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Attempt to acquire the command of the militia 104 Essex obliges the king to raise the siege...

........ 114

The king evades their demand................ 104 Baule of Newbury (Sept. 20)....


His firm reply to their farther importunities.... 105 Esser's horse broken by the king's, but no decisive

They vote, ihat those who advised his majesty's advantage gained....

answer are enemies to the state....

105 Death and character of lord Falkland ......... 114

He removes with his two sons to York, the queen Both armies retire into winter quarters........ 115

having already taken refuge in Holland...... 105 Operations in the northern counties......

....... 115

Loyalty of the northern counties, and of the great Success there various .


body of the nobility and gentry all over Eng: SOLEMN LEAGUE AND COVENANT between the Eng.


105 lish and Scottish parliaments


The commons frame an ordinance, in which, by Subscribed by the lords and commons, and by an

the sole authority of the two houses of parlia- assembly of divines at Westminster

.... 115

ment, the lieutenants of counties are named, and The Scots enter England with an army of twenty

invested with the command of the whole military thousand men


force--of all the guards, garrisons, and forts in the Retrospective view of the affairs of Ireland... 116

kingdom ....

..... 106 The king orders the lord-lieutenant to conclude a

The king issues proclamations against this usurpa- truce with the Catholics, and transport over to


106 England part of the Protestant army........ 116

A variety of memorials, declarations, and remon 1644 That army routed at Namptwich, and dis-

strances published by both parties........... 106 persed by the parliamentary forces, under sir

The parliament openly enlisis troops, and confers Thomas Fairfax, in consequence of the swelling

the chief command of its army on the earl of of the river Wever ......

....... 117

Essex ...

106 Progress of the Scots in the north of England., 117

Charles prepares himself for defence, and rouses Being joined by lord Fairfax, they invest York.. 117

his adherents to arms ....

...... 106 Battle of Marston-moor ...

...... 117

The commons send him conditions on which they The royal army, under prince Rupert and sir Charles

will come to an agreement ................. 107 Lucas, defeated with great slaughter by the par-

Their demands, contained in nineteen propositions, liamentary forces, commanded by lord Fairfax

amount to a total abolition of royal authority 107 and Oliver Cromwell, and the Scois, conducted by

Abstract of those propositions

107 the earl of Leven....

The king's animaied speech on rejecting them 107 | York surrenders to the army of the parliament, and
He collects his forces, and erects the royal standard Newcastle is taken by the Scots .
at Nottingham...

107 | The king gains an advantage over the parliamentary

State of parties at the beginning of the grand re- forces, under Waller, at Cropredy-bridge .... 118

bellion ...

107 He pursues the earl of Essex into Cornwall, and

obliges the infantry, abandoned by that general,

to surrender their armis, artillery, and bag-



....... 118

The king attacked and defeated by the generals of

Great Britain and Ireland, from the Commencement the parliament near Deddington castle ...... 119

of the Civil War to the Battle of Naseby, in Having formed a junction with prince Rupert, he


again offers them battle, and, on their declining it,

puts his army into winter quarters..... 119

Advantages on the side of the parliament..... 108 Disputes between the English presbyterians and

The foundation of the king's hope of overbalancing independents.



108 The distinction between those two sects traced 119

His declaration to his army..

109 The heads of the independents


It is received with the warmest expressions of ap. The heads of the presbyterians....



109 Their mutual accusations

Battle of Edgehill (Oct. 23).. ................ 109 The independents attempt to acquire the command

Disposition of the two armies

109 of the sword


Viciory left doubtful, after various turns of for. Hypocritical artifices which they employ for that





wseex retreats to London, and the king advances to The Self-denying Ordinance



110 In consequence of that ordinance, the earl of Essex,

Ineffectual negotiations during the winter...... 110 sir William Waller, and the earl of Manchester

Various events of the war....

