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Marguerite Marrillat (some of these fruits must have weighed a pound), Souvenir du Congrés, Durondeau (an excellent dish), Doyenne du Comice, Conference, White Doyenné, &c. A curious Japanese Pear was shown-a tree in bearing-with globular fruits, and very russety skins, of a beautiful golden-brown colour. It was labelled Chiojuro. The Plum trees were espe cially good, such varieties as Coe's Golden Drop, Late Orange, and President being well furnished with fruits. Pot vines of Appley Towers, Diamond Jubilee, and Gros Maroc Grapes, and small Fig trees completed the exhibit. (Gold Medal.)
Mr. H. J. DOVER, Langley Fruit Gardens, Bath Road, Langley, Bucks., displayed six large bunches of Muscat of Alexandria Grapes.
A group of considerable interest was shown by A. E. SPEERS, Esq., Sandown Lodge, Esher, Surrey. It comprised a very complete collection of ornamental Cucurbitaceous fruitsGourds, Squashes, Melons, Cucumbers, &c. The popular names were attached to the fruits, thus were seen the Powder Flask Gourd Lagen. aria pyrotheca, the Fig-leaved Gourd Cucurbita ficifolia, the Gooseberry-fruited Gourd, &c. The Loofah-Cucumis cylindrica; the Spanish Gourd, the fruits of which are used as seats in Spain; Momordica charanta-the Balsam Apple; the Colocynth-Lagenaria colocynthis; Lagenarias in several species, &c., are some of the more interesting shown. (Silver Gilt Knightian Medal.)
AWARDS OF MERIT.
Apple, Miller's Seedling.-This is not a new Apple, but is apparently very little known throughout the country, although grown exten. sively in some districts of Berkshire and Sussex. The fruits are medium to large size, very slightly ribbed, of rich yellow colour, with palereddish markings on the side next to the sun. The skin is particularly clear and free from the least suspicion of russet. The stalk is thin, about an inch long, and it is set in a deep, narrow, funnel-shaped cavity. The eye was open in the specimens exhibited, and it was set in a very slight depression. The flesh is soft, sweet, and of agreeable flavour, but being fit for consumption at the beginning of August the fruits are scarcely so good at this later date. It appears to be a first-rate early Apple, and there is certainly an abundance of room for Apples of high quality fit for consumption in September and October. The specimens shown were exhibited by Lady WANTAGE, Lockinge Park, Wantage (gr. Mr. W. Fyfe).
Pear Collis's Hessle. This variety is described as a sport which appeared on an old tree at Chiswick twenty-eight years ago. It is regarded as an improvement on the Hessle Pear, but the fruits as shown had very hard, rough skins, and could not in the least be com. pared satisfactorily with ordinary dessert Pears. Shown by Mr. FRED. COLLIS, Bollo Lane, Chiswick.
MANCHESTER AND NORTH OF ENGLAND ORCHID. SEPTEMBER 7.-Members of Committee present: E. Ashworth (Chairman), W. Duckworth, Z. A. Ward, J. E. Williamson, H. Smith, W. Stevens, H. Thorp, C. Parker, A. J. Keeling, F. W. Ashton, E. Rogers, J. C. Cowan, and P. Weathers.
The meeting on the above date was held at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Old Trafford. Only a moderate display of plants was staged, although some were of exceptional merit.
First-Class Certificates were awarded to Mr. N. J. BROMILOW, Rainhill, for Cattleya x Iris var. Marjorie," and to Mr. E. BOSTOCK, Stone, Staffs., for Cypripedium niveum Bostock's var., a very fine form.
Awards of Merit were awarded to Mr. W. THOMPSON, Stone, for Cypripedium × I'Ansoni var. inversum, and a new hybrid Odontoglossum, the parents of which were O. Harryanum X O. Vuylstekeanum. Mr. E. D. BOSTOCK had a similar award for a good form of Cypripedium Charlesworthi named "Holly House var." Mr. N. J. BROMILOW gained a similar award for Cattleya x Iris Mrs. J. Bromilow.
Dr. HODGKINSON, Wilmslow, exhibited the rare Zygopetalum X Roeblingianum, and a pretty variety of Cattleya X Iris. E. ROGER. SON, Esq., Didsbury, exhibited Cypripedium X "Mrs. G. Fletcher," P. W.
GARDENERS' DEBATING SOCIETIES.
REDHILL, REIGATE AND DISTRICT GARDENERS', A general meeting of the above association was held on Tuesday, September 18, Archdeacon Daniells presiding. A display of fruit, flowers and vegetables bore testimony to the support accorded what is termed "Hospital Night," the produce being sent to the Redhill Cottage Hospital. Mr.W. P. Bound presented a brief report of the work of the summer session. Messrs. W. P. Bound and W. Rose were appointed delegates to attend a meeting in London to consider the advisability of uniting the various gardening mutual improvement societies into a central body. The meeting agreed that in future the annual meeting of the society shall be held in January of each year. Mr. Seldon, of Woodhatch House, Reigate, next read a paper on "The Cultivation of the Mushroom.' The materials best suited for their growth, the preparation and the forming of the same into beds, spawning the beds, and the proper temperatures to observe, formed the principal items of the paper. The lecture brought forth a good discussion. Frederick C. Legge CROYDON & DISTRICT HORTICULTURAL.At the meeting of this society held on Tuesday, 18th inst., Mr. W. J. Simpson, a former member of the society, read a paper on "The Sowing and the Germination of Seeds." Three essential requirements for seed germinating are moisture, air, and a proper temperature. Light is not necessary, in fact it is a deterrent. Never sow too thickly-a mistake often made, for even if thinning is adopted, this cannot be done without disturbing the roots of the remaining plants. A good discussion followed the reading of the paper.
ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.
