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position. I am speaking of selected fruits that will be used eventually for dessert. None but selected fruits should be given a place in the premier fruit room, and on no account should any other matter than fruit be stored in this room, which should be kept scrupu lously clean, including the windows. Do not gather all the fruits from one tree at the same time, because some will continue to ripen after a few have been removed, and the particular variety will be available for use over a longer period. The dropping of fruits is not always an indication that they are ripe. Open these first and it will probably be found they are diseased. Fruits intended to be kept long should not be gathered until they are perfectly ripe. The later sorts of Apples and Pears will continue to increase in size yet for several weeks to come.

Orchard Trees.-Very fine fruit is generally obtained from the tops of large standard trees; they are not so large as usual this season owing to the drought, but the late varieties are swelling well. Any that are being gathered now should be selected, and for convenience of storing may be placed in tubs or boxes and stored in any dry place. Small, badly-formed fruits should be disposed of in some other way. Small-fruited and worthless varieties should be discarded, the roots grubbed up, and good varieties substituted. Or the old trees may be re-grafted. Be careful to select varieties that succeed best in the district. Newton Wonder is a large and solid Apple that should be given extended cultivation, being good in colour, and capable of keeping in excellent condition for a long period. The tree is a good grower and very prolific. Royal Jubilee is another fine Apple in season from November till March. Dumelow's Seedling (Wellington) is yet one of the very best, and is, moreover, a great bearer and second to none for culinary purposes from December to April. Annie Elizabeth is also a great bearer, and will keep in good condition till May. King Edward VII. seems likely to be a prolific variety, as it is bearing fruits on quite small trees.

The Lifting and Root Pruning of Fruit Trees. -Proceed with these operations as opportunities cccur. The earlier they are accomplished the better chance will the trees be given to make fibrous roots quickly.


By W. H. WHITE, Orchid Grower to Sir TREVOR LAWRENCE, Bart., Burford, Surrey.

Dendrobiums-Growers who have recently obtained imported plants of Dendrobium Dartoisianum, D. Bronckartianum, and D. tonkinense, which are supposed to be new species, should place them in pots just large enough to accommodate them for one season. Let such pots be nearly filled with broken crocks, and each plant be made quite firm by tying a few of the pseudobulbs to neat stakes. Place the plants in a cool, shady part of the Cattleya-house. Slightly spray them overhead occasionally, and let water be poured through the crocks every day to keep them moist, and so induce the plants to make roots. When the young growths and roots have started well the plants will require potting in the ordinary manner, placing them afterwards in the warmest house until they have completed their growth. The pseudo-bulbs of the first-named species resemble in some respects those of the rare D. signatum; those of D. Bronckartianum are like those of D. thyrsiflorum but darker in colour, the leaves being thicker and more leathery, while the general appearance of D. tonkinense is somewhat similar to D. revolutum, and it is probably a species of botanical interest only.

In the Cattleya-house, plants of Lælia elegans that have just passed out of flower should be repotted if necessary; the new roots which are emitted from the base of the flowering growth will at once enter the new compost, and the plant quickly become re-established The pseudo-bulbs of this plant are more apt to decay from the presence of an excess of moisture at the root than others of

the same genus. Plants of L. purpurata may also be repotted and old plants that require to be broken up may be thus treated. Plants of this species are sometimes seen in a poor condition. One of the principal causes of this is keeping them too long in a pot-bound condition. vious to repotting each plant, be careful to remove as much of the old soil as is possible without disturbing the roots, cut away all leafless pseudobulbs and dead roots. Avoid overpotting, but let the pots be just large enough to allow for two


seasons' growth. The two Lælias and their varieties will root thoroughly well in equal parts of fibrous peat and sphagnum-moss, with plenty of small, broken crocks mixed in the compost; provide perfect drainage.

Plants of Lalia pumila and its varieties that have been in the cool house all the summer are now showing their flower buds in the young growths, and should at once be removed to a light position in the intermediate house, affording them liberal waterings until the flowers are faded and growth is completed. If white scale insects appear, these must be diligently eradicated or the plants will quickly deteriorate. The thin-bulbed Lælia harpophylla has started well into growth, and should be removed forthwith to the intermediate house..