110 resign their commands; and the whole military

1613 The parliamentary forces, under the earl of authority, under the parliament, devolves upon

Essex and sir William Waller, make an unsuc- sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell, who

cessful attempt upon Oxford, at that time the change the formation of the army


residence of the king

Il Characters of those two generals


A detachment of their main body routed by prince 1645 Trial and execution of archbishop Laud.. 122

Rupert, on Calsgrave field, where the famous Negotiations at Uxbridge....


John Hambden is morially wounded ........ 111 The commissioners of the king and parliament

The army of the parliament, under the earl of separate without making any progress in the pur-

Stamford, defeated by the Cornish royalists, near posed treaty of peace



111 Account of Janies Graham, marquis of Mont-

Bloody but indecisive battle of Lansdown-bill.. Jll


The parliamentary forces, under Waller, totally His success against the covenanters in Scot-

rouied on Roundway down..

12 land


The queen returns from Holland, with a supply of Decline of the king's affairs in England, and its

ammunition and artillery....



Prince Rupert undertakes ihe siege of Bristol., 112 The elevating influence of enthusiasm upon the

He makes himself master of that city.


parliamentary army


The royal army next invests Gloucester ....... 113 Licentiousness of the royalists..


The king, in the height of his prosperity, publishes The king relieves Chester and takes Leices-

a manifesto, expressive of his earnest desire of ter...


peace ...

113 Battle of Naseby


Plan, for the same purpose, privately concerted by Gallant behavigur of the king


Waller, Tomkins, and Chaloner .... 113 1645 He is obliged to quit the field, after an obsti

Discovered, and Tomkins and Chaloner nate engagement, and his baggage and artillery

cuted ..........

....... 113

fall into the hands of the enemy.


Measures taken for the relief of Gloucester.... 114 Near five thousand of the royalists made pri-

Gallant defence of Massey, the governor ...... 114 soners...




don ...

...... 135

.... 135

.. 127




A committee of the house of commons appointed to
England, from the Battle of Naseby to the Execu- bring in a charge of high-treason against the king,

tion of Charles I. and the Subversion of the Mo- for levying war against his parliament....... 134
narchy, in 1649.

The vote to this purport rejected by the lords.. 134

Page 1649 The trial nevertheless ordered (Jan. 4).. 134
The king retires into Wales, and the parliamentary Cromwell's speech on the occasion


generals make themselves masters of almost every Colonel Harrison sent to bring the king 10 Lot

place of importance in England ..


Prince Rupert ordered to quit the kingdom because The form of his trial.....

of his too easy surrender of Bristol.

......... 125 His magnanimous behaviour, and masterly de

The king returns to Oxford...

125 fence


Montrose totally routed at Philiphaugh, in the south He is sentenced to be put to death, by the severing

of Scotland...

125 of his bead from his body...


Rigour of the covenanters.

126 His composure and pious resignation

......... 130

Deplorable situation of the king during the win. His execution (Jan. 30).

.... 137

ter .........

....... 126 Grief and astonishment of the nation.......... 137

1646 Defeat of lord Astley, and the utter ruin of the Character of Charles I...


royal cause.......

...... 126 | The death of the king immediately followed by the

The king, afraid of being made prisoner, seeks dissolution of the monarchy.


refuge in the Scottish camp at Newark ....:: 126 The commons pass an acı abolishing kingly power

1647 The Scots deliver him up to the English par- as useless, burdensome, and dangerous...... 138

liament, on condition of being paid their arrears They also abolish the house of peers, as useless and

(Jan. 30)

..... 127



He is conducted under a guard to Holmby, in North-




The civil war being at an end, the Scots return A general View of the European Continent, from



Quarrel between the army and the parliament 127

the Peace of Westphalia, in 1648, to the Pyrenean

That quarrel inflamed by Cromwell, Ireton, and

Treaty, in 1659, and the Peace of Oliva, in 1660.

Fleelwood, who were sent by the parliament to 1648 Civil dissensions in France fomented by cardi-

make offers to the troops

nal de Retz...


