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of fruit and flowers in aid of the above Fund, and Mr. T. NEVE, the local honorary secretary, was thus enabled to forward to London the sum of £5 Os. 3d.

PRESENTATION.-The employés of the Warren House Estate and Gardens presented Mr. C. J. ELLIS, on the occasion of his recent marriage, with a handsome marble clock.

time in the Allington Fruit Tree Nurseries, where they were deeply interested in the abundant crops of Apples upon the orchard trees and the plot of 400 kinds of Bush Apples on the Paradise stock. There was ocular demonstration of the systems of culture and pruning to be followed if home growers are to hold their own against foreign competitors. The various operations of propagation


(See note in last issue, page 169.)

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THE PREVENTION OF COMMERCIAL CORRUPTION.-The Florists' Exchange in reprinting from our pages some remarks on this subject adds that "There will always be, we fear, different and differing views held on the very objectionable practice of giving and receiving commissions, and the evil has become so common and is so deeply engrained in mankind generally that it will be difficult to eradicate it, even though the effort be backed by law. Not long ago, after the appearance of some comments on the subject of "Gardeners' Graft" in our columns, we received a communication setting forth that the man who knew where to purchase goods profitably to his employer was entitled to any commission that the seller might see fit to give the gardener. The writer of that letter evidently did not consider that the wages he was receiving from his employer were paid to him to do the very best he could for those he was serving, both in the buying of goods and in every other way. A Philadelphia firm recently announced publicly by advertisement that it paid a certain commission to all gardeners buying of that particular concern. That seems to us to be one way of minimizing "graft"; for employers are thereby made aware that gardeners purchasing goods in that seed store would receive a "rake-off"; and, no doubt, would see to it that the same was credited to the actual buyer, and not his agent. As our London contemporary says: "There will be a difficulty in awakening the consciences of the recipients of commissions whether given by local or foreign tradesmen, for there are some men, too many, alas, with whom the eighth commandment is a dead letter; men who are willing to sink their manhood to the lowest level provided they can work for their own pockets all the time. For such men law has no terrors, and DANTE'S Inferno is but a chimera. So what's the use?"

THE LASTING PROPERTY OF CLEMATIS FLOWERS. The blossoms of Clematis Jackmanii, when removed from the plant as soon as they expand, will remain fresh for a week even in such a temperature as we have been enjoying (!) in this country lately. The flowers of this variety and others should find more employment in bouquets, and the various designs of the florist and floral decorator than is the case at the present time. Die Bindekunst.

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A BED planted with this Mexican labiate commenced to flower in June and is now at its best. It makes a freely-branching, compact bush about 2 feet high, and has a strong but not disagreeable odour when handled. The whole of the inflorescence is of a rich rosy-purple colour, so that when the flowers drop it is still attractive. The species is not, however, hardy, but requires to be lifted and kept in a frame during the winter, or fresh plants should be raised from seeds sown either in autumn or spring.

MALVASTRUM LATERITIUM. FOR Covering a large space quickly this plant is most suitable, for while not growing more than 10 inches high, the creeping stems with their dark green leaves soon make a good-sized carpet, studded with pale brick-red flowers produced on long stalks. A native of South America it is a hardy perennial, and it is growing and flowering freely in the present hot weather.


ONE of the handsomest plants belonging to this genus, C. babylonica, a hardy perennial, is an attractive object when well grown. It has bold foliage and stems reaching a height of 6 to 8 feet, covered nearly the whole length with yellow flowers. The stems and leaves are clothed with a white cottony down, giving the plant a silvery

appearance. The species was introduced into this country nearly a century ago, but is seldom seen except in Botanic Gardens. The plants will grow in any good garden soil. The species is found in Asia Minor and Syria.


