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EDITORIAL NOTICE. ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the PUB. LISHER, 41, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, W.C.

Letters for Publication as well as specimens and plants for naming, should be addressed to the EDITOR, 41, Wellington Street, Covent Garden, London. Communications should be WRITTEN ON ONE SIDE ONLY OF THE PAPER, sent as early in the week as possible, and duly signed by the writer. If desired, the signature will not be printed, but kept as a guarantee of good faith. Special Notice to Correspondents.-The Editor does not undertake to pay for any contributions or illustrations, or to return unised communications or illustrations, unless by special arrangement. The Editor does not hold himself responsible for any opinions expressed by his correspondents. Illustrations. - The Editor will be glad to receive and to select photographs or drawings, suitable for reproduction, of gardens, or of remarkable plants, flowers, trees, &c., but he cannot be responsible for loss or injury. Newspapers.-Correspondents sending newspapers should be careful to mark the paragraphs they wish the Editor to see Local News.-Correspondents will greatly oblige by sending to the Editor early intelligence of local events likely to be of interest to our readers, or of any matters which it is desirable to bring under the notice of horticulturists.

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AVERAGE TEMPERATURE for the ensuing week, deduced from observations of Forty-three Years at Chiswick-57 2°. ACTUAL TEMPERATURES:

LONDON. Wednesday, September 12 (6 P.M.): Max. 71°;
Min. 53°.

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street,
Covent Garden, London.-Thursday, September
13 (10 A.M.): Bar., 301; Temp., 66; Weather-
Fair, but overcast.
PROVINCES.-Wednesday, September 12 (6 P.M.): Max. 66°
Guildford; Min. 55° East Coast of Scotland.



Sale of Bulbs at Stevens' Rooms, King Street, Covent
Garden, at 12.30.


Dutch Bulbs, at 67 & 68, Cheapside, E.C., by Protheroe and Morris, at 10.30.


Sale of Greenhouse plants at The Nursery, High Street,
Clapham, by Protheroe & Morris, at 12.

Imported and Established Orchids, at 67 & 68, Cheapside,
E.C., by Protheroe & Morris, at 12.45.

The ordinary tourist in SwitzerThe Forest Trees of land is so impressed by the subSwitzer- limity of the mountains and land. their accessories that he pays little heed to the trees. He does not see that these often barren slopes have been denuded of their covering by the negligence and carelessness of the inhabitants, and yet the country is so dependent on timber for constructional purposes or for fuel that it might have been supposed that measures of protection and conservancy would have been taken long ago. Take, as an example, the slopes above Grindelwald and Zermatt, where remains of forests of the Arolla Pine (Pinus Cembra) still exist, and where many tossed veteran may still be met with. These are eminently picturesque, but it would be more satisfactory to see an undergrowth of seedlings of various ages springing up to replace them.

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Near the Tête Noire are remains of magnificent Larches, but here, again, little foresight seems to be exercised. With the Red Spruce -Picea excelsa-the case is, or seems, different; more care appears to have been exercised in order to provide a continuous supply of timber, and a like remark probably may be applied to the Silver Fir. Remains of fine forests of deciduous trees, Oaks in particular, as in the district above Lausanne, are to be met with. On the lower grounds also noble Lime trees may occasionally be encountered as near Lausanne as Pregny, Prilby, Fribourg, Thun, and elsewhere. These trees often commemorate some historic event, and are accordingly cherished by the inhabitants. Striking and impressive as are these noble trees, they are, of course, of no value for forestry purposes, unless it be to show that soil and locality are favourable to the growth of trees. With the view of calling the attention of his countrymen to the need of afforestation, and of protection for what is still left, as well as with the intention of indicating to planters what are the most decorative trees to plant for pictural purposes, M. Correvon has recently published a volume entitled "Nos Arbres."'* The author writes as an enthusiast, and occasionally soars into poetic heights.

