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THE FLORA OF NEW ZEALAND. By T. F. Cheeseman, F.L.S., F.Z.S., Curator of the Auckland Museum. Published under the authority of the New Zealand Government. New Zealand: John Mackay, Government Printer, Wellington, 1906. 8vo., pp. xxxvi. and 1199.

IT is now upwards of forty years since the first part of Sir Joseph Hooker's "Handbook of the Flora of New Zealand" appeared, and, apart from the fact that it has long been out of print, a new "Flora" was required, as subsequent explorations have doubled the number of known species of certain genera of flowering plants, and increased the total by about a third. Botanists have been expecting such a work for the last twenty years, and the announcement in 1894 that the late Thomas Kirk had been commissioned by the New Zealand Government to write a "Students' Flora" was received with But he died in 1897, when great satisfaction.

about two-fifths of his work was in type, so that it was considered necessary to begin afresh. It was not till April, 1900, that the task was entrusted to Mr. Cheeseman. Like Mr. T. Kirk, Mr. Cheeseman commenced his work after many years' study of the flora, both in the field and in the herbarium, and, judging from a necessarily cursory examination of the result, it will be found that he has produced an admirable book, which will be hailed with satisfaction both by botanists and horticulturists. Of course, the quality of the details can only be judged by practical use. Briefly, the contents are: Preface; History of Botanical Discovery; Descriptive Enumeration of the Native Vascular Plants; Synoptical Key to the Orders; List of Naturalised Plants; List of Maori Names; Glossary; Additions and Corrections, and Index. The general plan of the descriptive part is that of Hooker's "Handbook," with somewhat longer descriptions. Typography and paper are excellent, and the weight of the volume, in spite of its thousand pages, is only lb. 9oz. Kirk's "Students' Flora included descriptions of introduced, as well as of native plants, which is a very great advantage, bccause the young student cannot be expected to distinguish the foreign plants from the native ones, and in some districts the foreign element predominates, "and there is no part of the country, however remote, into which plants of foreign origin have not penetrated." Mr. Cheeseman fully realises the importance of equally accessible descriptions of the foreign plants, and hopes to publish them in a companion volume; but it was a condition of his undertaking that it should be so limited. Altogether, he states, upwards of six hundred foreign species have succeeded in establishing themselves; therefore, to include them, a second volume would have been necessary.



Here are some interesting statistics, concerning vascular plants only, be it remembered: The total number of species described is 1,571, or 512 more than Hooker's "Handbook" tains. Of these 1,415 are flowering plants and 156 Ferns and allies; the former under 382 genera and 97 orders. Of the total, 1,571, uo fewer than 1,143 are endemic. Of the remainder 366 extend to Australia and 108 to South America. As to the local distribution of the specics, 789 are common to both islands; 219 occur in the North Island, which are not known to occur in the South Island, and 456 species are recorded from the South Island, but have not been found in the North Island. Twentythree species are found in the Kermadec Islands only; 25 in the Chatham Islands; 10 in Stewart Island, and 48 in the outlying islands to the south of New Zealand, including under this the Auckland, Campbell, Antipodes, and Macquarie Islan's.

Coming to the ordinal distribution, the Compositæ are first, with 221 species, or 14 per cent., followed by Ferns, which are represented by 138 species, including 20 species of Hymenophyllum.

The genera most numerously represented are as follows:-The left-hand column being the number in Hooker's "Handbook," the righthand column the number in Cheeseman's Manual," thus showing the increase. Hooker. Cheeseman. 40

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Thus these eleven genera, mostly of worl·l wide distribution, have been nearly doubled, and now furnish nearly a quarter of the total number of species. A considerable number of new species are described in the "Manual," and one new genus, Townsonia, Orchidaceae, placed between Adenochilus and Corysanthes. The arrangement and limitation of the genera is almost the same as in Bentham and Hooker's Genera Plantarum; but in the appendix the author repeats the Loranthaceæ under Engler's modified classification, in which the number of W. Botting genera is five instead of three. Hemsley.

The Week's Work.