THIS plant was first distributed by Herr Max Leichtlin in 1905 as Gentiana sp. It is now flowering, and has proved to be the true G. ornata, being quite distinct from the plant wrongly called by this name and figured in the Botanical Magazine, t. 6514. A native of the Eastern Himalayas and Sikkim, it occurs at elevations between 11,000 and 15,000 feet and is somewhat variable in habit. The present plant is of tufted habit, with many stems 5 to 6 inches long, narrow fleshy leaves, and solitary terminal flowers. These are about the size of those of G. septemfida and of a charming turquoise blue, the outside of the flower tube being conspicuously marked with dull purple and buff coloured stripes. It is evidently a free flowering plant and easy to grow, succeeding well in a moist and shady position.

which are produced the Nicotiana-like flowers. One of the handsomest Pentstemons in flower at the present time is P. cordifolius, which is a shrubby, but only half hardy, species from California. The scarlet flowers are produced in great profusion on long, somewhat straggling, branches. It is usually killed in the winter even against a wall, except in the southern counties, but propagation by cuttings is readily effected, and plants may be kept through the winter in a cold frame. Carlina acaulis, with its curious thistle-like appearance and large flower heads, is also conspicuous in a bed by itself. Two late-flowering Dianthus are D. Noëanus from Rumelia, with narrow, grass-like foliage and white flowers with laciniated petals, and D. pinifolius from Greece, with light purple flowers in heads of three or four. Geum speciosum is a rare plant now in flower. It is a Caucasian species, found in 1891 by M. Alboff, who also was the means of introducing Campanula mirabilis. It has leaves similar to those of G. montanum, with orange-yellow colcared flowers produced on stems which grow about 1 foot high. W. I., Sept. 2.





is an ornamental Plantain from Siberia with large leaves, after the style of our native P. major. Its most distinctive feature is the long cylindrical head of flowers borne on a tall stem. The long stamens have a feathery appearance, and as the white flowers are produced freely the plant is very attractive. Plants raised from seeds sown in the spring flower the same year, and as a quantity of seed is produced on each plant it should soon become plentiful.


is a charming little Composite from the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, and grows about 1 foot high. It is of neat, compact habit, with small leaves and numerous yellow flowers about 1 inch in diameter. The most suitable place for this plant is in the rock garden, although it has also flowered well in the open border.

MISCELLANEOUS SPECIES. THERE are many other interesting plants now in flower including Cacalia tuberosa from North America, with its large Plantain-like leaves, and stems 3 to 4 feet high, bearing singular looking flowers which are those of ordinary Composites. Jaborosa integrifolia is an interesting creeping plant from Buenos Ayres, forming a mass of dark-green foliage, amongst


ONE of the oases in the great City of London are the outer precincts of, St. Paul's Cathedral, for they are laid out as lawns and flower beds, with fountains wherein the City birds splash and lave. Around the base of the fountains and along the numerous paths, with which the whole is intersected, are seats for the tired City worker or the visitor. The vegetation could hardly be described as vigorous, for apart from the sulphurous laden atmosphere the plants do not enjoy much light or air, the great dome casting its shadow around all, and the neighbouring houses approaching near to its walls. However, the most is made of the opportunities, and it is pleasant to look upon the grass and to enjoy the seclusion and quiet which the spot affords. One of the open spaces near to the Watling Street entrance has been laid out as a flower bed (fig. 75) against a background of shrubs. This piece of bedding has for its design the City of London's Arms and Motto worked out in carpet bedding. The quarterings of the shield are composed of Mesembryanthemum cordifolium variegatum, the cross and dagger being formed with Alternanthera. The whole of the shield is outlined with a broad band of the commonThrift. In front is a circular band in which is worked the motto, Domine dirige nos, the letter

being composed of golden coloured Pyrethrum on a ground-work of Saxifraga. Beyond is a row of Thrift, and the whole is completed by a line of Echeveria secunda glauca. Other flowers in the bed, apart from those used in the armorial design, are Pelargoniums, Koeniga (Alyssum) maritima, Celcsias, Marguerites, Antirrhinums, Liliums, and a solitary specimen of Humea elegans. The shrubs at the back comprise Hollies, Privet, Aucubas, Prunus Pissardi, which looks very uncomfortable, and right under the wall a straggling specimen of the. Tree of Heaven, Ailanthus glandulosus.


FROM Mr. T. Smith, of the Newry Nurseries, we have received a spray of this distinct species of Spiræa (see fig. 76). Were the leaves seen by themselves, they might almost be mistaken for those of the common Milfoil, their superficial appearance closely resembling that plant. They are about 3 inches long, bipinnate, and very much sub-divided along the pinnæ. On their upper surface they are greyish-green and glabrous, but beneath they are covered with a dark-coloured tomentum. The whole of the shoot is of a sticky character, and even the brown-coloured stem is viscid. The flowers are produced in a terminal compound raceme, the example sent having an inflorescence about 6 inches in length. The individual flowers are of small size and not unlike those of the wild Fragaria vesca, the white petals being set off by a centre of numerous yellow stamens. The plant is by no means common in gardens, although it was introduced into this country from California in 1880. It forms a bush from 2 to 6 feet in height, and is hardy in favoured parts of this country. The plant has numerous synonyms.