As, however, he writes with ample knowledge of his subject, this may be forgiven, and, indeed, it may be said that the whole volume is pleasant to read by those to whom the language presents no difficulties. M. Correvon writes agreeably of historical trees, of the consequences of the reckless destruction of forests and the means to be taken to remedy the disasters and prevent their recurrence in the future. He then passes in review the principal trees of Switzerland, not confining himself to those that are native to the soil, but extending his purview so as to include those exotic trees that are hardy and which may be useful for purposes of replanting or for the sake of picturesque effect. common Pear forms a large timber tree in the Valley of Engelberg, and its fruits are not to be despised when made into a compôte. In Caulon Valais, as in the Jura, we have met with fine specimens both of Apples and of Cherries, so that it is clear that those who plant for utilitarian purposes only, need experience no difficulty in fulfilling their requirements, and the Spruce, the Silver Fir, the Cembra Pine, and the Larch are ready to hand for economic purposes.


OUR SUPPLEMENTARY ILLUSTRATION to the present issue affords two distinct views of the Hollies growing in the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew. One of the pictures shows a number of fine, naturally-grown specimens in the Holly collection; the other a portion of the unnaturallooking, severely-clipped specimens contained in the formal or Italian Garden near the Palm House. A glance at the two views is sufficient to show that for general decorative pur. poses the naturally-grown Holly is most to be admired. For special positions, the formal sugar-loaf-like specimens are allowable, but it is to be regretted that in too many gardens the only method of pruning that is practised upon Hollies is that of clipping the growths hard back, as if every tree was really part of a hedge. The result of this is to be seen in the very formal-looking trees that to be found in most incongruous surroundings, where naturally-grown examples would have produced an excellent effect. For the decoration of the garden and pleasure grounds,

• Geneva, Atar, Corraterie 12.


platyphylla, 20 feet high.

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the common Holly in its numerous, varieties is the most useful of all evergreens, as it is capable of growing almost anywhere in the British Isles and in almost any kind of soil. The varieties afford great differences in the size, shape, and colour of the leaves, and in the size and number of spines. In some forms, such as atrovirens, Hendersoni, madercnsis, nigrescens, Wilsoni, and Shepherdi, or Hodginsii, as it is often called, the leaves are large and more or less oval; in camelliæ folia they are often 5 to 6 inches long, 2 inches wide at the base, tapering at the apex to a point. In ovata they are medium sized and ovate, the largest being scarcely 2 inches long; in Donningtonensis the leaves are about 3 inches long and very narrow; in Handsworthensis they are very small, and in ferox, the Hedgehog Holly, intensely spiny. Many varieties have gold and silver variegated leaves, as Golden Queen and Silver Queen. The Milkmaid Hollies, aurea medio-picta, and argentea medio-picta, have the centres of the leaves gold and silver-coloured respectively, while the margins are of deep green. In such sorts as camelliæfolia, nigres cens, balearica, &c., spines are but seldom found, while many others are more spiny than the common type. Ilex Aquifolium is repre. sented at Kew by about 80 varieties, a few of the handsomest specimens being I. A. nigrescens, 30 feet high and perfect in form; altaclarensis, 25 feet by 20 feet; Golden Queen, 15 feet high; camelliæfolia, upwards of 30 feet high; and In addition to I. Aquifolium, numerous other species are represented by fine specimens, such as I. cornuta, I crenata, I. dipyrena, I. integra, I. latifolia, I. opaca, and others. The collection of Hollies is to be found behind the Temperate House, and of most sorts there representatives. The larger specimens are grown on the outskirts of lawns, a circular patch of open ground, 10 feet in diameter, being left around each plant. The younger and smaller specimens are in large corner beds on the same lawns. Every second year they are examined, when the leaders are set right, and any necessary pruning done. This pruning consists of thinning out, rather than of cutting back shoots, the object being to prevent any. thing like a stiff appearance. The variegated varieties are examined annual.y for the purpose of removing branches that are not of the correct colour. The formal trained Hollies near the Palm House are pruned into shape once a year, the work usually being done in August. The pruning is performed with knives or secateurs, to avoid mutilating the leaves, as is done when shears are used. The largest specimens near the Palm House are of Ilex Aquifolium, the smaller ones being gold and silver-coloured varieties. All of these are very old plants, and men who have been at Kew for upwards of 30 years, state that they can see very little difference in the size of the specimens during the time they have known them, which shows what an amount of clipping Hollies may be subjected to without causing them serious injury. A descriptive account of the varieties of Holly which existed at that time, by the late Thomas Moore, with illustrations of the leaves of most of them, was commenced in the Gardeners Chronicle, Oct. 3, 1874, p. 432, and completed in the issue for Nov. 11, 1876, p. 616.