By T. W. BIRKINSHAW, Gardener to Lt.-Col. Sir CHAS.
HAMILTON, Bart., Hat ey Park, Bedfordshire.

Fig Trees in Pots.-The wood on these trees has matured more perfectly than usual. There should be no further delay in the re-potting of the trees if the work has still to be done. It is not necessary to re-pot a tree annually, especially if it has a tendency to make strong growth, for by affording top-dressings and suitable manures good crops can be obtained. It is better to keep the trees somewhat restricted at their roots than to over-pot them, for in this latter condition the soil would become sour, and some of the fibrous roots would decay. We have not employed any fire-heat to assist the trees in maturing, and if the roots are not kept too moist it will not be necessary.

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Orchard-house Trees.-Carefully examine each tree. Young trees may be given a slight shift, and the older ones turned out of their pots, the roots reduced, and the trees replaced in pots of the same size. Use clean pots and provide each with good drainage. The roots need a compost consisting of rough turfy-loam, a liberal quantity of old mortar-rubble, and a sprinkling of bone-meal, the employment of the latter being preferable to the use of animal manures. Let ample room be left when repotting for a good collar of loam and on be applied later top-dressing, and to provide a kind of basin for holding liquid manure when this is required. If young trees are required from the outside fruit-quarters to fill blank spaces, let these be potted up without delay. It is essential to pot such trees firmly, using a flat rammer. If the house can be spared, arrange the trees in it as soon as potted, and employ liberal ventilation by day and night. Should house-room not be available at present, place the trees outside in an open, but sheltered place. Apply a good watering to settle the soil about the roots, and syringe them daily on fine afternoons.

The Fruit-room.-If not already done, this room should now receive its annual cleaning. Thoroughly scrub the shelves and windows with hot water and soft soap. The work is better performed on a fine day, so that the doors and windows may be thrown wide open, so that the floor and shelves may dry quickly.


By HUGH A. PETTIGREW, Gardener to the Earl of PLYMOUTH, St. Fagan's Castle, Glamorganshire.


to some

The planting of Roses.-Whether it be the formation of a new rosary that is contemplated. or the renovation of one already existing, or simply the addition of extra Roses to the flower borders, the work must be considered now in all its details, and operations commenced witht further delay. If it is proposed to make a new rosary, a situation should be selected that is exposed to the sun and air, but, at the same time, is provided with sufficient shelter to pro If it is tect the plants from violent winds. impossible to choose a site with existent protec. tion, means must be adopted to provide the A fencing 8 to 10 feet in height made of some durable material, and afterwards clothed with Roses and other hardy climbing plants, would make a very pleasing and artistic protec tion, or even a fence made of stout bamboo canes nailed securely to strongly-formed double rails, and so covered, would answer the purpose admirably. Failing the convenience to erect something similar to these fences, then hedges of Holly, Beech, Hornbeam, or Thuya gigantea could be planted. The Thuya would be especially suitable, as it is capable of growing quickly, and of forming a dense hedge of good appearance. It will easily bear close clip. ping, and this becomes essential when the hedge has attained to the requisite size. The best soil for Roses is strong, tenacious loam, so on a poor ground the beds should be excavated to the depth of 3 feet, and filled with some soil of this character. Broad turf-walks if maintained in good condition, seem always to be the most in keeping with a rosary, and are preferable to ordinary gravel walks, but this is a matter of opinion The laying-out of the ground. Having selected the position for the new rosary, and determined upon its size and boundaries, the next important step is to produce the whole of the design on paper, describing to scale the plan of the different beds and borders, the posi tions of trellises, poles, pergolas, arbours, and seats. In planning Rose gardens much depends on the size and shape of the ground, and upon the individual taste of the designer, but it be stated as may an accepted principle that simple figures, and avoidance of sharp angles in the formation of the beds are in accordance with the best taste, and that intricate schemes of laying-out are not to be commended. My notes on this subject of forming a rosary written in the early part of the year (see p. 86 in the issue for February 10) may here be repeated, namely, that the best effects are obtained by providing beds to contain each its own particular variety, and that they should be large enough to hold from 20 to 30 plants each. Larger beds might be planted with a number of varieties, taking care not only that the flowers will agree in colour, but also that the plants will be of the same habit of growth. In these larger beds half-standards could be used with advantage for planting amongst the dwarfs. When it is practicable to do so, exclude hybrid perpetuals from the rosary, and also the rampant-growing Polyantha varieties, and cultivate principally the decorative Roses of the Teascented Hybrid Tea, China, Noisette, and Dwarf Polyantha types, because of their perpetual blooming habit. The season of blooming of hybrid perpetuals is comparatively so short that it is generally desirable that they should be grown in the "garden for cut flowers," and th strong-growing Polyantha Roses should be restricted to the rosary in the wild garden.