AGREEMENT IN RESPECT TO HIRING OF GreenHOUSE: Annoyed. 1, You can distrain for arrears of rent; 2, From the facts which you give it seems clear that you both looked upon the tenancy as a yearly one. Market gardens come within the Agricultural Holdings Acts, and these Acts require a year's notice to be given, but upon the special facts which you state it seems questionable whether the house is being used as a market garden within the meaning of the Acts. On the whole we do not think it is, and therefore we consider the notice you have given is sufficient, but it is possible that the judge might take a different view. If the tenant refuses to quit at the end of 12 months you had better instruct a local solicitor; 3, The tenant is only entitled to the same amount of water supply as was available when the tenancy commenced. BOOKS: W. Hazell. Dictionary of Gardening, by George Nicholson, in five volumes, price £42s., or The Gardeners' Assistant, in six volumes, price 8s. 4d. each volume. Both books may be obtained from our publishing department. CAULIFLOWERS BOLTING: Eccles. The dry season may have caused the plants to bolt, although at present we see no signs of an infloresence. Send another specimen when the plants are further developed.
CONSTRUCTING A CHEAP GREENHOUSE: Tropical Grower. By your reference to a house measuring from 10 to 12 feet, we conclude that you only require one sufficiently large to admit of your raising 10,000 seedling plants of Chrysalidocarpus (Areca) lutescens, and that you contemplate sowing the seeds in boxes and allowing the seedlings to attain to a height of 6 inches before potting them. If we are correct in our supposition, a low, span-roofed house, 12 feet long and 10 feet wide, running north and south, will answer your purpose, and will be large enough to contain your 10,000 seedlings when potted into small pots measuring 3 inches in diameter. A 44-inch brick wall, 9 inches high, resting on a 9-inch wide foundation, will be a sufficient base on which to construct the house. The woodwork should consist of 4 by 3-inch wall plates, bevelled on top, not only sufficient to receive the rafter at the proper angle, but also to prevent internal moisture settling thereon when covered with the glass. The end rafters should measure 3 by 4 inches; end and division bars, 1 by 3 inches; ridge, 14 by 7 inches, this being grooved in a line with the bed of the rafters to receive the top square of glass. The capping for the ridge must be 1 by 5 inches (bevelled off on both top sides); drip, 1 by 3 inches; door frames, 3 by 4 inches (the lintel being bevelled to prevent water lodging thereon), with oaken sills of the same size (height of door to be determined at the time of construction). The length of the rafters should be from 7 to 7 feet; and a sunken pathway, 2 feet wide, should be provided along the centre of the house, in order to secure comfortable headroom therein. This will allow a space 4 feet wide on either side the pathway for standing the seedling
plants on, after it has received a surfacing of sifted coal-ashes a few inches thick on the top of cinders or coarse gravel as drainage material. The rafters should be secured to the plates and ridge at intervals of 18 inches, nine rafters (including the two end ones) being required for a house 12 feet long. Two ventilators, 3 feet
long and 19 inches wide, should be fixed in the roof, one on either side. Twenty-one ounce glass, in panes 18 inches wide and 20 inches long, should be used. This length includes an allowance for 4-inch over iap, and extension of lower pane 1 inch on the drip board. Three squares will thus be required to glaze each pair of rafters; 54 panes in all. The glass should be bedded in best white lead putty, and be secured in addition with four brass brads to each pane, so fixed as to allow room for the expansion of the glass. In the 54 panes estimated for the roof are included four squares for the two ventilators. The woodwork should receive two coats of good white-lead paint before being fixed, and one more when erected. The cost of constructing such a house would be about £9. Either the "Loughborough," the "Ipswich" heating apparatus, the Invincible," or such-like vertical heating appliances, which can be built into the wall, and be fed from outside the house, will answer your purpose; the cost of heating, including two rows of 4-inch piping, will be about £6. COPPER COLOURED Beech: M. S. The tree has been injured by a fungus which causes root-rot. Expose some of the roots and remove a portion of the bark. If the white spawn of the fungus is found to be present under the bark, it is practically impossible to save the tree. The only chance is by exposing the roots around the base of the trunk, and mixing with the soil a dressing of equal quantities of quick-lime and sulphur.
CROCUS SPECIES: Basil Levett. We do not know the exact limit of the depth to which the corms may descend, or that certain sorts are in the habit of burying themselves deeper than others. Our experience in the matter is that those that remain the longest time without disturbance will be found to have the corms deepest in the earth. It frequently happens that the strongest and tallest growth and best flowers are produced from very deeply-planted (or buried) corms. As an instance it may be pointed out that it is quite a common experience in nursery gardens to find stray corms at a foot deep in the ground, these having been overlooked and subsequently turned in during the work of tilling the soil. Much the finest plants of single Snowdrops we have seen were growing in large clumps of exceptional vigour, with the roots at 15 inches deep. These remarks apply equally to Scillas, Leucoiums, Muscarias, Chionodoxa, and many other genera. In the wild state many bulbous plants as the Lily, Vallota, Erythronium, Narcissus, and others are found at depths varying from 15 inches to 24 inches, and these conditions appear to increase the top growth. We cannot say definitely. however, that deep planting will prove to be a perfect cure for the breaking down of the flower stems by wind, but it may assist them to withstand wind of ordinary power. The better way, we think, for garden purposes is to provide a thin evergreen carpet," such as is formed by a mosslike Saxifraga, or dwarf-growing Sedum, for such a carpet," whilst giving support to the flower stems, will also keep them clean and will not in any way retard their growth. CUCUMBER LEAVES DISEASED: W. C. The plants are affected with the spot disease, so often described in these columns. You should burn all traces of the diseased plants, otherwise it will: spread rapidly. Spraying with liver of sulphur, oz. to two gallons of water, will do much good. Next year do not cultivate Cucumbers and Melons in the house in which the disease has appeared. Caution.-Liver of sulphur turns paint black, therefore spray with due regard to the woodwork.