Mr. Smith also sends us sprays in flower of Polygonum Sachaliense, one of the handsomest Knotweeds in cultivation, forming, as it does, clumps 6 to 8 feet high of graceful wand-like stems, with their accompanying bold truncate leaves.

FORCING FRUIT TREES IN POTS. (Continued from page 158.)


FRUIT trees growing in pots require to be repotted every year. I have frequently been asked how often we pot our trees, and when the answer is given "every autumn," some surprise is expressed. It is, however, necessary to do this. I would not say that the trees would not succeed the second year, but after that, the soil becoming exhausted. growth would be weaker, the trees being then dependent mainly upon extra feeding. We like to commence potting the earlier forced trees by the middle of September, time is thus allowed for the roots to make fresh growth before winter. The "ball" of each tree is carefully reduced with a small two-tined claw, a process that is readily accomplished after a little practice. Sufficient of the old soil is taken away to permit of the tree being put back into a pot of the same size, as a rule, and sufficient space left that fresh soil can be worked down all round the Toots, and made firm with potting sticks. A good layer of fresh soil is also placed over the crocks, and a moderate amount over the surface of the roots. In instances of trees that have a tendency to thrive above the average degree a larger size of pot is employed, and if others give indications of weakness at the root they are put into smaller pots. Our smallest trees are in 10-inch pots, and others are in larger sizes up to about 15 inches diameter for the largest. It must be an exceptional case to have larger pots than the largest in use here. To pot firmly is most essential, and at the same time carefully, so that no vacant space is left

next the pot. To say that pots must be clean is almost superfluous; but the drainage, which in amount should be quite up to the average, should be composed of clean materials also. We prefer to place all the trees under glass as soon as they are repotted. Then, if given one good soaking of water, they will stand for some time. When the weather is warm and dry they are syringed at least once each day, otherwise, with some few leaves still upon them, there may be a tendency to shrivel. I try to keep these

always used some of the Banstead loam-say about two-fifths. (I said up to the present, that is, up to last autumn, but I have now ceased to use this loam for anything, as the quality has so much deteriorated. It is not now worth, in my opinion, one-third of its cost.) I now ob. tain all the special loam for fruit trees and other plants from Kettering, in Northamptonshire. This is worth three times as much as the Banstead loam, and there is no waste with it. I can get this Kettering loam delivered to our

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leaves fresh for a time, and success in doing so indicates that all is well with the trees. In housing these newly-potted trees, they are stood pot to pot, or nearly so; thus we can accommodate the trees of four houses in one house with ease, thereby saving room for the late trees and for such catch crops as Chrysanthemums, &c.


This should be of as good a quality as it is possible to obtain. We have, up to the present,

nearest goods station for 5s. per ton less than I paid for that from Banstead. The new loam needs tempering with one of lighter character, and for this purpose we use a good local loam with some iron in it; of this loam about another two-fifths is added. The remaining fifth is made up of old mortar rubble after it has been pulverised down to the size of small nuts, or less, also of some well decomposed manure, such as that procurable from a spent hotbed. This mixture, after being turned a few times,

should be kept dry for the better handling when used for potting. We let it lay for a few weeks in the heap before it is used. Loam of a calcareous character, that is, one having a proportion of lime in it, is most essential, from whatever source it may be obtained.




We make it a practice to top-dress the trees during the time of growth; this is done during the stoning period, so that the roots may derive benefit from this addition when the fruits commence to swell quickly. For this top-dressing we use a mixture of good loam (Kettering, this spring) with decomposed manure, and, in addition, manure that is now advertised in the gardening papers, and known as "Hop Manure (Wakeley's). This manure is chiefly composed of spent Hops, and it suits almost any kind of fruit tree in pots; Fig trees, in particular, root into the top-dressing thus made with great rapidity. I have not had this Hop manure analysed, but I believe it contains a good proportion of both phosphates and potash as constituents. The top-dressing is applied firmly around the sides of the pot, well up above the rims, and in such a way as to provide for the watering process nearer to the stems. Later in the season, say when the fruits are all gathered, the top-dressing will be found to be percolated with roots throughout, hence it is the means of providing such plant food as tends to build up the trees for another season.