Obtaining the plants.-In commencing to make new rosary now, one cannot think of its being planted before next February, and as, generally-speaking, most of the Rose planting is done in the last two weeks of October and in the month of November, it is apparent that if the selection and buying of Rose plants is left till then the chances of obtaining good plants will be remote. Herein is an advantage of hav ing a complete plan of the rosary on paper, and the varieties and the numbers of each r quired for planting and filling the beds determined upon, as it is then an easy matter to despatch the order at once, and thereby have the first choice of plants from the nurseries. As soon as they are received from the nurseryman they should be carefully planted in a spare piece of ground in the most favoured part of

the kitchen garden, where they can remain until the spring. In spring they can be taken up and planted in their permanent quarters without suffering in any way from the enforced sojourn in the kitchen garden.

THE KITCHEN GARDEN. By J. GIBSON, Gardener to His Grace the Duke of PORTLAND, Welbeck Abbey, Notts. Preparations for Winter.-The necessary preparations for the forcing of vegetables in winter should now be made. Mushroom houses should be examined and any repairs that are needed executed. I prefer the use of wood-laths for Mushroom beds rather than slabs of slate, which are made of a much colder material. The woodlaths, however, require renewing frequently; but this expense is compensated by a greater crop, for if the laths are placed 2 inches apart and the beds are spawned on the bottom, as well as on the top, an additional supply is secured from beneath the bottom of the bed. It is surprising how Mushrooms will grow head downwards almost as readily as upwards. Bins should be made for the forcing of Seakale, Rhubarb, Chicory, &c., and if they are constructed with a lid, after the manner of a large chest, they will be found very convenient. Small saladingssuch as Mustard and Cress, and Radishes-may still be sown in a heated frame. For a winter supply, the former salad is best sown in boxes of a convenient size.

Jerusalem Artichoke.-This vegetable, having now completed its growth, should be lifted and stored. The tubers should be graded and the sets for next year's planting selected. Be careful that no small tubers remain in the ground, for these would grow next year and become a nuisance to the succeeding crop. Store Jerusalem Artichokes in the same manner as that advised for Potatos.

Globe Artichokes will now be benefited by hav ing some long litter or leaves placed around their crowns, which will act as a protection from frost. It is advisable to put up a quantity of the offsets in case a severe winter should kill the parent plants, an occurrence which frequently happens. The young plants can be protected in a cold frame, and be planted out during the following April, and as the heads from these young plants will not be fit for cutting until the autumn, they will form a succession to the older plants.

Stachy's tuberifera (the small Chinese Artichoke) should now be lifted and be stored until wanted. This vegetable, so far, has not enjoyed any great popularity, perhaps on account of its small size and apparent trouble in its preparation for cooking; but it makes a useful change and deserves to be more largely grown. Select the largest tubers and store them in sand until they are required. Do not allow too much air to reach them, as they are somewhat given to shrivelling. Any position that is just free from frost will suit them well.

Leaves have now commenced to fall from the trees, and provision should be made for storing them as fast as they are collected. Select all the Oak and Beech leaves for hotbeds, as these produce a far more lasting heat than other kinds. In many establishments the collecting of leaves is an important item, but more often than not all sorts are put together. By a judicious selection a much better use could often be made of this valuable heating material. Select some of the best, and keep them in a dry place for the purpose of blanching Endive, &c. Leaves of last year's gathering should be turned over in readi ness for wheeling on to the land during frosty mornings. The frequent turning of fresh leaves is one of the best aids to their rapid decay.