DENDROBIUM CHRYSANTHUM: R. H., Accrington. Your fine specimen, with over 1,000 perfect flowers, is superior to any of which we can find record.
FAIRY RINGS: W. S. & Sons. The fungus is Tricholoma gambosum. To destroy them thoroughly soak the ground with a solution of sulphate of iron, 1 lb., dissolved in three gallons of water. Loosen the turf with a fork so that the liquid can enter it freely, and treat the grass with the solution well beyond the rings.
PINE SHOOTS EATEN: S. . The damage has been cau ed by the Pine Beetle, Hylesinus piniperda. You must cut down all dead or dying trees, for it is in these that the pest breeds. Place some small brushwood about the plantation or larger branches of the trees, and allow any fallen trees to remain until the following May, when they should be barked, and the exposed grubs be destroyed. The brushwood and the smaller branches that are too small for barking should be burned,
GARDENERS' ADDRESS BOOK: J. S. Send particulars to the editors of the Horticultural Directory and Year Book, 12, Mitre Court Chambers, Fleet Street, London, E.C., and The Garden Annual, 17, Furnival Street, High Holborn, London. GRAPES DISEASED: W. S., Hertford. There is no fungus present on the Grapes to account for the shrivelling of the berries. The injury is probably due to some root trouble that should be attended to. The Tomato shows the blackstripe disease. This fungus first appears on the stem and afterwards infects the young fruits: Diseased plants should be removed, or the adjoining ones will become affected. Spraying is of no use after the fruits are formed.A. H. H Owing to the decayed condition of the berries, we were unable to determine if a harmful fungus was present, but the berries were similar in appearance to those sent by W. S., Hertford. We should certainly advise the cleansing of the house with some suitable fungicide, such as weak carbolic acid in warm water. Above all, see that the roots are growing in such conditions that they can perform their functions properly. GRUBS IN POTATOS, &C.: W: C. The insects you send are the Common Millepedes. Dress the fand late in autumn with gas-lime, and allow it to remain fallow for some time. See p. 129 of. the Calendar of Garden Operations for a note on and illustration of these pests. This book can be obtained from our publishing department, price 71d., post free.
IVY LEAVES DYING: A. D. W. Drought is the primary cause of the trouble, and red spider has also injured the leaves, but the latter alone would not have killed the plants.
ONION MILDEW :D. R. D.
The bulbs are badly affected with this disease, the work of a fungus, Peronospora Schleideni. Collect and burn all diseased leaves, and do not throw any of the parings-of the outer scales on the rubbish heap; these must also be burned. Do not grow Onions on the same land again for three years, but select a dry and exposed position for them. In the early stages of the disease, its spread may be checked by dusting the plants with powdered quick-lime and sulphur, using twice as much lime as sulphur.
NAMES OF FLOWERS AND FRUITS.-We are anxious to oblige correspondents as far as we consistently can, but they must bear in mind that it is no part of our duty to our subscribers to name either flowers or fruits. Such work entails considerable outlay, both of time and money, and cannot be allowed to encroach upon time required for other matters. Correspondents should never send more than six plants or fruits at one time: they should be very careful to tabel them properly, to give every information as to the county the fruits are grown in, and to send ripe, or nearly ripe, specimens which show the character of the variety. By neglecting these précautions correspondents add greatly to our labour, and run the risk of delay and incorrect determinations. Correspondents not answered in this issue are requested to be so good as to consult the following numbers. J. L. 1, Golden Spire; 4, Yorkshire Beauty: 6. Bedfordshire Foundling; 7, Keswick Codlin.
Lady M. 1; Jolly Beggar; 2, Duchess of Oldenburgh; 3, King of the l'ippins; 4, Cox's Orange Pippin; 5, Cox's Pomona; 6, Kerry Pippin.-U. S. A. Your fruit is not recognised. It is of excellent culinary quality, and has a pretty appearance. When cooked it greatly resembles Wellington. G. E. F. 1, Kentish Fillbasket; 2, Ord's Apple; 3, Cox's Pomona; 4, Lady Sudeley-Insignis. Whorle Pippin or Lady Derby.-A. D. Roe. 1, Not recognised; 2, Emperor Alexander; 3, The Queen; 4, American Mother; 5, Old Nonpariel; 6, Cox's Orange Pippin Correspondent. No letter. Fruits in an Ogden's cigarette box. 1, not recognised; 2, a small fruit of Worcester Pearmain. NAMES OF PLANTS; C. II. P. Clematis brevicaudata.-W. C. M. 1 and 2 send when in flower; 3, Colutea arborescens, the Bladder-Senna.-
A. M., Gateshead. 1, Pulmonaria officinalis; 2. Saponaria officinalis (double-flowered variety).- R. H., Hampstead.-Alnus glutinosa, the common Alder.-A. M. 1, Hemigraphis colorata; 2, Episcia cupreata; 3, Pellionia pulchra; 4, Cimicifuga cordifolia; 5, Senecio suaveolens; 6, Helenium Bigelovii.-W. E. P. 2, Teucrium fruticans.-L. Wingate. Sueda fruticosa.-Sir H. M. The plant is properly named Eriogonum racemosum. Swan. The leaf appears to be that of Ginkgo biloba (Salisburia adiantifolia), which is known as the Maidenhair tree." Ascertain where the wood forming the post was obtained from, and if it has made roots. The flower is that of a species of Primula, but which species cannot be determined from such a specimen.F. M. Solanum rostratum.-F. V. 1, Euonymus radicans variegata; 2, Cerastium tomentosum; 3, Achillea Ptarmica flore-pleno: 4, Lilium speciosum (lancifolium); 5, Monarda didyma; 6. Asperula odorata, Sweet Woodruffe.-G. P. Iris japonica (fimbriata). Requires to be potted in sandy loam.-J. W. B. 1, Cattleya Eldorado; 2, Cattleya Gaskelliana.H.M. V. 1, Odontoglossum Lindleyanum; 2, Odontoglossum Wallisii; 3, Masdevallia nidifica; 4. Cochlioda Noezliana; 5; Pleurothallis Roezlii; 6, Brassia brachiata.-W. J. H. Cymbidium ensifolium.-C. B. 1, Adiantum-trapezi-. forme; 2, Adiantum sulphureum; 3, Asplenium lucidum; 4, Selaginella. Wilden i; 5, Pteris hastata.-M. H. L... 1, Rudbeckia speciosa; 2, Tracescantia virginica; 3, Erigeron speciosum 4, Saponaria officinalis, double-flowered variety. --E. Y. Caryopteris Mastacanthus.-J., S. We cannot name the specimen from the leaf only.-J. W., Glasgow. Cyclanthera explodens.