In the cool house plants of Sophronitis grandiflora, also its varieties rosea and Rossiteriana that are growing freely, should be elevated well up to the roof glass at the warmest end of the house and shielded from cold. Afford them plenty of water at the roots all through the growing season.


By B. CROMWELL, Gardener to T. SUTTON TIMMIS, Esq., Cleveley, Allerton, Liverpool.

The Cooler Weather.-The re-arrangement of the plants in the houses will now require attention, the cooler weather necessitating the removal of all stove plants at present in other houses to their winter quarters. Such plants when returned to the warmer atmosphere should not be unduly excited into root action at this period by apply ing an excess of water. Any plants which have become unsightly should be discarded and young plants raised in their stead.

Hippeastrums.-Gradually withhold water from plants which have flowered, until, when the bulbs have matured, they may be stored away in pits where the atmospheric temperature is not lower than 48°. Keep in a growing condition any young plants which have been raised from seed, exposing them to full light and sunshine and keeping the foliage free from thrips by frequent light fumi gations.

Herbaceous Calceolarias in small pots should be potted on directly the roots touch the sides of the pots, so that they may not experience any check. It is important that these plants should continue to grow steadily at all times, as insect pests are always ready to attack those that fall into a stunted condition.

Anthuriums which bloomed early in the season should be kept somewhat drier at the roots, and if laced at the cooler end of the stove or in an inermediate house to rest, they will be found to succeed much better, and flower with greater freedom, than if kept in a hot atmosphere all the year round.

Alocasias and Marantas now require less water at the roots. The foliage, when kept in a drier atmosphere, is liable to become infested with thrips and red spider, and should therefore be sponged occasionally during the winter months.

General Remarks.-Take advantage of fine days to get under cover the materials that will be required for potting purposes. Thoroughly decayed leaf-mould is one of the most important soil ingredients for the successful cultivation of most pot plants. The growth of the plants and the production of root-fibres are more accelerated by leaf-mould than by any other substance. A space should be selected for the heaps, where they may be turned over occasionally to prevent excessive heating or fermentation. Let the manurial qualities of the leaves be preserved as much as possible by ensuring the gradual decomposition which will tend to prevent the presence of fungous growths.

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By T. W. BIRKINSHAW, Gardener to Lt.-Col. Sir CHAS.
HAMILTON, Bart., Hatley Park, Bedfordshire.

Early Peach House.-The present is a suitable time for lifting or root-pruning any of the trees that require attention at their roots. Trees that have carried yellow, sickly-looking foliage will be much benefited by being lifted and root-pruned. All thick, deeply plunging roots should be cut away, and some sweet turfy-loam, lime scraps, a few wood-ashes, and a sprinkling of bone meal, if the loam is of poor texture, be incorporated in the soil about the remaining roots. If it is intended to replant, the best trees for the purpose are those that have been grown in succession houses. It is important that good drainage should always be provided and the depth of the soil should be about

21 feet, the first layer to be freshly cut turves placed grass side down wards over the drainage, for these will prevent the finer soil from running into and choking the drainage.

Planting Young Trees.-It is better to plant in a rather poor compost than in one too rich, for young trees have a tendency to make gross growths during the first year or two after planting. The trees can always be mulched and otherwise fed when the fruits are swelling. Planting should be done with great care. Keep the roots near to the surface of the borders and cut away any bruised or broken roots, leaving all cut surfaces smooth and clean. Make the soil firm as the work proceeds, give each tree a good soaking of water to settle the compost about their roots, and syringe them twice daily. Afford temporary shade if necessary. Large trees that are a bad condition may be attended to now, The better plan will be to prune one half of their root system this year and the other half next season, for this will prevent them receiving too. severe a check. When the roots have been disturbed the work of replanting should be pushed on without delay, for if the roots are kept out of the soil for some time they become dry, and then they do not take hold of the new soil readily Commence opening the ground at a distance of quite 3 feet from the stem of the tree, taking out a trench a spade wide down to the drainage and placing all the roots nearer to the surface when the trench is. refilled. As soon as the work is completed the roof-lights should be replaced, but the maximum amount of ventilation should still be given. Cut out any crowded or weak growths and regulate the branches so as to leave a space of 5 or 6 inches between the shoots. !' Keep the borders in a moderate state of moisture, for this will fargely prevent bud-dropping later.