Herbs. Any shortage in the supply of dried herbs should now be made good, and before the plants are finally cut down by frost. Cut the growths when they are quite dry, and expose them well before their final storing.

THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. By W. A. Cook, Gardener to Sir EDMUND G. LODER, Bart., Leonardslee, Sussex.

Insect Pests.-In some districts it will be found that early in October many Apples fall to the ground, ripened prematurely by the presence of the grub of the Codlin moth (Carpocapsa pomonella). Upon examining the fruits that have

dropped there is seen a small hole near to the "eye" of the fruit, which leads to the seeds. The marauder may not be present when the fruit has dropped, in which case it has escaped by another aperture near to the stalk. It is a wellknown fact that fruits with large, open eyes are most liable to be attacked by this pest. After the damage is done the insect generally rests in the soil at the base of the tree until the next season, when it ascends the tree again by means of the stem. The old-fashioned practice of plac ing grease bands around the stems of the trees is a good preventive against the ascent of the pest, as are old hay-bands, pieces of cloth, &c., similarly placed. These bands should be at once placed around the stems of any badly-affected trees, and the soil underneath the trees should be dressed with a small quantity of gas lime, or with a like proportion of ordinary lime. Spray. ings of an alkali wash applied both early and late in the season do much to keep this pest under, and tomtits, although they are very vexatious when they attack the ripe fruits, are helpful in destroying many of the larvæ. Another insect, called the Apple sucker, Psylla mali, also does much harm, for these pests in the spring suck the juices of the flower buds, causing the flowers to drop. These insects are very busy during October, when they may be seen leaping from leaf to leaf. They deposit their eggs in small crevices in the bark, where they remain, if unmolested, until the following spring. The trees should receive a thorough syringing with petroleum emulsion as soon as the fruits have been gathered. Richards' XL-all winter wash is another very suitable insecticide for this purpose.

Plums, Currants, Gooseberries, Raspberries, and even Nuts will all benefit by being washed with a suitable insecticide. A calm day should be chosen for the operation: it is better for the operators, and less waste is incurred.

Bands or ties that have done duty for the past year should be removed and dipped in a strong caustic solution, as many insects choose these for their hiding-places. Any that are worn out should be removed.

Repairs to Old Wall.-After the fruits have been gathered is a suitable time to undertake this kind of work. The trees should be unfastened and made secure to a few stakes driven in the ground in front of them. The walls can then be re-pointed, or, if this cannot be done, they should receive a good coating of limewash, well rubbed in to the crevices. A good wash consists of 1 peck lime, peck soot, gallon paraffin, well mixed up together to the consistency of paint.

Late Fruits.-Late Pears still remaining on the trees should have some nets placed over them to protect them from the birds and frost.


By W. H. WHITE, Orchid Grower to Sir TREVOR LAWRENCE, Bart., Burford, Surrey.

The Cool House.--The Brazilian Oncidiums, O. Forbesii, O. crispum, and O. varicosum, are now rooting freely and developing flower spikes; they will require a considerable quantity of water at the roots until the flowers open. These plants are very apt to become weakened from overflowering, and therefore no extra strong spikes should be allowed to remain on the plant for a period long after all the flowers have expanded. Very weak pseudo-bulbs will be greatly benefited if the spikes are removed as soon as they appear. Plants that produced an exceptionally strong inflorescence last year, and whose new pseudo-bulbs have deteriorated in size, should also be relieved of their spikes this season. O. concolor has completed its growth, and should be kept rather on the dry side during winter. Lycaste Skinneri and its varieties are growing freely in this house, and will require to be kept thoroughly moist at the root until their pseudo-bulbs are fully made up. When the Odontoglossums have been re-potted, carefully look over them every evening for slugs, because some are almost sure to have been introduced into the house by means of the fresh sphagnum-moss used for potting. Baits of young Lettuce and Cabbage leaves, also pieces of Potato hollowed out, are always useful, and many slugs may be caught by placing shallow pans half filled with bran about the stages. No trouble must be spared in this