FIG. 98. -A POTATO PIERCED BY COUCH-GRASS.
POTATO TUBER PIERCED BY COUCH-GRASS: J. B.
duce an illustration at fig. 98 of a similar case. The shoots of the grass are said to secrete a juice which softens the tissues of the Potato tubers, and thus facilitates the growth of the grass. PEACH AND NECTARINE ON THE SAME BRANCH: H. M. We have previously received examples of these fruits growing on the same shoot; this is not to be wondered at, for there is no difference botanically between the Peach and Nectarine. In our issue for August 2, 1902, p. 70, there. appeared an article on the subject with illustra
tions, one of which shows a fruit that is partly a Peach and partly a Nectarine. POTATOS DISEASED: E. B. M. The tubers are affected with the black scab or warty disease. This is the work of a fungus, Edomyces lep+ roides, consequently you must destroy all diseased portions of the Potatos by burning, and be careful not to plant Potatos in the same soil for several seasons. Powdered sulphur mixed with the soil when the "sets are planted will act as a corrective. See article with illustration of this and other diseases of the Potato published in the Gardeners' Chronicle, April 23, 1904, p. 257. TEMPORARY TREATMENT OF FOUR ACRES OF LAND: Enquirer. If conveniently lying for the purpose of a garden the land might be formed into a square or an oblong, and be bounded with a wire fence (which need not be higher than 3 feet) so as to exclude rabbits and hares, and then a road, not necessarily metalled or gravelled, should be staked out about 20 feet distant from the fence, this roadway being made 8 feet in width to allow of a cart passing along it. The soil thus removed may be thrown on to the land between the road and the fence, thus making a slightly sloping border, very suitable for dwarf-growing plants, whether for decorative purposes or economic use. That done, the rest of the land may be divided into sections of rather less than one acre; footpaths, 5 feet wide, being arranged and planted on either side with fruit trees, preferably pyramids, or bushes of Apples on Paradise stocks, Fears on the Quince, and Plums as bushes, and as the number of these must be limited they may stand at 20 feet apart. The loss would not be great when portions of the land are taken for building purposes, because the fruit trees could then be moved to another site. There will thus be lour pieces of land divided from each other by a path of the above-named width, so that there will be a path running, say, from north to south and one from east to west. At each angle a plot of 20 feet in width may be reserved for tall Dahlias of the Cactus and decorative types, Hollyhocks, the finest Sweet Peas, Rosa Wichuriana, and hybrids from this species, Perennial Asters, &c. Across the paths, at widely distant points, arches for climbing (Rambler) Roses may be constructed, peeled Oak branches to be employed in preference to iron for the making of these arches. The walks may be bordered with a line of Sage, Thymes in variety, Pot-Marjoram, Parsley, broad-leaved Sorrel single and double flowered Violets, Primroses, Polyanthus, and behind these lines Narcissus in variety, Crocus, Anemones, Wallflowers in variety, intermediate and 10-week Stocks, Lunaria biennis, and many other annual and biennial plants that can be easily raised from seed may be planted. The main areas in the quarters may be cropped with early and mid-season Potatos, Cauliflowers, French Beans, Lettuces, Seakale, Asparagus, early and late varieties of Strawberries, Broc colis, Cabbages (not many of these).- Cottagers' Kale, and Peas. Of flowering plants Montbretias, Gladiolus, Pæonies, summer-flowering Asters, also the perennial species and varieties, shrubby Phloxes, Gaillardias, and Sweet Peas should be grown in quantity, also the finer varieties of Mignonette, and many other plants that can be quickly raised, from seeds and cuttings, and which would. find a ready sale if not required at home... It should not be forgotten that some amount of levelling may have to be done first of all, and draining, if the land does not overlay a gravelly subsoil, or if it lies in a valley or depression. It may be necessary to trench a portion of the soil yearly until the whole has been done, but for the first year deep digging or bastard trenching would suffice after dressing it heavily with stable dung. Special manures might be applied to certain crops, during the season of growth, with advantage. Without some knowledge of the ground in question we are unable to afford more precise information..
COMMUNICATIONS RECEIVED.-E.J.M.-A.G.- Devon - J.R. -G. Pyne (with thanks)—W.H.H.-W.T.F-PinehurstT.H.B.-Constant Reader-T.A.F.-X.Y.Z.-E.P. (the photographs are under consideration)-G. Groves-E.M. F.M.-W.A.C.-W.H.-H.H., Darmstadt-J. O'B.-E.J. -De B. Crawshay--S.A.-H.W.W.-W.J.G.(many thanks) -H.R.-Roamer - W.W.-A.L.-W.H. R.J.A. — D.R. McKay (many thanks)-G. Adlam-F.C.G.-J. Mayne M., Dover-W.H.G.-G.C.-G.H.-R.M.L.-G.C.-G H. -J. D. C. A.R.-J.C.-W.D. (with thanks) -J.D.C.J.U. -W.M.
For Market and Weather Reports see page xii.
ROYAL LILY NURSERY, DERSINGHAM.