New Peaches.-The variety Duke of York is a welcome addition for planting in the early house, as it ripens as soon as Alexander. The fruits are of fair size with highly coloured skins, and possess a better flavour than that of Alexander. Peregrine is a mid-season variety with large, well-coloured fruits that are of a rich flavour. This excellent variety is a suitable Peach for exhibition purposes.


BY HUGH A. PETTIGREW, Gardener to the Earl of PLYMOUTH, St. Fagan's Castle, Glamorganshire. Hardy Flower Borders.-In the preparation and re-arrangement of these borders, which is appropriate work for the present time, bear in mind the suggestion put forward last week, that in gardens where there are numerous borders of mixed herbaceous plants it is advisable to make each as unlike the other as possible. Nothing is more disappointing than to inspect a garden whose borders, though bright and gay, have nothing distinctive about them, being merely duplications of each other. If in a certain mixed border Hollyhocks, Kniphofias, Aconitums, Montbretias, Phlox, Dahlias, Sweet Peas, &c., are used, these plants should be made a feature of this particular border and not be repeated indiscriminately in all the others. By these means the interest in the different borders may be maintained throughout the garden. In order to obtain this dissimilarity in the borders it is a good plan to devote some of them to particular colours. A border which is so situated that it is not exposed to strong light might be made very attractive by being devoted entirely to plants bearing flowers of different shades of yellow. By making a careful selection of plants it could be made effective throughout the year, or if desired might be made particularly attractive for certain months only. Such perennials as Helianthus, Heliopsis scabra major, Achillea. Eupatorium, Centaurea ruthenica, C. macrocephala, Rudbeckia "Golden Glow," and Inula would be suitable for planting at the back of the border, with yellow Sweet Peas and Dahlias interspersed. For the centre and front of the border the following plants might be used: Yellow Kniphofias, Montbretia (including varieties like Excelsior, Koh-i-Noor, Messidor, Geo. Davison, Roy d'Or, Golden Sheaf, and Solfaterre), Hypericum Moserianum, Asclepias tuberosa, Aster linosyris, Chrysanthemum Horace Martin, Chrysogonum virginicum, Gaillardias (John Harkness and Canary), Senecio clivorum, S. tanguticus, Rudbeckia speciosa, Alströmeria, and many other earlier yellow-flowering plants that will readily occur to the reader. Spaces should be left for planting and sowing in the spring; choose halfhardy annual yellow-flowering plants that aresuitable for such a border.


ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the PUB. LISHER, 41, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, W.C.


4.etters for Eublication as well as specimens and plants for naming, should be addressed to the EDITOR, 41, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London. Communications should be WRITTEN ON ONE SIDE ONLY OF THE PAPER, Sent as early in the week as possible, and duly signed by the writer. If desired, the signature will not be printed, but kept as a guarantee of good faith. Special Notice to Correspondents.-The Editor does not undertake to pay for any contributions or illustrations, or to return unused communications or illustrations, unless by special arrangement. The Editor does not hold himself responsible for any opinions expressed by his correspondents.






(Nat. Amateur Gardeners' Assoc.


Nat. Chrys. Soc, Exhib, at Crystal
Palace (2 days).

Soc. Franc. d'Hort. de Londres

German Gard. Soc. meets.
(United Hort. Ben. & Prov. Soe.
Com. meets.

Oct. 8
Oct. 9 Royal Hort. Soc. Com. meet.
(Manchester & N. of England
Oct. 11
Orchid Soc. meets.
Oct. 13

Oct. 15 Oct. 16



THURSDAY, Oct. 25 SATURDAY, Oct. 27 MONDAY, Oct. 29 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 31

Dutch Gardeners' Soc. meets. Nat. Chrys. Soc. Com. meets 3 p.m.

(R.H.S. Show of British Grown




Fruits at Westminster (2 days). Royal Bot. Soc. Show, Regent's Park.

German Gardeners' Soc. meets. Royal Hort. Soc. Com. meet. Royal Hort. Soc. of Ireland's

Great Fruit & Chrys. Show in Ball's Bridge, Dublin (2 days). (Manchester & N. of England Orchid Soc. meets.