matter, especially for the first two months after re-potting; if only a few are destroyed occasionally, their reproduction will be checked, and many young roots and valuable spikes will be saved. Some of the Odontoglossums are showing their spikes, and these may be protected by wrapping a piece of dry wadding around their base. At this time of the year when the weather is cool and moist, a dark, powdery fungus sometimes appears on the under sides of the leaves of the Odontoglossums, which, if not immediately checked, will quickly distribute itself all over the house and cause great disfigurement to the plants. Examine the plants carefully every day, and on its appearance cut off the part of the leaf affected and burn it; then turn the valve of the hot-water pipes sufficiently to keep them just lukewarm; additional ventilation may then be afforded. It is also advisable to use less water at each damping down.

In the intermediate house Zygopetalum maxillare is showing its flower spikes, and must never be allowed to get dry at the root. This plant in its native country (Brazil) grows on the stems of tree-Ferns, and the grower can therefore imagine the small amount of light the plants obtain. In cultivation it is wel to keep the plant on the tree-Fern it was imported on, grow it in a shady position in the intermediate house. Keep it free from mealybug insects, which are nearly always imported with it. Strong plants of Cymbidium giganteum and C. Lowianum that are producing flower spikes must now be given every encouragement, placing them in a light position on the stage, and gradually increasing the water supply, damping frequently between the pots. Plants that are not showing spikes may be kept rather dry for several weeks longer, otherwise they may recommence to grow and fail to pro duce any spikes at all.


By B. CROMWELL, Gardener to T. SUTTON TIMMIS, Esq., Cleveley, Allerton, Liverpool.

The Resting Season of Flants.-The season has arrived when most plants are preparing for a period of rest, and to the plant-grower the study of rest in plants is important. It is essential for success in their culture to have a knowledge of the plants as they grow in their native habitat, and such details as their seasons of growth and of rest, and whether the plant is deciduous, bulbous, or evergreen are points to be studied. To bring about a gradual rest in plants high temperatures at night time must be avoided, for excessive artificial heat causes the plants to become very dry, and renders watering necessary, thus preventing the proper resting of the plant. In resting Allamandas, Dipladenias, Stephanotis, Ixoras, and other plants of a similar kind, care should be taken not to withhold water to such an extent as to kill the young fibrous roots and shrivel up the tissues of the plants. When any of the above-named plants require water, let a thorough soaking be given, so that the whole of the roots may receive a wetting, after which no more water should be given for a period of some days, the length of which will depend upon the amount of moisture in the atmosphere. The resting of tuberous and bulbous plants, such as Gloriosas, Gloxinias, Begonias, Caladiums, and Achimeneas requires different treatment to the above, for, although all the roots of these subjects may die during a period of rest, the plant has the power of forming new roots from its store of reserve material. Very often these bulbous plants are carelessly treated after their period of flowering, and are allowed to remain in some neglected corner of the pit, under the shade of other plants, where they are given no water, although this is just the time they need attention so as to enable them to flower again the

next season.

The Stove.-The temperatures in this structure should be gradually reduced during the winter months until they reach 68 to 70 by day, and 62 to 65° at night. Open the wall ventilators on all favourable occasions. The teraperature in the conservatory and greenhouse should range from 58° to 60° by day, and 55° to 58 by night. Circulate a little heat in the hot-water pipes on cold nights to keep a buoyant air in these structures.


ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the PUB. LISHER, 41, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, W.c. Letters for Publication as well as specimens and plants for naming, should be addressed to the EDITOR, 41, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London. Communications should be WRITTEN ON ONE SIDE ONLY OF THE PAPER, sent as early in the week as possible, and duly signed by the writer. If desired, the signature will not be printed, but kept as a guarantee of good faith. Special Notice to Correspondents.-The Editor does not undertake to pay for any contributions or illustrations, or to return unused communications or illustrations, unless by special arrangement. The Editor does not hold himself responsible for any opinions expressed by his correspondents. Allustrations. - The Editor will be glad to receive and to select photographs or drawings, suitable for reproduction, of gardens, or of remarkable plants, flowers, trees, &c., but he cannot be responsible for loss or injury. Newspapers.-Correspondents sending newspapers should be careful to mark the paragraphs they wish the Editor to see. Local News.-Correspondents will greatly oblige by sending to the Editor early intelligence of local events likely to be of interest to our readers, or of any matters which it is desirable to bring under the notice of horticulturists.