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AN AUTUMN ROSE SHOW.-We may remind our readers that the third autumn show, under the auspices of the National Rose Society, will be held in the Royal Horticultural Hall, Westminster, on Wednesday next, September 19, and will be for one day only. An interesting feature of this year's show will be the class for "hips" and foliage of nine distinct species or varieties of Rose. Some Roses, of which R. rugosa is an excellent example, have exceedingly decorative fruits, and the exhibits will be instructive to the public. The President's cup will be awarded in this class.

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BOTANICAL MAGAZINE.-The following plants are described and figured in the number for September.

FICUS KRISHNE C. DC., tab. 8,092.-A species nearly allied to F. bengalensis. Its native habitat is not known, the cultivated examples having arisen from a branch obtained from a private garden in Calcutta. It is described as a small tree with grey bark, and is especially remarkable on account of its cup-shaped leaves, having the upper surface of the leaf outside; the inside of the cup thus being formed by the under side of the leaf. Interesting particulars of this new species, which the Indians are said to invest with a sacred character, are given by Dr. PRAIN, and a botanical diagnosis is provided by Mr. C. DE CANDOLLE, whose plant formed receptacles in 1905.


CATASETUM GALERITUM VAR. tab. 8,093.-This is a variety differing from the type (as first described in the Gardeners' Chronicle by REICHENBACH in 1889, vol. 1, p. 73), in having the front lobe of the lip nearly square, exceedingly thick and obtuse-angled, with very thick borders underneath, leaving a groove in the middle. The figure here given has been prepared from specimens received from Sir TREVOR LAWRENCE, Bart., in February last, and the description is by Mr. R. A. ROLFE.

RIBES VIBURNIFOLIUM, tab. 8,094.-This is a species from Lower California and Santa Catalina Island. The plate here given has been prepared from a plant growing at Kew on a wall in the herbaceous department, where it has grown to a height of 7 feet. Mr. S. A. SKAN describes the plant as a straggling, evergreen shrub, which flowers in March at Kew, and its brilliant red berries persist until the succeeding year.

LINOSPADIX MICHOLITZII, tab. 8,095.-See Mi. RIDLEY'S description in Gardeners' Chronicle, Sertember 7, 1895, p. 262.

CEREUS SCHEERII, tab. 8,096.-Mr. N. E. BROWN describes this species as having been discovered by Mr. J. POTTS, near Chihuahua, in Mexico, and sent by him to Mr. FREDERICK SCHEEP, of Kew, prior to 1850. The plant flowered in 1900 and during the two succeeding years, but subsequently died. A note from the late director of Kew Gardens, Sir W. T. THISELTON DYER, K.C.M.G., states that FREDERICK SCHEER was an independent botanist who for some time resided at Kew and particularly devoted himself to the study of Cactacea. He published in 1840 an excellent account of Kew under the title of "Kew and its Gardens" This and other actions were largely effective in averting the breaking up of the collections which had been contemplated, and in their being taken over by the nation from the Crown.