Dutch Gardeners' Soc. meets.
Essex Hall, 3 p.m.
Nat. Chrys. Soc. Com. meets at

Exhib. (2 days).
Kent County Chrys. Soc. Annual

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE for the ensuing week, deduced from observations of Forty-three Years at Chiswick-55 9°. ACTUAL TEMPERATURES:-

LONDON.-Wednesday, September 26 (6 P.M.): Max. 62°;
Min. 42°.

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street,
Covent Garden, London.-Thursday, September
27 (10 A.M.): Bar., 35, Temp., 61; Weather-
PROVINCES.-Wednesday, September 26 (6 P.M.): Max. 65
Bedford; Min. 52' East Coast of Scotland,

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The word sports is, unforSports. tunately, used by gardeners

in more than one sense. Sometimes it is employed to denote variations in seedling plants, such variations being often due to cross-fertilisation in various degrees. At other times it is made use of to indicate those bud-variations which occur suddenly, and often without obvious cause. At present great attention is being bestowed on these sudden appearances, because they have been employed by De Vries as the basis of his theory of "mutation." According to him, in certain plants, at certain times, there is a period of " mutation," or instability, when sports are thrown off, and these sports or mutations are stated to have the characteristics of species, that is to say, they remain.

constant so long as the conditions of life are not materially changed, and they reproduce their peculiarities from seed. The evidence adduced by Professor De Vries and his followers, as far as it goes, is doubtless unassailable, and the Dutch naturalist's experiments must, of course, be accepted with all the respect that is due to the scientific position of the experimenter. But with the greatest deference to so keen and industrious an investigator, it may be alleged that much more extended and varied proof is required before cultivators can accept the inferences drawn from his observations. It is easy to understand that those people who were wont to call for "missing links" will now feel that there is no necessity, if the theory be true, for the existence of any such intermediate stages, and one source of difficulty is thereby removed. A "species" can, according to the new view, be produced suddenly and completely without any slow and gradual evolution or transition from one form into another. The question then arises, are these new forms such as systematists in general would adjudge to be of Nature, specific rank? said Linnæus, makes no leaps. Leaps are frequent and well defined, say the adherents of the new school. Among the orders of fossil plants there are wide gaps still unbridged, though much has been done of late years to fill up these voids, as, to cite one instance, by the discovery of missing links among Cycads and in Ginkgo in the shape of spermatozoids like those of the higher cryptogams. But, if the theory of mutation is to be generally accepted, there will be no need for the discovery of any such missing links, as the new species will be produced by mutation from the old one complete in all respects, as Minerva is fabled to have been when she sprang from the brain of Jove.

Before these views can be unreservedly accepted by gardeners and plant-breeders they must, we think, have a much larger body of evidence; we must know how and why mutation is set up; why it occurs occasionally and at particular times, and not at others; why certain species like the Enothera Lamarckiana are particularly subject to it in some places and not in others; whilst, so far as we know at present, the majority of plants never show the phenomena at all. The experience of cultivators, whilst showing the occasional appearance of sports, yet on the whole goes to prove that the occurrence of these phenomena is relatively rare, and that when they do occur they do not remain constant, but very frequently revert to the normal condition. Weeping Ashes produce upright branches, pyramidal Poplars occasionally form spreading branches, curled-leaved Willows not infrequently form flat leaves of the ordinary character, cut-leaved Alders and Beeches very frequently revert to the "entire" form. Variations of this kind originate as sports, and are perpetuated by grafting or some equivalent process and not, as a rule, by seed. Peloriate Antirrhinums, on the other hand, are reproduced from seed, and will continue to be so long as they are watched over by the raisers. Left to themselves, they would probably, in the course of a generation or two, revert to the normal form.

As to the causation of these sports, it is still mysterious, though it is now well known that they are occasionally produced as a consequence of injury from wounds or parasitic

intruders of vegetable or animal nature. In most cases, however, the consequences of such mutilations are of a pathological nature only. When one sees an Abies amabilis distorted by gouty swellings due to a coccus or allied insect, or when one meets with a fasciated stem, or malformed and distorted leaves, as one so often does in pollarded trees or old stumps, one recognises that they are either malformations or pathological conditions of no direct genetic significance, indeed, about as likely to form new species" as a man with a wooden leg is likely to produce offspring with a leg of a like character.