we believe there are some questions that can be conclusively proved or disproved by simple, well-conducted trials, whilst there are others that must necessarily be inconclusive, and likely to mislead those who choose to regard the results as affording an infallible guide for cultivators. To this latter class belong the trials of the cropping qualities of the different varieties. Our experience of Potatos has proved this much that Northern Star may be the best cropping variety in one garden and a very indifferent cropper in another. The same may be said of other varieties. In regard to flavour the case is similar. Sir John Llewelyn may yield the bestflavoured tubers possible in Glamorganshire, but when cultivated in a garden at Kew the tubers were scarcely eatable. The local conditions of soil and climate have such an overwhelming influence upon yield and flavour

APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. that, after an extended trial of a large num

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AVERAGE TEMPERATURE for the ensuing week, deduced from observations of Forty-three Years at Chiswick-50 7°. ACTUAL TEMPERATURES:

LONDON.-Wednesday, October 10 (6 P.M.): Max. 69°;
Min. 59.
Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street,
Covent Garden, London.-Thursday, October
11 (10 A.M.): Bar., 29-8; Temp., 65°; Weather-
PROVINCES.-Wednesday, October 10 (6 P.M.): Max. 60°
Southampton; Min. 55' North-east Coast of


Sale of Bulbs at Stevens' Rooms, King Street, Covent
Garden, at 12.30.


Dutch Bulbs at 67 & 68, Cheapside, E.C., by Protheroe & Morris, at 10.30.


Two days' Sale of well-grown Nursery Stock at Shortlands Nursery, Ash, Surrey, by order of Mr. H. Fleet, by Protheroe & Morris, at 12. WEDNESDAY

Azaleas, Rhododendrons, Palms, Roman Hyacinths, &c., at 67 & 68, Cheapside, E.C., by Protheroe & Morris, at 5. THURSDAY

Fourth Annual Sale of Nursery Stock at Old Nursery,
Spring Grove, Isleworth, by order of Mr. H. A'Bear, by
Protheroe & Morris, at 12.


Brazilian Orchids and others, at 67 & 68, Cheapside, E.C., by Protheroe & Morris, at 12 45.


So long as Potato tubers continue to form such an important part in the food of the nation as they do at the present time, so long will all matters connected with their improvement and cultivation have a commercial as well as a scientific interest and value. Trials of Potatos, therefore, although often inconclusive, and by no means a sufficient basis upon which to build theories and make rules that are applicable to all districts with their extremely variable conditions, have nevertheless an interest in proportion to the thoroughness of the tests and the efficiency of the means taken to safeguard the trials from the influence of circumstances that might tend to confuse the issues. Mr. Arthur W. Sutton, on Monday last, when addressing a party of about 80 gentlemen who had journeyed to Reading to inspect some trials Messrs. Sutton and Sons have carried out during the present season, said that the firm had made the trials in order to afford interesting results that the visitors might see and interpret as they felt disposed, and it was not claimed that the results of all the experiments had any commercial importance or could be applied usefully in practice. But

ber of varieties in the same soil, the results amount to little more than proving what are the best varieties for cultivation in that particular plot. For these reasons we think that the trials of this nature were the least interesting of those conducted by Messrs. Sutton; some of the others, however, were of far more permanent value. The trials were inspected by some members of the Scientific Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society in July last, and a report of the proceedings was published in the issue of the Gardeners' Chronicle for July 28.

In many respects the later inspection served to confirm the conclusions arrived at in July, and we need, therefore, only refer on this present occasion to some of the trials that were not remarked upon then, and to some in which additional information was forthcoming. The experiments were carried out in specially-selected ground attached to Southcote Manor, an old, dismantled residence of considerable historical importance, about two miles out of the town of Reading.