S an example of specialised culture begun in quite a small way, the nursery of Mr. T. Jannoch is remarkable in several directions. It was established ostensibly for the cultivation of Lily of the Valley, and the supply of roots, flowering plants, and blooms for cutting. The material supplied to the public, and to members of the trade, commanded great approbation from the first, and the proprietor soon became favourably known as a cultivator and forcer of, and an authority of repute on, Lily of the Valley.
Up to that date, now nearly 30 years ago, Lily culture in nurseries and private gardens was but little understood or practised, and the special production of flowering crowns by sorting out the one, two, and three year old crowns (buds) was scarcely known or thought of as being essential by the cultivators of the home-grown plants. At that period the late Mr. Herbst, of Richmond, and Mr. Iceton, then of Barnes, were the better known dealers in Lily of the Valley; and these men were forcers of roots-no growers-in the ordinary sense of the term. The supply of clumps and
crowns came from the Continent. Mr. Jannoch was the first to show us how easy it is to cultivate the plant under suitable conditions in this country, and since that time others have followed in his footsteps; but owing chiefly to the dearness of labour, special cultivation of the plant has not made much progress, with the result that the Continental cultivators furnish the major proportion of crowns and clumps forced at the present day. The two methods-retarding in a freezing chamber and etherisation-are employed in the production of Lily of the Valley flowers during, practically, the whole year. Retarded Lily of the Valley can be had in bloom at any time during the autumn and summer months, and they will open their "bells" and develop fine foliage in the course of two or three weeks in a cold frame or a greenhouse, and even in a living-room they will come to perfection. After October, however, more heat is required from week to week, otherwise success is less certain; and the flowers are weak and stunted, and being too long in opening, many of the flower buds become yellow and finally drop off. The plants require no bottom heat before October, and in no case afterwards should the bottom heat be more than 75° Fahr.
Of late years Lily of the Valley cultivation at Dersingham has given way to that of Lilacs, of which M. Lemoine's fine varieties form the bulk of those grown. Of single-flowered varieties there are about 50 of the best; and of double-flowered about the same number of varieties. The mother plants are grown in the ground in lines by the sides of the walks, forming a magnificent display when in bloom. The whole of the saleable stock of these plants is grown as potted plants fit for forcing or for planting out.
The largest of these are in small tubs I foot and feet in diameter, and in 8 and 10 inch pots; the biggest plants are furnished with from 25 to 35 shoots apiece, and strong, fat buds that are sure to throw four flower spikes on each shoot, giving a grand display when forced. All blind and weak shoots are carefully removed several times during the season of growth so that the strength of the plant is confined to the main shoots, hence the great size of the spikes and flowers, and the flowering shoots in general measure from 1 to 2 feet in length, and are of great strength furnished with large, leathery leaves of a dark-green tint, when the flowers are dark-coloured and of a lighter tint in white and pale coloured varieties. It often occurs that triple terminal buds appear, and the centre bud is removed by hand in July if nature has omitted to suppress it.
Many, and indeed most, of the older plants are worked on stems of seedling Syringa vulgaris, 1 to 2 feet in height. The second sizes of plants observed are standing in pots of 8 to 10 inches in diameter, and they are furnished with six to eight leads each, with 1 to 2 feet stems. It is of the greatest consequence that a Lilac plant for forcing purposes should have the shoots well matured, and this can only be assured by full exposure to light and air, and with this intent the plants are plunged to threequarters the depth of the pots, and are never top dressed with either soil or manure, although during the season of growth manure water is occasionally afforded. They are stood at 3 feet apart in the lines, with 2 feet spaces between
the lines, there being three lines in a bed; smaller plants on I foot to 1 feet stems are placed at 2 feet and 2 feet apart. These plants looked very promising for bloom, and were showing from five to seven shoots per plant. Their ages ranged from three to four years. In every case the plants, after having bloomed, have the last season's growth cut back to within 3 to 4 inches of the base.
With the exception of two beds of 30 yards in length holding the largest plants, all the other portion of the stock stands on the soil, and thus secures perfect ripening, and there is complete control over the application of water, each plant getting what it needs, and that only. Continental cultivators invariably sink the pots deeply and mould them over, thus inducing roots to grow over the rim, which have to be removed on taking them out of the soil.
These beautiful objects for room decoration, for the dinner table, and general greenhouse display were noted in considerable numbers, growing in 5-inch pots, and reaching a height of only feet, possessing four, five and six shoots, each furnished with two or more flower buds. These plants are plunged in the soil up to the rim of the pot at 9 inches apart.
There were several successions intended for flowering in succeeding years. The plants are never repotted. Miniature plants under ordinary conditions will keep in good bloom from three to five weeks.
Contrary to all practice, plants are taken from pots or the open ground, all the soil shaken from the roots, at once dipped into a thick mixture of cow-dung and water, and potted forthwith. This is carried out in the month of July, and the plants are stood in the full sun without wilting or the loss of a leaf. BUDDING OF STOCKS.
This is an operation which is preferred by Mr. Jannoch, although at the start a year is lost as compared with the results obtained by grafting, but the ensuing growth is much stronger, as may be noticed in Peaches, Pears, &c., and at the first cutting back a strong break of shoots is secured, much more so than from grafted plants.
Budding is commenced in July, and continued throughout August. The plants, according to the height at which the stocks are budded as dwarf bush, and to form quarter, half, and full standards, and miniature plants.
REMARKS ON VARIETIES.
The best white Lilac is considered to be Frau B. Dammann; it is single flowered, has very large spikes; Grand Duke Constantine has greyish-blue flowers, and is one of the finest doubles; the colour is that of the Marie Louise Violet. Belonging to the same class are Madame Abel Chatenay, a very beautiful, white flower; Mad. Casimir Perier, a quite new variety, white, and excellent for forcing; Mad. Lemoine, white, a large spike; Michel Buchner, pale lilac, a dwarf-growing plant; President Grèvy, a very double, bluetinted variety, with a long spike; President Carnot, large pale lilac spike, and free to flower; pyramidalis, large and dense spike of a fine mauve colour; Alphonse Lavallée, with very large spikes of blue shaded violet; and Charles Joly, a dark purple, one of the finest of the dark-coloured varieties. Those mentioned force well whether retarded or not, and are fine out-of-doors objects in the garden.