Some fears may be entertained that fruit trees in pots are much trouble in this direction ;such, however, is not the case. If I might draw a comparison, I should say that Chrysanthemums want quite as much attention. After re-potting, extra care is necessary in order to guard against the old balls becoming too dry and the new soil too moist. When writing of re-potting, I should have stated that whenever a tree is found to be dry at the root it is placed in a tub and soaked before it is turned out of the pot. When forcing is commenced, the atmosphere of the house is kept in a humid condition by both syringing and damping down, and thus we prevent frequent watering at the roots. As growth commences, first with the opening of the flowers and the young leaf growth that so soon follows, it is necessary to make sure that the trees do not suffer from either extreme. With a little practice in the watering, it will soon become an easy matter. Later on, when in full growth, an abundant supply is needed, for drought then would be most injurious.



When the fruits are swelling freely, say when as large as the common nut, an occasional application of manure is beneficial. At first, I recommend the use of an artificial compound in which both phosphates and potash are impor tant factors; such, for instance, as a compound containing from 25 to 30 per cent. of soluble phosphates, 18 to 20 per cent. insoluble phosphates, and 2 to 3 per cent. of potash. phosphates are most important in the cultivation of stone fruits for the proper development of the "stone" and kernel, without which it is impossible to secure good fruits. This same manure may contain 4 to 5 per cent of ammonia, which will excite root action. The better method of application is to take a pinch between the thumb and finger for a smaller size, and between the thumb and two fingers for a larger size pot. Such an application if given once a week will be productive of good results when average crops are swelling, rather more being applied for heavy crops. As the fruits begin to swell freely after stoning, liquid manure will then serve a good purpose, but an application once a week will be ample, this taking the place of the artificial manure. Cease giving any manure when colouring has well set in; depend then rather upon close attention to the ordinary watering.


When a good set of fruit has been secured guard against any temptation to crop the trees too heavily, but do not thin rashly. I am now thinking more Nectarines, particularly of Peaches, and Plums. It does not do to thin Cherries too freely; one must watch these very closely and be quite sure that the fruits will swell, then thinning can be done with a pair of vine scissors. In any case, bear in mind that a heavy crop means smaller fruit, with the same development of stone, but with a lesser degree of fleshy matter around it. It is a difficult matter to say how many Cherries a tree should bear; one must judge for one's self, taking into consideration the health of the tree and its leaf development. Our smaller trees of both Nectarines and Peaches will carry from 6 to 8 fruits, the medium-sized trees up to 12 and 15 fruits, and the largest up to 20 and 24 fruits. Plums will carry about one-third more in numbers. J. Hudson, Gunnersbury House Gardens. (To be continued.)


(The Editor does not hold himself responsible for the opinions expressed by his correspondents.) OUTDOOR PEACH CULTURE. Writers on this subject seem to infer that Peach leaf blister is of somewhat recent trouble. I well remember how injurious a pest it was as long since as 1850 even in so comparatively warm a locality as that of Southampton; nevertheless, very fine Peaches were produced there. One of our best open wall Peach growers was the late Mr. Lindsay, of Ditton Park Gardens, Slough. His Peach wall 30 years ago was one of the best in the kingdom, and in spite of blister, and an entire absence of canvas or other protection, his crops of fruit were almost marvellous. But in the old days gardeners had no greater object for pride in their gardens than in showing fine clean Peach walls. Is there less capacity to cultivate such trees now? I think not. The difficulty lies now, I fear, in our very prolonged, cold, ungenial springs, for without cold the blister fungus seems comparatively harmless. Peach trees are hardy, certainly, but the young leafage is comparatively tender and seems to need shelter from cold in the spring quite as much as the bloom does. D.

On p. 167 M. M. N. mentions as a reason why the Peach is not more generally grown out of doors that the fruits have but poor flavour. My experience is just the reverse, and I have heard many ladies and gentlemen remark "Give me a good Peach from outside, they are very much nicer! W. A. Cook.

Mr. Ward appears to treat "blister" very lightly. Although Devon may be a favoured county, some of its gardens are not in ideal spots, and many suffer from the effects of cold, and in an ungenial spring "blister" is very serious. I am aware that removing the blistered leaves is the only remedy, but when the disease is severe, entailing the removal of a large proportion of the foliage, all the trees do not recover readily; that is my experience in North Devon.