The trend of modern botanical science, nevertheless, is, as we have said, to assign a greater genetic value to " sports" than the all but universal experience of cultivators would accord to them. For instance, M. Blaringhem, in a recent number of the Comptes Rendus (July 23rd, 1906), after citing various instances wherein malformations have been produced in plants as a result of mutilations, as is generally admitted, goes a step further in stating that some of these forms may be perpetuated by hereditary descent in the same manner as the characteristics which constitute species. The instance he assigns is a variety of Maize, which in the north of France ripens its seeds at the end of August instead of at the end of October. This new variety-clementary species he calls it-originated as the result of cutting the main stem level with the ground just as the male flowers were about to appear. New shoots were at once produced from the base of the stock, and these shoots ultimately produced various malformed flowers, from one of which he ultimately obtained the early ripening variety before mentioned. Assuming the correctness of M. Blaringhem's observations (and there is no reason to do otherwise), we are confronted with the question--Was this new "form" a "species" that systematists in general would recognise as such? Or was it what they would call a variety only? Propagators well know that they often get different forms according as they propagate from the base of the stem or from a particular branch, but it would not occur to them to call the new form a new species. Even the most enthusiastic Chrysanthemum grower, who gets such varied results according to the particular bud he "takes "or selects, would hesitate to say that he had been instrumental in forming a new species."

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The whole thing seems to hinge upon the question whether these new forms can be and are perpetuated by inheritance, and that not for one or two generations but in perpetuity, and without the protecting care of the cultivator. If they can, then we must give them specific rank, and a separate name. If, after a longer or shorter interval, they revert, or when the protection and care of the cultivator are terminated, they die out, then of course they cannot rank as a species.

OUR SUPPLEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION depicts the beautiful Rose Gottfried Keller, for which Messrs. PAUL & SON, Cheshunt, obtained an award of merit at the meeting of the Royal Horticultural Society on August 14. The flower's greatest charm, perhaps, is the beautiful tinting of its petals, the colour being a soft rose-pink which becomes lost in the base of the petals in coppery shades of yellow The flower is semi-double and partakes largely of the shape of the Austrian Briar, which was one o




Temple Press Ltd., Printers, 7-15, Rosebery Avenue, London, E.C.

its parents, the other being a Tea-scented variety. The flowers are freely produced and the plant has the desirable quality of flowering late into the autumn. The variety was distributed by the late M. FROEBEL of Zurich, a notice of whose death was published in our last issue. At the autumn show of the National Rose Society, on the 19th inst., two new Roses of merit were staged. One of these, named Dorothy Page Roberts, possessed tints somewhat similar to those of Gottfried Keller, and we should not be surpised if a similar cross had been eflected to produce this flower. It was, however, a flower with many more petals than the one we now illustrate, but the older flowers displayed an open centre that reminded one of the Austrian Briar type.

D'OMBRAIN MEMORIAL.-It is proposed to provide-as a memorial to the late incumbent-an organ and choir stalls in the church at Westwell, of which Mr. D'OMBRAIN was vicar for 37 years. Subscriptions may be sent to the Rev. H. Boys. ROBERTS, Westwell, Ashford, Kent.

PRESENTATION TO MR. G. WYTHES, V.M.H. On the 22nd inst., the garden staff at Syon House Gardens presented Mr. and Mrs. WYTHES with a richly engraved, antique, silver biscuit box and stand, with an expression of their regret at Mr. WYTHES' departure from Syon, and their best wishes for the future. Mr. TUBB, the senior foreman, made the presentation on behalf of the staff. Mr. WYTHES, in returning thanks, said he should not forget their kindness, nor the good work they had done during the time he had been at Syon. SOUTH-EAStern AgricuLTURAL COLLEGE. -The next session of the South-Eastern Agricultural College, Wye, for which 105 students have entered, will commence on October 1. inaugural address will be delivered by Dr. H. E. ARMSTRONG, F.R.S., on October 2, at 8 p.m. A conference of Fruit growers will be held at the College on October 22, when there will be discussions on Methods of Planting, Fungus diseases, Insect attacks, and Strawberry culture. Those wishing to attend the Conference should send their names to the Principal of the College.