Equally excellent in the same way are the following single-flowered varieties:-Charles X., a strong grower, in several shades of lilac, and one of the best for forcing; Claude Lorraine, very large spikes of a deep lilac tint; Madame Francisque Morel; Marie Legraye, large white spikes, forcing well; Reaumur, carmine, flowers of satiny texture, spike very large; Rouge de Marly, reddish-purple; Rouge de Trianon, very large spikes, the individual flowers large, and of a reddish-blue colour; Souvenir de Louis Späth, dark purple, flowers large, the finest of its colour; Ville de Troyes, dark purple, a fine variety.
A few other items may be named of which good stocks were noted of Cyclamens. Begonia semperflorens in variety; Phyllocactus Deutsche Kaiserin, a beautiful variety having pink flowers freely produced, which last a long time in perfection; "Malmaison" Carnations, Asparagus in all the well-known varieties and species; Violets, both double and single flowered; Hydrangeas in varieties, and numerous species of trees and shrubs for forcing, &c. RETARDATION OF GROWTH BY MEANS OF COLD.
The action of continued cold upon plants is to keep in check, in actual suspension, the natural tendency of plants to grow at root and top in spring, and this suspension of the vital power may be prolonged from January to June, and probably for a much longer period. The application of the cold process is to a certain extent combined with a certain cost. By the cold process Lily of the Valley, Lilac, various species of Lilium, Hydrangeas, Ghent and Mollis Azaleas, Gueldres Rose, Prunus of species, Philadelphus hybridus Lemoinei, &c., may be kept till any period late in the year, and they will bloom just as well and as certainly as non-retarded plants; Lily of the Valley in about three weeks and Lilacs in about the same time.
produces a change in plants that causes them to grow more quickly and open the flowers sooner when they are put into warmth. It is applied in autumn and winter to plants that have not had their usual length of rest. The inventor of the original process was Dr. Johannsen. Ether causes the sleep or repose to be far deeper, and according to the duration and density the more easy and rapid is their recovery. The effect of ether or chloroform vapour is supposed to be due to the drying up of the food juices in the stems and bases of the buds. Before a selected plant is put into the ether-chamber, the soil, stems and foliage are thoroughly dried, so much as to be productive of a certain degree of withering. The ether is applied by being poured into a shallow vessel through a short length of pipe inserted in the centre of the arched roof of the etherising chamber, after the door has been hermetically closed; the fumes, being heavier than air, fall down among the plants standing on the floor. The ether is applied in most instances twice in 48 hours, a 12 hours' interval being afforded with the door opened. Not all species of plants require two doses. F. M.
BERBERIS STENOPHYLLA.-Revue Horticole, September 16,
FRANCOA APPENDICULATA.--Revue Horticole, September 16. ANTHURIUM ANDREANUM (Hybrids). -Le Jardin, Col. Supplement, September 5.
NEW OR NOTEWORTHY
DEUTZIA MOLLIS, DUTHIE N.SP.* THIS very distinct and beautiful species was discovered by Mr. E. H. Wilson in the Hupeh district of Central China, growing on cliffs (Nos. 1,917, 1,959, and 2,282a). It was raised by Messrs. Veitch & Sons at Coombe Wood, and flowered for the first time in this country during the summer of last year. In the shape of its leaves and in its rather flat corymbose panicles it resembles some of the forms of D. parviflora Bunge, but it can at once be distinguished by the softly pubescent under-surface of the leaves, and by the wings of the filaments not being toothed. The flowers are white, or sometimes with a tinge of pink.
DEUTZIA GLOBOSA, DUTHIE N.SP. †
THIS species was raised by Messrs. J, Veitch and Sons from seeds collected by Mr. E. H. Wilson in W. Hupeh in Central China. It flowered for the first time in this country during the summer of 1905. The flowers, which are arranged in dense globose panicles, are mediumsized and of a creamy white colour. It differs from D. Vilmorini in its cup-shaped corolla, and from D. Wilsoni in the longer and narrower calyx-segments. The wings of the petaloid filaments are not produced at their apex.
DEUTZIA REFLEXA, DUTHIE N.SP. THIS species was discovered by Mr. E. H. Wilson in Central China, and was raised by Messrs. Veitch and Sons in their nursery at Coombe Wood. It flowered for the first time in this country during the summer of last year. It is a small and somewhat slender-growing shrub with greyish bark and narrowly lanceolate serrate leaves. The flowers, which are pure white, are borne on slender pedicles and arranged in corymbose panicles. It differs from D. Wilsoni in its much narrower calyx-segments, and from all previously described species by the reflexed lateral margins of its petals.
DEUTZIA MOLLIS, Duthie. Frutex 9-24 dm. altus, cortice cito deciduo, ramis teretibus, glabris. cinereis; junioribus rubro-bruneis, surperne dense hispidulis. Folia petiolata, absque petiolo 5-10 cm. longa et 2·5-5.5 cm. lata, ellipticolanceolata vel late ovata, oblique et obtuse acuminata, basi rotundata vel subcuneata, utrinque pilosa et squamis minutis stellatis obsita, supra aspera, subtus pallidula, dense et molliter pilosa præsertim secus costam venasque; marginibus inæqualiter et arcte serratis, dentium apicibus callosis rubris, venis primariis 4-6; petiolo circa 6 mm. longo. supra profunde canaliculato. Paniculæ breves, laxe corymbosa, e cymis trichotomis compositæ, ramulis calyceque dense hispidulis et squamis stellatis obsitis. Flores 8-10 mm. diametro, albi vel pallide rubri. Calycis lobi breves, subacuti, patentes vel reflexi. Petala 5 mm. longa, suborbicularia, breviter unguiculata, extra stellato pubescentia. Stamina alterna breviora, sursum sensim attenuata, alis edentatis. Styli tres, stamina longiora æquantes. Capsula matura subglobosa, 4-5 mm. diam., hispidula et squamis stellatis dense induta.
