.


Miltonia Clowesii rosefieldiensis, from De B. CRAWSHAY, Esq., Rosefield, Sevenoaks (gr. Mr. Stables). A very large and well-marked variety. Sepals and petals Indian yellow, with broad chestnut-brown bands; lip tinged with lilac at the base, changing to white on the broadly-expanded front lobe.

A re

Cattleya Hardyana Our Queen, from Messrs. THOS. ROCHFORD & SONS, Turnford, Cheshunt. markable variety with cream-white sepals and petals, and claret-purple lip with fine gold veining from the base.

Lalio-Cattleya G. G. Whitelegge (L.-C. callistoglossa x C. Hardyana), from J. BRADSHAW, Esq., The Grange, Southgate (gr. Mr. G. G. Whitelegge). A very handsome hybrid and one of the best LælioCattleyas. Flowers large, sepals and petals white tinged with lilac, the broad and finely expanded lip dark claret-purple, with only some fine orange coloured lines at the base, and a narrow lavendercoloured margin.

Cattleya Pittiana, Low's variety (Schofieldiana x Dowiana aurea), from Messrs. HUGH Low & Co. A remarkable variation of rich and peculiar colour, the sepals and petals being rosy-red with an orange shade, and the lips also finely coloured.

Fruit and Vegetable Committee. Present: A. H. Pearson, Esq. (in the chair), and Messrs. Jos. Cheal, A. R. Allan, W. Bates, S. Mortimer, Alex. Dean, W. Pope, R. Lye, H. Parr, H. J. Wright, J. Davis, Geo. Kelf, G. Reynolds, P. D. Tuckett, J. McIndoe, and H. Somers Rivers.

Mr. J. A. Nix, Tilgate, Crawley, Sussex, staged a group of fruits, principally Apples and Pears, of first-class quality. A few bunches of Grapes and two Melons were included. The Apples, both dessert and culinary varieties, were remarkably fine produce, some of the best "dishes" being Royal Jubilee, Lane's Prince Albert, Golden Noble, Lord Derby, Peasgood's Nonsuch, Tower of Glamis, Mère de Ménage; and among dessert varieties Allington Pippin, Cox's Orange Pippin, Cornish Gilliflower, Dutch Mignonne, Mother, Charles Ross, &c. The Pears were also of good quality, but many, of course, were unripe. (Hogg Memorial Medal.)

Mr. R. W. GREEN, Wisbech, Lincolnshire, showed a very comprehensive collection of Potatos. All the more prominent and newer varieties were exhibited in clear-skinned, wellmatched samples. (Silver-Gilt Knightian Medal.)

Mr. R. COмYNS, Heath Farm, Watford, showed some very large bulbs of Ailsa Craig Onions. (Silver Knightian Medal.)

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