The first series of trials inspected had reference to Solanum Commersoni and the Potato which M. Labergerie asserts originated as a sport or mutation from that species in his nursery. After examination of the lifted tubers and of growing plants, nothing material was discovered by which the tubers of M. Labergerie's S. Commersoni "Violette "could be distinguished from those of the German variety of S. tuberosum, known as Blue Giant. This was also the opinion formed by the Scientific Committee when the plants were in active growth. The evidence that M. Labergerie's plant really originated as a sport from S. Commersoni is not conclusive, and seems very improbable.



Comparative trials were made of eight varieties grown from seed (tubers) harvested last season in the South of England, Lincolnshire, Scotland, and Ireland respectively. Since the earlier inspection the tubers had been lifted and weighed. In five instances the heaviest crop was obtained from Irish tubers, and in the remaining three instances from Scotch tubers. The difference between the results obtained from South of England tubers and seed" from Ireland or Scotland was very considerable, and may be regarded as conclusive, proving the greater value of those from the less warm climates. Take an instance: In Sutton's Ninety-fold the produce from the South of England tubers was 10 lbs., that from Lincolnshire sets 1 qr.

25 lbs., from Scotch tubers 2 qrs. 9 lbs., and from Irish 3 qrs. 14 lbs.

A further experiment to show the effect of seed (tubers) fully and only partially matured was undertaken because there existed a wellbased impression that the result of the trial just alluded to would prove the superiority of northern-grown seed-tubers. If these are more productive, why are they so? The trial served to show that the difference is due to the tubers becoming harder, or more mature, in the southern climate. In all but two instances in this trial the immature tubers gave the greater yield, and in the two exceptions the "mature sets were obtained from Scotland, and would, therefore, be less fully matured than southern-grown tubers. The variety May Queen yielded from mature tubers only a crop of 9 lbs., but from immature tubers the yield was 1 qr. 18 lbs., and most of the varieties furnished similar results. It may be pointed out here that the mature and immature tubers used for this particular trial were all southern-grown specimens, but in the one case the tops (haulm) had been removed whilst still grow ing, or the tubers were lifted at that stage. By the terms mature and immature is signified a condition of unripeness, which has nothing to do with the size, or even age, of particular tubers. It is not known with certainty what is in the mature tuber that renders it less productive. From frequent remarks made by those present at Reading we gathered that most growers believe it to be due to its harder skin, but it is much more likely to be caused by chemical changes that take place in the tuber itself. In any case, the cultivator of large areas who plants his ground with tubers that have been grown in the South of England cannot expect to obtain anything like the yield that it is possible for him to obtain. Surely this fact is one of the utmost importance.


Some experiments with sets which were known to be affected with the common fungus disease (Phytophthora infestans), also with tubers affected with brown streaks along the fibro-vascular bundles, and with internal brown spots, were of less practical use, although the results were somewhat unexpected. The variety Early Rose, for instance, yielded 2 ors. 25 lbs. from healthy tubers, and 2 qrs. 16 lbs. from tubers slightly affected with Phytophthora infestans. But, although the difference in the yield was but slight, no discreet cultivator would knowingly plant tubers that are unsound, it being to his interest to keep the ground as free from the taint of disease as possible.


Of much greater practical interest was an experiment with two varieties to test the relative value of withy rod-peelings and farmyard manure. The varieties were Ninetyfold and Superlative, and there were six rows of each variety, 12 plants in a row. Half the sets were planted in soil manured with rodpeelings at the rate of 30 tons per acre, and half in ground manured with an equal weight of farmyard manure. Ninety-fold yielded I cwt. o qrs. 10 lbs. with the rod-peelings, and only 3 qrs. 18 lbs. with farmyard manure, whilst Superlative produced 1 cwt. 2 qrs. 7 lbs. from the rod-peelings and 1 cwt. I qr. 11 lbs. from the ground treated with farmyard manure. We believe that these peelings are used for manure in most of the districts where they are obtainable in large quantities, but

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