BEECH TREES AND LIGHTNING.—I should be glad if any reader of the Gardeners' Chronicle can corroborate this incident. Seventeen or 18 years ago, when I was but a lad living at home in Hampshire, we had a very heavy thunderstorm, accompanied by vivid, forked lightning, and a Beech tree was struck by lightning on the Rotherfield Park Estate, at East Tisted, near Alton, Hants. The tree stood in the hollow opposite the end of Winchester Wood nearest the mansion. I have always remembered it as a Beech tree and am almost sure I am correct, but as it happened so long since and I was only a lad at the time, I cannot be sure. No doubt there are still some living on the estate that were there at the time I mention, and they could tell us if I am right or wrong. W. A. H., Dulwich Common.

I believe it to be a rare occurrence, but I saw one Beech tree, say about eight years ago, which had been struck by lightning. It was in West Berks, and the tree stood in the middle of a wood which was comprised mostly of Beeches, the majority of which were from 50 to 70 feet in height and 4 feet to 5 feet in circumference. This one was broken off by the lightning probably at about from 20 to 25 feet from the ground, and the stump which was left standing was splintered so much that it

resembled a large bundle of plaster laths wrapped round with a piece of bark. All the way down one side a strip of the bark was taken out by the: lightning, otherwise the tree was sound. F. M.

The Beech tree is not altogether immunefrom the attacks of lightning, inasmuch as about 15 years ago, to the best of my recollection, when upon a casual visit to see Wyddrington House, Edgbaston, the interesting seat of J. E. Wilson, Esq., the head gardener, Mr. Wm. Jinks, pointed out to us growing in close proximity to the conservatory adjoining the house a tall old Beech tree near the carriage drive, and which had been struck by lightning a few weeks previously. As the whole of the foliage had become shrivelled the tree was condemned to be cut down as past recovery, though strangely there was no other evidence of injury to either bole, branch, or the bark; apparently the comparative smoothness of the bark of the tall and upright bole acted as a more facile conductor of the electric fluid than that of a large-branched and rugged-barked one. Mr. Jinks drew particular attention to this circumstance in evidence of the fact that the Beech was not altogether immune from lightning. Mr. Jinks was only a few yards distant from the tree when it was struck, and distinctly saw the electric fluid piss down the tree in question and appear to enter the ground without leaving any symptoms of disruption. Fortunately, though considerably shocked, he himself was not injured. It may be added that the tree constituted one of the boundary trees of several other kinds forming a large clump. It is interesting to observe the curious behaviour of lightning when in contact with trees, and I have witnessed a few curious instances during a long life, one of the most remarkable being that which occurred some 12 months ago within a quarter of a mile from my abode. One sultry forenoon, when passing along one of the main public roads here, the sky suddenly became cloudy, and a thunderstorm burst overhead; almost simultaneously a very tall and straight-boled Larch was struck by the electric fluid-as witnessed by myself and a friend who had taken shelter beneath a large Elm, only about 15 yards distant. The stricken tree was the only one of its kind in the long belt growing in close proximity to the roadside, and being somewhat taller than the others, with its pointed apex, no doubt it afforded a ready conductor to the fluid. Subsequent investigation proved that the tree did not exhibit any trace of injury excepting the scattering of a few small pieces of the exterior bark from the upper portion of the trunk, and at the present time the tree appears to be as flourishing as ever. The rain was of short duration and consisted of a few large drops only. The most remarkable feature, however, was the apparent course of transit of the fluid when leaving the Larch, it having passed to an adjacent tree-a variety of the English Elm growing about 6 feet distant, the only visible rupture being a slight abrasion of the bark close to the ground, immediately above one of the roots, about the size of a stout walking-stick, and which grew close beneath the surface of the soiltowards the low roadside embankment, and where its naturally bared root was found to be shorn of a portion of its bark. It should be noticed that the light, sandy soil round about was at the time in a very dry condition. William Gardiner, Harbone, Birmingham.