THE PYRAMIDAL HORN-BEAM.-In the Solferino Garden at Rouen is a noble specimen of this tree. It is presumably about 40 feet in height, densely branched, the branches ascending and thickly clad with deep green shining foliage It thus forms a gigantic bush rather than a tree, the general form being that of a globose Arbor Vitæ, and the appearance is very striking.

THE LATE MR. A. J. JORDAN. The death is announced in the Agricultural News (Barbados) of Mr. A. J. JORDAN, Curator of the Government House Gardens. Deceased left the Royal Gardens, Kew, in 1899, to take charge of the botanic station at Montserrat, at the time when the Imperial Department of Agriculture was instituted in the West Indies, with Sir DANIEL MORRIS at its head. Subsequently he held an appointment at Antigua. Mr. JORDAN was well-known at Kew, having, previous to entering the Botanic Gardens, served at Forbes House gardens, Ham. He will be remembered by his contemporaries at Kew for his frequent contributions to the debates at the meetings held for mutual improvement. His genial manner caused him to be held in high esteem by his fellow students.

A PARASITIC ALGA.-Quite recently W. J. BEIJERINK has studied the special mode of life of an alga entirely deprived of green pigment, which, at first sight, would have been placed in the group of lower fungi called Prototheca. This alga lives in the frothy sap of the Elm which is poured out in consequence of the puncture of a moth, Cossus ligniperda. Under its peculiar natural conditions of life this albino plant multiplies without losing its characters. But cultivated in sterile tubes, in the froth of gelatinized beer, for instance, it gradually assumes the green colour and forms, in

a few weeks, on the surface of the substratum, green masses edged with yellowish white, comparable to the leaf of certain variegated Maples. The green alga when isolated presents all the characteristics of the genus Chlorella. It forms endogenous spores, as do microbes, and BEIJERINK named it Chlorella variegata, a variegated microbe. Other superior plants deprived of chlorophyll sometimes survive in this condition so unfavourable for nutrition either by parasitism, as in Dodder, or by saprophytism, as in Neottia, &c.

THE BOIS DE BOULOGNE.-A beginning has been made in the famous Paris garden Bagatelle" to turn it into a· public botanical and cultural experimental garden, where the promenader interested in flowering plants, shrubs and trees will have the opportunity of observing them at his leisure. Masses of Roses grown in a natural manner and a special Rose garden are some of the projects entertained by the authorities.

ROSE OBERBÜRGERMEISTER DR. TRONDLIN. -A spert from Madame Caroline Testout was exhibited at a recent horticultural show at MünchenGladbach under the name given at the head of this note, which is exactly like the type in form and ground colour, but is marked with deep rosecoloured stripes. This mode of colouring is not quite constant, as occasionally petals appear which are whitish-rose on one half, whilst the other is deep rose. These markings and shadings make the flowers most interesting. The sport possesses all the good properties of the mother plant, which is well known as one of the best Roses.

CITRATE OF LIME IN DOMINICA.-Mr. AGAR, writing to the West India Committee from Dominica, in July, reported that the first shipment of citrate of lime on a commercial scale was being made, and stated that there was no doubt should the experiment be successful, the manufacture of citrate of lime instead of concentrated lime juice would rapidly develop.

FRUITING OF THE MANGOSTEEN IN GUINEA. -The Revue Horticole states that the Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana), which was introduced into Guinea in 1898 through the intervention of M. MAXIME CORNU, has fruited there this season for the first time, and it is believed that the culture of the plant in Guinea will prove to be successful.