FLOWERS IN SEASON.-Amongst flowers that have been in season during the past month are Montbretias, and, in gardens where they are cultivated successfully, the bright yellow and deep orange-coloured flowers have been produced in greater profusion than usual. A box of flowers sent us by Messrs. WALLACE & Co., Colchester, represent some of the best and most recent varieties raised by Mr. G. DAVISON, of Westwick Gardens, Norwich, who has succeded in obtaining such excellent and distinct varieties that they form a strain greatly superior to those previously in cultivation. The best of these, and indeed the best Montbretia we have seen, is the variety Prometheus, which grows from 3 to 4 feet in height, and has much branched inflorescences of deeply-coloured flowers, each of which 1s 3 inches or more across. They are of rich orange colour, with crimson markings at the centre. King Edmund is a rich yellow variety, marked with deep brown-coloured spots inside, and deeper yelice outside. Westwick is a distinct variety, having a ring of crimson colour encircling the clear yellow-coloured centre. The other parts

of the petals are of bright orange red on the interior, and deep red on the exterior. Some of the flowers are 3 inches across, and the petals are of good width. Ernest Davison is marked in the centre much in the same way as the previous variety, and the flowers open until they are quite flat; in colour they are a deeper shade of orange than some others, and the exterior is flushed with red.

Hereward has much recurved flowers, of pale orange colour. St. Botolph has pure yellow flowers of very large size, but the yellow deepens into orange on the exterior. This variety is described as growing 4 feet high. The deepest coloured of all the varieties is one known as Lord Nelson, and its shading of orange-red and crimson affords a fine contrast to the yellow varieties, such, for instance, as Lady Hamilton, whose yellow blooms have only a suspicion of reddishorange colour in the centre. This last-mentioned variety is among the most charming. Many gardeners complain that Montbretias do not succeed well in their localities, but in districts where the older varieties do succeed, as, for instance, in the Isle of Wight, where they appear in almost every cottage garden, these newer sorts being so extra vigorous may be expected to thrive even more perfectly.

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NEW INSECT PEST ON LARCH.-The Board of Agriculture and Fisheries desire us to draw attention to the occurrence on the Larch of an insect, hitherto unrecorded, in destructive abundance in this country. The insect in question (Nematus Erichsonii) is a species of sawfly, the larva of which bears considerable superficial resemblance to the Gooseberry caterpiliar, and to the caterpillar of the Pine sawfly. The larvæ are about three quarters of an inch long and possess 20 feet. They feed upon the leaves of the Larch from about the middle of July till the end of August. At the present time, therefore, few larvæ are to be found, but trees that have been attacked can be readily distinguished by their more or less leafless condition, and amongst the moss, grass, and leaves underneath such trees the brown cylindrical cocoons will be discovered. Where this is the case the surface-covering of the ground should be collected and burned. So far, serious damage has only been reported from Cumberland, where, however, the health if not the life of an extensive Larch plantation is in danger, It is of the utmost impor ance that outbreaks should be discovered at

an early stage, so that they may be suppressed while still of restricted extent. The Board are preparing an illustrated account of the insect, which will be published in the October issue of their Journal.

PREVENTION OF CORRUPTION BILL." This measure received the Royal Assent three weeks ago, and will become operative on January 1, 1907. ... There can be no doubt that a measure of this kind has for long been needed. Many men who have been successful in retail business - including, unfortunately, a few persons connected with the trade in drugs have owed a large portion of their prosperity to the systematic tipping' of butlers and other domestic servants. Large commercial contracts have been obtained from public councils and local authorities because the contractors have 'greased the palm of the salaried officers whose duty it is to ensure that the ratepayers' money is well spent. There are many men in high positions who have at some time or other neglected their duty to their employers for the sake of gain; and it is to be feared that not all buyers in the employ of commercial firms can be regarded as wholly incorruptible. In some instances the acceptance by an employee of a secret commission has not been regarded as a moral delinquency, for the reason that the practice has been so common as to be 'winked at' by the employer. But it should hardly be necessary to point out that even connivance of this kind does not excuse corruptness of motive on the part of those giving and receiving bribes, and it will be of no avail as a defence to criminal proceedings under the new Act."-Pharmaceutical Journal.