DEUTZIA GLOBOSA, Duthie. Frutex, cortice rubrobruneo, cito deciduo. Folia breviter petiolata, 5-9 cm. longa, ovato-lanceolata vel elliptica, obtuse acuminata, basi cuneata, marginibus arcte denticulatis, supra scabrida, subtus pallida, costâ venisque pilosis, petiolo 6-8 mm. longo. Flores in paniculas densas patentes globosas dispositi, luteo-albidi; bractea lineares, pedicellis gracilibus breviores. Calyx 7 mm. longus, tubo hemispherico, lobis tubum æquantibus, anguste triangularibus, demum reflexis. Corolla 15 mm. diametro, cyathiformis, petalis apice cucullatis, marginibus erosis. Stamina petaloidea, alterna breviora; longiorum alis abrupte angulatis, hand productis, antheris sparse pilosis. Styli tres, infra nedium haud lepidotis. Capsula 4 mm. longa, subglobosa, squamis stellatis dense obsita.
DEUTZIA REFLEXA, Duthie. Frutex parvus, ramis gracilibus, cortice bruneo-cinereo. cito deciduo. 5-65 cmm. longa, 2-25 lata, anguste elliptico-lanceolata, acuminata, utrinque squamis stellatis scabrida, subtus pallida, marginibus serratis, costâ venisque infra valde prominentibus; petiolis circa 7 mm. longis, supra profunde canaliculatis. Flores minores, 4-5 meri, in paniculas laxas dispositi, ramulis calyceque squamis stellatis obsitis; bracteis 10-13 mm. longis, lineari-lanceolatis, persistentibus, marginibus ciliolatis. Calycis tubus hemisphericus; lobis circa 3 mm. longis, anguste triangulari-lanceolatis, primum erectis, demum patentibus. Petala 6 mm. longa, obovatooblonga, extra puberula, apice cucullata, marginibus lateratibus reflexis. Stamina petaloidea, alterna breviora, alis apice abrupte angulatis, sub-bilobata; antheris sparse pilosis. Capsula hemispherica, 5 min. diametro, sparse squamis stellatis minutis obsita.
THE FLOWER GARDENING AT HAMPTON COURT.
THE long herbaceous border on either side of the Palace facing east of the pleasure ground was looking remarkably well on September 12. I have seen the same annually for a number of years, but it has never before appeared to me so beautiful at this season of the year. The disposition and arrangements of the plants, and the grouping and harmony of colours, leave little or nothing to be desired. In addition to the usual autumnal occupants of such a border, a few specimen plants have been introduced here and there which are little cultivated now, but, though not so gorgeous in colour as the bulk of the plants in bloom, arrest attention and afford pleasure by their quaint habit of growth or curiously coloured flowers. Such a plant was the old "Mina lobata," its pendent yellow flowers and its Ipomoea-like growth contrasting pleasingly with the more formal and familiar flowers. The Coleus, grown ordinarily for its foliage alone, has beauty added to it by its long flower scapes of feathery blue, and helps to add a charm to this border. Here also are introduced patches of white Bouvardias growing luxuriantly and bearing a profusion of bloom. A happy use is also made of the single annual Aster-a flower of the most artistic form and delightful shades of colouring. I saw a little front garden of a small cottage on the Bath road near Slough planted wholly with this Aster last year. It appealed to me as being the prettiest little garden picture I had seen for a long time.
I have one fault to find with this fine border at Hampton Court, and that is the poor way in which the wall at the back of it is furnished with climbing plants. This is not so apparent now w; but in the spring the bareness of this wall is painfully conspicuous. The effective covering of such a wall, I know, is attended with many difficulties, the crowded condition of the border during summer being a bar to successful growth. Still, I think something might be done to improve matters in this respect. For instance, the beauty of even this fine border might be enhanced by the introduction of masses of Clematis at short intervals on the face and top of the wall. The rich and glowing colours of the best varieties of these would add a brilliancy and charm of colouring to the whole. and the stems of the Clematis growing against the wall would occupy but little space.
The bed which took my fancy most was a long one with square ends planted with columnar trained plants of Streptosolen Jamesonii and Calceolaria Burbidgei alternately, having liberal and adequate spaces between, admitting full development of each plant. This bed was carpeted between the columnar plants with Verbena Miss Willmott, and edged with golden coloured Pelargoniums. Each column was clothed with splendid foliage and a profusion of bloom, and measured from 5 feet to 5 feet high. Again I am inclined to be critical the edging was not worthy of the bed. Had a bold margin of Centaurea candidissimus, or a broad band of Iresine Herbstii been substituted a lovely harmony of colouring in gold, orange, and white, or in gold, orange, or deep Each bronzy crimson, would have resulted. column is formed of five plants, each about 4 feet high when planted out. They are planted round a circle about a foot in diameter. I have seen those when planted out in June, and poor starveling looking things they then appeared, having of necessity been crowded close together under glass during the winter and spring, but the transformation in a few weeks when planted in well enriched and well prepared soil is simply magical. The plants break into growth from base to top, and, as already mentioned, become during the summer pillars of dense foliage and lovely bloom. There is one other matter which pleased me much. I
refer to the hybrid Water Lilies growing in the large basin of the ornamental fountain facing the east front of the Palace. I have observed these for the last two or three summers, and I had an impression that the plants flowered more profusely in this position than I have ever seen them flower anywhere else, and having again seen them this year I am confirmed in the correctness of that impression. The flowers are not so large, but they are more numerous, and I think the colours are brighter and more intense. It is a hot, sunny spot where they grow, and perhaps this extra brightness in colouring may be the result of the abundance of light and heat to which they are exposed. I think there is a lesson to be learned in the successful growth of this plant from the floriferous condition of these Nymphæas, and also from the limited leaf growth they make. It is that they flower more freely when confined to a comparatively limited root space, as these are, rather than when given unlimited room to grow in, as is frequently the case, when the energies of
tive form, though not of any high value. The ground colour of both sepals and petals is a lighter yellow than is a good Sceptrum, which is heavily marked by brown blotches separated by 2-inch bars of yellow, as in Sceptrum.