VEGETABLES AT SHREWSBURY.-(see p. 166). A. D. has certainly made a suggestion that most exhibitors in the vegetable classes at the late Shrewsbury show will heartily agree with. I refer to the proposal to form a champion class in which the exhibitors could meet each other without it being required that the produce has been raised from Messrs. So and So's seeds. There is the open class for 12 kinds, but the prizes in that class are quite unworthy the name of a rich society like Shrewsbury, and not comparable with those in the trade classes, hence the lack of keen competition. At the present time there are so many trade classes of equal value, or nearly so, that unless one were to buy seeds from each firm, in order to compete in each class, there could be no champion. The suggestion that all this year's prize-winners should compete in the champion class by compulsion, is, I think, hardly necessary, as anyone with the least pretension to become champion would need no inducement to urge him to compete. I feel quite certain that if the Shrewsbury authorities will consent to the suggestion that A. D. has put forward, there will be no lack of enthusiasm amongst the exhibitors. The conditions of such a

class should be made equal to all exhibitors, by stating beforehand the numbers of specimens permitted to each dish, and the maximum number of points to be given to each dish, after the system adopted in the fruit classes at Shrewsbury and in the vegetable class at Edinburgh last year. The suggestion will, doubtless, have the consideration of the Shrewsbury authorities, who are always anxious to do what they can for exhibitors and the public. Exhibitors have always been grateful to the trade for the encouragement they give to exhibitors of their specialities, and this appreciation will be none the less after the introduction of a champion class where the best of everything will have to be shown. James Gibson.

FRUIT IN KENT.-Apples are a fair crop, also Gooseberries, Raspberries and Currants; Pears in the open suffered severely from frost during April and May. Plums are quite a failure; Strawberries were a good crop. The soil here is from medium to heavy, resting on a gravel subsoil. J. Roberts, The Gardens, Broomhill, Tunbridge Wells.

LUTON HOO.-On paying a short visit to this beautiful place I was pleased to see the improvement that had been made during the last two years under the superintendence of Mr. A. Metcalfe. Extensive ranges of glass have been erected to grow fruit, plants and cut flowers. The Peaches and Nectarines appear wonderfully healthy, and have borne good fruits considering they have only been planted for two years. The kitchen garden looked as if no rain was wanted. Mr. Metcalfe has had water pipes put on the top of the wall all round the kitchen garden, thus the water is chilled before it is used, and can be applied to any part. Many cordon fruit trees have been planted. Some thousands of plants of Royal Sovereign Strawberry in 6-inch pots were plumping up well for early forcing. In the pleasure grounds the flower beds were very gay. There are some fine Conifers there that are well worth seeing. Mr. Metcalfe informed me that a Japanese garden, an Italian arden, and a huge rockery are features it is intended to add to the establishment. Visitor.

CARVING INITIALS AND NAMES ON TREES. -I am not surprised at Lord Durham prosecuting a man for carving his own and his wife's initials on the trunk of a tree at Lambton Park. Such vandalism is, unfortunately, far too often perpetrated, and the sooner a stop is put to the nuisance the better. The famous Beech trees at Knole Park, near Sevenoaks, which I visited some years ago with Lord Sackville, have been barbarously treated at the hands of the initial carver, while at the instigation of the late Earl of Derby I had the historic Wilberforce and Pitt Oaks fenced around to prevent similar injury. When I visited visited the picturesque Coney Island property of Lord Charlemont recently I was shocked at the mutilated stem of the Beech tree with the neverfailing well of water in its trunk, which is pointed out to privileged visitors to the beautiful and interesting island. But I could give numberless instances of this form of tree mutilation, which is by no means confined to Britishers as the addresses plainly show. A. D. Webster, Regent's Park, August 30, 1906.

"A CORNISH TRIP."-In Mr. Druery's interesting article on his tour in Cornwall, he alludes to the fine Cordyline australis in Mr. Howard Fox's garden at Rosehill, Falmouth, as probably the finest specimen in the country. It is, indeed, a splendid example, but its dimensions are a trifle exceeded by a specimen at Enys, which was raised from seed sent from the Antipodes 46 years ago. When I last measured Mr. Howard Fox's Cordyline it had a girth of 5 feet 5 inches at 1 foot from the ground, whereas at the same height the Enys specimen had a girth of 6 feet 1 inch. This example divides a short distance above the ground level into four main trunks, which are again subdivided into some 30 heads, 10 of which bore flower in 1904. Mr. Druery speaks of the tropical appearance produced by Calla (Richardia) athiopica [Africana], but this is seen nowhere to such advantage in the south-west as at Trelissick, where, in the first week in June, some thousands are in flower around the lake (see illustration in Gardeners' Chronicle, May 27, 1905), I may say that I was informed during a visit to Cornwall last spring that the Fern so largely grown in that country as Lomaria magellanica, and alluded to by Mr. Druery, was stated by the Kew authorities to be L. procera. Sir A. P. Vivian's seat is Bosahan not Basahan. S. W. Fitzherbert.


ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. Scientific Committee. AUGUST 28.-Present: Dr. Maxwell Masters, F.R.S., in the Chair; Messrs. Rolfe, Arthur Sutton, Geo. Massee, Worsley, Saunders, Hooper. Melon leaves.-Mr. MASSEE reported that the leaves submitted to him at the last meeting were sun-burnt and that there was no fungus present.

Diseased Deodar.-Mr. MASSEE reported that the trees were attacked by a species of Rosellinia. Leaflet No. 64 of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries gives an illustrated account of the fungus and the method of combating it.

Japanese Iris.-Some specimens in a diseased condition sent from Romsey were referred to Mr. MASSEE.

Aerial roots on Vines.-The following communication was read from the Rev. Prof. HENSLOW :

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Going over a florist's grounds and houses lately at Kenilworth, the florist called my attention to a peculiar coincidence. In a long row of vines, only one had aerial roots, and the Grapes on that plant only were much in advance in size (all were green) as compared with all the rest in the house. The root has a three-walled epidermis, the cells, of a thick cortex and pith, being three-walled, very compact, and full of water (no starch being present), with a feebly developed zone of phloum and xylem. On allowing a root to lose some of its water by evaporation, I placed it in water for 12 hours, the cut-end being in air. It gained 30 per cent. of its weight in recovering its former condition. I shall be glad to hear if other vinegrowers have noticed a similar coincidence, and, if so, whether they could trace any cause and effect. G. Henslow."

Potatos.-Mr. ARTHUR SUTTON exhibited fruits of Solanum Commersoni with well marked heartshaped, somewhat flattened, berries; berries of S. polyadenium, S. verrucosum, and of a reputed wild form of S. tuberosum were also shown. Two berries were exhibited from M. Labergerie's variety which were of a globose form, quite like those of an ordinary Potato. No fruits had, up to the present, been observed on plants of "Blue Giant," and up till 1904 M. Labergerie reported no fruits had been seen on his Potato. In the Journal of the Societé Nationale d'Agriculture de France M. Labergerie reports this year that the fruits on his Potato are not round, but pointed or heart-shaped, like those of the wild type, and when they approach the round berries of our Potatos they still have a characteristic "sillon" or indentation. Mr. SUTTON also showed various drawings to scale, by Mr. Worthington Smith, of S. Commersoni and its assumed derivative. The form of the pollen-grains and of the hairs on the petals was particularly interesting. Dr. MASTERS showed tracings and drawings of most of the species and varieties inspected near Reading by certain members of the Committee recently, when the members present failed to perceive any material difference between M. Labergerie's variety and "Blue Giant," whilst both were widely different from S. Commersoni.

Aristolochia elegans, &c.-Mr. WORSLEY showed flowers of this species from the vicinity of Rhodes's tomb in Rhodesia, to which locality it must have been introduced from Brazil. The West African A. Goldieana [see fig. 72] was also noticed as spreading widely in Africa. Fruit pods of Ceropegia Woodi were also exhibited, presenting the usual cylindrical narrow form.

Leaves of Planes.-Mr. HOOPER called attention to the singular provision for the protection of the buds at the base of the petiole, and asked for other examples of a similar kind.

Various diseased leaves.-Mr. SAUNDERS exhibited leaves affected by a species of Psylla, Box leaves affected with Sphærulina buxi, and Violet leaves attacked by Cercospora violæ.

THE LATE PROF. MARSHALL WARD.-On the proposition of the Chairman, it was decided to send a letter of condolence to the widow of Prof. MARSHALL WARD, for many years a valued member of the committee. THE LATE C. B. CLARKE.— Reference was also made to the sad death of this distinguished botanist.

THE NEXT MEETING.-It was decided that no meeting should be held on September 11, but that the business should be adjourned till September 25.