NEW PUBLIC PARK FOR SHERBORIJE.-The late J. K. D. WINGFIELD-DIGBY, Esq., of Sherborne Castle, had announced his intention of presenting a park to the town of Sherborne in commemoration of his son's coming of age on September 5, 1906, but, unfortunately, Mr. DIGBY died on Christmas Day, 1901. His son and heir to the estates has, however, generously redeemed his father's promise and given the land for the park. It may be remembered that a very successful pageant was held at Sherborne last year, with the result that a handsome sum was obtained after

paying all expenses. With the greater part of this amount it was decided to lay out as a park the land between the railway station and the town, so generously given by the present owner of Sherborne Castle. The design submitted by Messrs. ROBERT VEITCH & SON, of Exeter, was accepted, and a most attractive park has been made, the work being executed under the superintendence of the late Mr. MEYER. About 150 tons of stone have been introduced to form rockeries, while water has been led in to form a lake, and many hundreds of alpine plants, shrubs, aquatic plants, and ornamental trees planted. The new park is to be known as the Pageant Gardens.

APPLES IN THE UNITED STATES.-A correspondent writing in The Times for September 7 gives some interesting particulars of an Apple census which has been taken in the United States, and relates that there are now 200,000,000 fruiting Apple trees in America, and the industry is still being extended each year. Orchards are being planted at a rapid rate in California, Washington, and Oregon. This season the American Apple shippers announce that they will send between 4,000,000 and 4,500,000 bushels of Apples from their ports, the bulk of which are to come to Great Britain. Tons of the Colorado Newtown Pippins will be sent into Covent Garden market, especially during the Christmas season. A well-known firm of fruitbrokers has secured a very large quantity of the largest and finest Apples of their class from this centre, and they will all come to London at Christmas time. These giant fruits will be packed in one bushel boxes, and it is estimated that the London buyers will readily pay 20s a bushel for


four other buds appearing in the axils of other leaves around the base of the flower stalk. The flower scapes are simple, bearing only one bloom, which rises just above the foliage, and is about one and a quarter inches in diameter. The Probably, in older and stronger plants, the flower stalks will be longer, as shown in Dr. Prain's figure in the Calcutta Annals. The petals are of light blue colour. The stamens are numerous, with yellow anthers, while the filaments are of a dark purple colour, which give the flower the appearance of possessing a round purple disk at the base of the petals when first observed.

fem. Although all the orchards are sprayed, yet the grub of the codlin moth chiefly destroys on an average 20 per cent. of the crop. It is estimated that the lowest computable loss from this one pest alone is £4,000,000 per annum. In addition, it costs an average of 4d. to spray each tree. American Apple-grower spends something like £3,333,333 on spraying. Despite these drawbacks, Apple culture is the most promising branch of agriculture in the States. The fertility of some of the fully-matured trees is remarkable. An observer in the Colorado Apple districts states that he has seen as many as 50 bushels of fruit gathered from one tree. The general average is a poor one against such a crop as this. In the Newtown growing districts 3s. and 4s. a bushel are paid for best Apples. It is said that in 10 years' time the Apple harvest of the United States will be doubled; nevertheless the home consumption trebles itself every ten years. Over-production is thus impossible.

BEES STUPEFIED BY POLLEN.-Our valued correspondent, Mr. W. E. GUMBLETON, in writing to us of an American single-flowered Dahlia, distributed by Mr. DREER, of Philadelphia, under the name of Twentieth Century," states that the florets are persistent for twice as long as those of ordinary single Dahlias, and that the pollen has such an effect bees seid from the flowers to the ground in a quite stupid condition.

The plants were raised from seeds received from the Calcutta Botanic Garden, with other species of Meconopsis, early in 1904. A good percentage of the seeds sown germinated, and, when large enough to be handled, were pricked off into pans in much the same manner as adopted with other species, though, being Some smaller, they required rather more care. were left in these pans, while others were this year potted into small pots, but little appreci able difference could be observed in the strength of those grown by either method.