The colour section of the petals is similar, but with more evidence of the crispo-Harryanum tint of violet in the frond. The principal blotch is at two-thirds distance from the base, and is encircled by spots which form a line from the base all round the margin, being connected across the petal at one-third length from base. The lip is of Sceptrum form, with the frill almost absent, as would be expected from the influence of the hard outer edge of crispo-Harryanum; it is pale cream white, with a small blotch in front of the crest. This latter is very reduced from that of Sceptrum. The form generally of the bloom is that of Sceptrum somewhat elongated, that gives a look of crispo-Harryanum to it, from which and its substance there is no doubt as to its identity to even an ordinary observer. De B. Crawshay.
CYPRIPEDIUM FAIRRIEANUM. WHEN announcing the arrival of an importation of this pretty Cypripedium we suggested that it should be tried in a cool house, as the few plants previously in gardens seemed to have been killed by being kept too warm. experiment was tried by J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Glebelands, South Woodford (gr. Mr. J. Davis), the greater number of his plants being placed with the C. insigne varieties, where several are now in bloom, and all with sturdy foliage, equal in vigour to the specimens of C. insigne. One of the best plants was allowed to remain in the warmest Cypripedium house, and this is not nearly so vigorous or healthy-looking.
In this collection the unique Cypripedium Leeanum J. Gurney Fowler is thriving; two fine plants of C. I'Ansoni; the handsome C. calloso. Rothschildianum, which obtained a First-Class Certificate at Holland House; good examples of C. Miss Louisa Fowler; a fine C. Maudiæ, the graceful C. Bella Westfield variety; C. Law. renceanum Ilyeanum and a fine collection of other rare Cypripediums are in splendid condi. tion, some of them being in flower.
A VERY fine example of this beautiful hybrid, which was originally raised and flowered by Messrs. Jas. Veitch and Sons, in 1881, is flowering in the collection of J. Gurney Fowler, Esq. It has the general aspect of the favourite C. "Iris," and considering that it was originally flowered a quarter of a century ago, it is noteworthy as maintaining its place in the front rank of hybrids of its class. The inflorescence bears several fine flowers, each 5 inches across, the sepals and petals of a coppery-orange tint shaded with rose and the large labellum bright amethyst-purple.
There is a fine collection of hybrid Cattleyas, Lælio-Cattleyas, Brasso-Cattleyas, &c., at Glebelands, and all in fine health; among those in blocm being the new Lælio-Cattleya Woodfordiensis, L.-C. Clonia superba, Lælia Iona nigrescens, a beautiful and finely-colured flower, Cattleya Iris, and many others.
The large collection of fine varieties of Cattleya Schroderæ, which flowered so profusely last year, promises to be still finer this season, many plants having from six to twelve flower sheaths.
the plant are expended in the growth of leaves at the expense of flowers. But these beautiful Lilies should have more conspicuous labels attached to them; some of them are a good way from the edge of the basin, and I had to invoke the help of younger eyes than my own to find out their names. O. T.
ORCHID NOTES AND GLEANINGS.
ODONTOGLOSSUM X EUPHROSYNE.
(SCEPTRUM X CRISPO-HARRYANUM). THIS is another hybrid from the Uccle establishment of MM. A. A. Peeters et fils, raised by M. F. Peeters, who sent me the two first varieties of it that bloomed. It is not one of the great surprises or wonders we get so used to seeing in these days of great progress in Odontoglossum raising, but is a very pretty thing nevertheless, and when grown into strong plants will be a very useful and decora
BULBOPHYLLUM GRANDIFLORUM. THIS large and singularly-formed species when grown into a strong specimen is a very striking object. Although the flowers are not showy, they are very attractive. A fine example of it in the Hon. Walter Rothschild's collection, Tring Park (gr. Mr. A. Dye), has seven flowers each over 6 inches at the greatest width. The. flowers are pale-green reticulated with sepia-. brown, the dorsal sepal, which is concave and projected forward, being 4 inches in length by 2 inches in width; the narrow lateral sepals are curved downward. Its nearest ally, B. longisepalum, which was lately in flower at Tring Park, has narrower flowers heavily marked with reddish purple. The B. Ericssoni (January 23, 1897) and Cirrhopetalum Rothschildianum (November 23, 1905), both of which supplied the material for the illustrations in the Gardeners' Chronicle, are thriving well, and B. virescens, and a large number of other species, are in excellent condition.
MILLER'S SEEDLING APPLE. THIS Comparatively unknown early dessert Apple is certainly one of the very best of its section in cultivation. It presumably originated in the neighbourhood of Newbury, Berks., and in that district it is largely grown, and has a very high local reputation. It is one of the misfortunes of this Apple that it got into circulation quietly and without the customary trade booming; hence we have heard so little of it. I have seen it fruiting finely at Maiden Erlegh, Reading, in Mr. Turton's time, and at Highclere Castle, and Lockinge. In the latter garden it this year fruited splendidly, and the sample of fruits seemed almost unequalled for beauty of form and delicacy of colouring. Mr. Fife speaks highly of it. The fruits have the merit of keeping good, juicy, and crisp for a month, which some greatly praised early Apples have not. The tree makes moderately strong growth and is a regular fruiter. It is odd that so good an Apple-southwards at least should be so little known generally, yet there are growers at Wantage who have crops from this variety by the ton. It is ready to gather at the end of August. A. D.