READING HORTICULTURAL. AUGUST 29.-The members of this society held their Jubilee Exhibition in Forbury Gardens, Reading, on the foregoing date. The number of entries exceeded those of last year, and a most successful show of flowers, fruit and vegetables resulted. Competition in many of the classes, notably those for fruit, was very keen. Four large tents were requisitioned to hold the exhihits. This being the 50th exhibition of the society, a luncheon, at which the Mayor of Reading (Mr. E. Jackson) presided, was held prior to the opening of the show.



An important class was one for a group of miscellaneous plants arranged for effect. Five exhibits were staged, by far the best being that from E. WAGG, Esq., The Islet, Maidenhead (gr. Mr. D. Phillips), Codiæums (Crotons) were feature of the group; 2nd, S. B. JOEL, Esq., Maiden Erleigh (gr. Mr. F. Johnson). In an open class for four stove and greenhouse Ferns, E. WAGG, Esq., was again successful. The best four stove or greenhouse plants were shown by J. B. TAYLOR, Esq., Sherfield Manor (gr. Mr. T. Brown). Fuchsias are always shown well at this show. J. F. FRIEDLANDER, Esq., Whiterights Park (gr. Mr. F. Bright), was, as is usual, 1st in the open class for six specimens; indeed, this made the 21st time in 23 years that Mr. Bright has gained first position for these plants. Miss K. RATCTIFFE, Westfield, Reading (gr. Mr. H. Booker), was 1st for three specimen Ferns; J. FRIEDLANDER, Esq., was 1st among four exhibitors for six doubleflowered Zonal Pelargoniums.


Dahlias were a feature in this section. The cactus varieties were above the average quality, and of these there were no fewer than 7 exhibits in a class for 36 blooms in 12 varieties. Messrs. J. CRAY & SONS, Frome, were placed 1st with a grand exhibit, the varieties Mrs. E. Mawley, of a clear yellow shade, and J. H. Jackson, a dark variety, were conspicuous; 2nd, Mr. J. WALKER, Thame. The latter led for 24 show or fancy Dahlias, and for 12 varieties Messrs. J. CHEAL & SONS, Crawley, were placed 1st. This firm also secured the leading awards in the open classes for single and pompom Dahlias.


Roses were well represented. Mr. G. PRINCE, Oxford, won for 18 varieties, a flower of Ben Cant being very prominent in his exhibit. Messrs. F. TAYLOR, Chipping Norton, were 1st for 12 varieties. Keen competition was shown in the class for 6 Roses (nurserymen excluded), C. E. KEYSER, Esq., Aldermaston Court (gr. Mr. A. Galt), being 1st among nine competitors. 1st prize in the class for 12 vases of any variety of cut flowers was taken by J. B. TAYLOR, Esq., his examples including Gloriosa virescens, Bougainvillea glabra, Carnation Raby Castle, Roses and Allamandas. The same exhibitor was also 1st for six vases of hardy flowers. Mr. W. PALMER, Andover Nurseries, was 1st for nine vases of Sweet Peas. Five exhibits were seen in the class for six vases of Asters; Mr. A. A. JONES, Caversham, won the 1st prize. The best decorated table was arranged by Miss G. PALMER, who used Sweet Peas of pink and blue shades, with Asparagus and Smilax. Miss JOHNSON had the best basket of sweet-scented flowers, and Mrs. H. W. DUNLOP the best decorated epergne:


The fruit classes are usually well filled at Reading, and this year was no exception. In the class for six dishes of fruit there were six exhibits. G. W. FLEMING, Esq., Romsey (gr. Mr. W. Mitchell) was placed 1st, and he also won for three bunches of Black Hamburgh Grapes and for three bunches of any white variety of Grape. J. B. TAYLOR, Esq., was first for any other black Grape with the variety Madresfield Court. A dish of Barrington Peaches staged by S. MONCK, Esq., Coley Park (gr. Mr. Booker), secured the 1st award for these fruits. Lady SUTTON, Newbury (gr. Mr. J. Howard), showed the best Nectarines in a dish of the variety Pineapple. Plums were a very strong class; S. B. JOEL, Esq., gained the premier award with fine samples of Magnum Bonum, Jefferson's, and Kirk's. J. B. FORTESCUE, Esq., Maidenhead (gr. Mr. C. Page) was 1st for three dishes of dessert Apples. In the class for culinary varieties the Earl of CLANWILLIAM was 1st amongst 12 exhibitors; S. MONCK, Esq., had the best dessert Pears. Classes were also provided for Melons, Tomatos, and Cucumbers.

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