The mixture of soil used here is one of peat and sand, with a small addition of loam. A cold frame with a northern exposure until the plants are well established is found to give the best results for th for this species. Although this plant has previously been

and curly multifid tassels, and the frond a much larger, rather corymbiferous one, the whole having a peculiarly neat appearance. The term canaliculata has been applied owing to the frond forming a kind of half tube, or channel, due to the inward curvature of the side divisions, as shown in the illustration, by two sections, and from which it will also be seen that the frond narrows at its base. The variety is a noteworthy addition to the many extraordinary sports which have quite suddenly characterised this species in the last few years after decades of cultivation on perfectly constant lines. It has been Mr. May's good fortune to introduce the majority of these as sports originating in his own nursery. The abundance of these varieties occurring within so short a period suggests that Prof. de Vries' theory of the occasional occurrence of periods of mutation or sudden change in specific forms is not without foundation. C. T. Druerv, V.M.H., F.L.S.


"Upper half of Frond

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Publications Received.-Guide to the Experimental Plots at the Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden (1906), price 1s.-The Midland Agricultural and Dairy College-reports on experiments with crops and stock.-Kew Bulletin, containing, among other matters, an article relating to diseased Apples and Melons from the Cape of Good Hope, notes on Sydney Botanic Gardens, Irish Gardens, and descriptions of new plants. Travaux Scientifiques de L'Université de Rennes, Tome IV., 1905.-A Year in my Garden, by Mrs. Arthur Tuckett, published by Melville & Mullen, Melbourne, price 5s.-A Book of English Gardens, by M. R. Gloag, illustrated by Katherine Montagu Wyatt, and published by Methuen & Co., price 10s. 6d.-Practical Trapping of Vermin and Birds, by W. Carnegie, published by L. Upcott Gill, price 1s.

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THIS species of Meconopsis is distinct from all others of the genus, and is the only known representative of the group Bellæ. It is a very diminutive little plant of perennial habit, with small radical leaves about an inch or little more in length. These are deeply divided, and have been well described as Corydalis-like by Dr. P'rain. They form a small cushion upon the I rain. They form a small cushion upon the soil. The plant now flowering here (see fig. 81, p. 198 has one opened flower, with

grown, this is the first occasion of its having flowered, so far as is known. Perhaps, with a race of plants raised from British-grown seed, the stock may become more naturalised to our climatic conditions, and consequently stronger. Should this be so the species will soon become more common in cur gardens. It is figured in the Annals of the Calcutta Botanic Garden in part one of Vol. IX., and is a native of the Eastern Himalaya, at an elevation of 12,000 or more feet. R. L. Harrow, Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, August, 1906. [See also an article by Dr. Prain on the species of Meconopsis which was published in the Gardeners' Chronicle for June 17, 1905.--ED.]



THIS is a recent "sport" introduced by Mr. H. B. May which recently received an Award of Merit from the Floral Committee of the Royal Horticultural Society. It is quite distinct from the numerous other varieties of the species which have originated of late years, the fronds being not merely furcate or cristate, as in previous forms, but they are also symmetrically narrowed. The pinnæ are incurved, bearing somewhat congested


OWING to the late frosts and the general cold weather in spring time, picking did not com mence as early in the season as is usual, and. the dry weather during June and July caused the crops to finish rapidly. Many of the "King" berries were frosted, thus the early and the midseason crops were ready almost simultaneously. Kentish growers appear well satisfied with the season's results, although at one time there was a glut. I find that the variety Sir J. Paxton still remains the favourite, but Royal Sovereign precedes it by about seven days and commands much favour. Laxton's Fillbasket has given great satisfaction, and "The Laxton" has also cropped freely, and, as one grower significantly remarked, "We don't cat them ourselves," the bulk of crop being the chief consideration. The dry season favoured this variety, which is temarkable for its cropping qualities. The Bedford Champion is under trial and will be a great gain in producing those "giant" berries which sell so readily in punnets. Mildew has been rather troublesome in North Kent. dealing with our own field-grown plants, w crop a limited number only, as we grow pri cipally for a supply of plants. Royal Soverig

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