CHILDREN'S CHRYSANTHEMUMS. - At the Show which was held by the Evening News Chrysanthemum League, at the Royal Horticultural Society's Hall, on September 20, 21, and 22, about 1,700 children contributed plants, but though many of them were moderately well-grown, there were very few in flower. It was quite evident that the date fixed for the Show was fully three weeks too early, for most of the plants having been grown under partial shade are later than those grown in the market nurseries. The want of colour in the children's plants was somewhat atoned for by the supplementary exhibits, which came chiefly from market growers. There were also floral designs from several leading florists. Messrs. W. WHITELEY, Ltd., Hillingdon, exhibited two large groups of foliage plants, in which the Codiæums were very bright. Chrysanthemums and Solanums in pots were also good. Mr. ERIC F. SUCH, Maidenhead, made a large display with Chrysanthemums which included some of the best new early varieties, and with other hardy flowers a good group was arranged. Messrs. CRAGG, HARRISON & CRAGG, Heston, had an extensive display of Chrysanthemums; pot plants of the varieties which were grown by the children were well represented, also cut flowers of the best sorts were well shown. A collection of Cacti, and various foliage plants from the same firm, filled one of the large tables. Messrs. WELLS & Co., Merstham, showed a praiseworthy collection of Chrysanthemums, including some new earlyflowering single varieties Messrs. R. H. BATH, Ltd., Wisbech, also showed a large group of


Chrysanthemums composed of many of the newer varieties. Messrs. DOBBIE & Co., Rothesay, exhibited some very fine Sunflowers, Dahlias, &c. Messrs. CHEAL & SONS, Crawley, had a large collection of Dahlias. Mr. W. A. - CULL, Edmonton, exhibited a group of Ferns and foliage plants, Pteris Wimsetti Distinction and Aralias being worthy of note. Messrs. J. CARTER & Co., Holborn, showed a collection of dwarfed Japanese Trees, which created a good déal of interest amongst the children. Mr. R. F. FELTON, Messrs. B. SHEARN & SON, and Mr. HAYWARD, Kingston-on-Thames, were exhibitors of floral arrangements. There were not such crowds at the Exhibition as were seen last year, but this may have been due to the holding of the recent Show for three days. The Evening New's informs us that the League was inaugurated last year at the suggestion of a Japanese child in Nagasaki, and it has now nearly seven thousand members.

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THE CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT., We fear the firm that issued the subjoined notice is not aware of the passing of the Corrupt Practices Act, which will come into operation on January 1, 1907;Important. Gardeners' Discount. On all orders for goods as quoted in our price list (or any other good firm's catalogue, from which you may be pleased to give us an order) we allow a discount of 10 per cent. (2/- in the £) if paid within three months or 5 per cent. (1/- in the £) if paid within twelve months from date of invoice. This special discount is for gardeners only, whether orders are given by their employers or themselves. For goods advertised in gardening papers, prices are net, but 5 per cent. for c.w.o. may be deducted."'

THE PLANE TREES ON THE THAMES EMBANKMENT.-A. D. W. writes us on this subject as follows:-I do not agree with those persons who say that the Plane trees on the Thames Embankment will be irreparably damaged by the tramway line which is now being laid within a few feet of their stems, although they will undoubtedly suffer greatly in consequence, and much of their beauty will be destroyed. Quite recently, by request, I walked along the Embankment from Blackfriars to Charing Cross and examined the trees, and I must say that I left the scene with feelings of regret deploring the fact that the trees in our noblest of London's avenues were being tampered with. In order to fully explain the situation I may say that the tramway line is being laid to within 6 feet of the stems of the trees, a hard bank of concrete coming still nearer than that to the roots. But this is not all, for owing to the line having been made so close to the trees, hard pruning of the branches will be inevitable in order that the cars may have an uninterrupted passage beneath. At certain places along the

route, where there are tall trees whose branches are high up on the stems, this pruning may not be serious, but in such places as that opposite the Temple Gardens, where some of the trees do not greatly exceed 20 feet in height, nearly all the branches will require to be shortened. If the branches on the roadside only are pruned the trees will have a very unnatural, one-sided appearance, to obviate which severe pruning on all sides must be resorted to. It is not my intention to question why the tramline was laid so close to these trees, and especially in a wide thoroughfare like the Embank ment, but I am sure that both the well being and the appearance of the beautiful Planes in this noble avenue will suffer greatly in consequence.

BEQUESTS TO GARDENERS.-It is reported that by the will of the late Earl of Leven, pro bate of which was granted on Wednesday last, his late lordship's gardener at Roehampton, who is described in the will as "my old friend and gardener at Roehampton," benefits to the amount of £500, and Mr. Mackenzie, head gardener at Glenferness, to the extent of £200.

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