The king seized by corne Joyce, and conducted to He draws the parliament of Paris into his views 139

the rendezvous of the army on Triplo-heath 128 Anne of Austria, the queen-regent, reposes her

Cromwell the author of thai bold measure..... 128 whole confidence in cardinal Mazarine...... 139

The parliament becomes obnoxious to the body of 1649 The populace barricade the streets, and oblige

the people...

128 the court to set at liberty the president, and one of

It is obliged to submit to the demands of the the counsellors of the parliament of Paris, that


had been taken into custody..


The king, courted by both the parliament and army, Distress of the royal family

...... 140

begins to find himself of consequence even in his The parliament declares cardinal Mazarine a dis-

captive state...

129 turber of the public peace and an enemy to the

Proposals sent him by the council of officers... 129 kingdom

......... 140

The army takes possession of the city of London, The absurd levity of the French nation........ 140

and domineers over the parliament.......... 130 1650 Cardinal Mazarine regains bis authority, and

Complete triumph of the military over the civil Condé and other princes of the blood are ar-


...... 130

rested .......

...... 140

The king derives a temporary advantage from this Various turns of fortune

.... 140


130 1651 The duke of Bouillon, and his brother Tu-

Cromwell artfully alarms him for his personal renne, detached from the malecontents...... 140


131 | 1652 Battle of St. Antoine .....

..... 141

He privately withdraws from his palace of Hampton It is decided in favour of the malecontents, by an

court, and retires to the isle of Wight 131 exertion of female intrepidity.


He finds himself there a prisoner.... 131 1653 A popular lumult...

Cromwell, having humbled the parliament and re- 1654 Lewis XIV., being of age, dismisses Mazarine,

moved the king to a distance, proceeds to remedy in order to appease his subjects ..


the disorders of the army

131 1655 The cardinal is recalled, and reinstated in the

He effectually accomplishes his purpose, and resolves administration.......


on the destruction of the king, as necessary to the Progress of the Spanish arms during the civil wars

security of his usurped power ....

132 in France

.... 141

A council of officers secretly called at Windsor, in 1656 Turenne forces the Spanish lines at Ar-

order to deliberate concerning the future settle- ras.

...... 142

ment of the nation, and the disposal of the king's The French routed before Valenciennes....... 142

person ...

.... 132 Masterly retreat of Turenne...

In that council is started the project of bringing Character of that accomplished general 142

Charles to the block, for his pretended tyranny 1658 The Spaniards defeated by the English and

and mal-administration ..

132 French near Dunkirk


Measures concerted for making the parliament Dunkirk surrenders, and is assigned to England 142

adopt the saine idea...

132 1659 Peace of the Pyrenees

... 143

The republican members inveigh against the person 1661 Death and character of cardinal Mazarine 143

and government of the king

133 Affairs of Germany and the northern kingdoms 143

1648 In consequence of these declarations, it is Tranquillity of the empire .........


voted that no more addresses be made to him, nor Death of Ferdinand III. and accession of his son

any messages received from him (Jan. 15)... 133 Leopold (A. D. 1657).


The Scots, enraged at the depression the pres- Sweden, und the government of Christina,

byterian party, enter into engagements with daughter of Gustavus Adolphus...


133 Her passion for literature burisul to her administra-

Distracted state of the nation....

133 tion...

The Scols, who had invaded England under the 1650 In order to avoid being forced to marry, she

marquis of Hamilton, routed by Cromwell, and prevails with the states to declare her cousin,

all the English insurgents subdued

134 Charles Gustavus, her successor.....

The presbyterian body in parliament attempt to con- 1654 She resigns the crown................... 145

clude a treaty with the king

134 Accession of Charles X..

They are excluded that assembly by a party of sol- Christina embraces the Catholic religion at Brus-

diers under colonel Pride



sels ....



1656 Aner residing some time in Italy, she visits Fatigue him with listening to prayers and ser-





Her masculine manner.

.... 145 1651 He makes his escape from them, but is in-

1657 She orders Monaldeschi, her favourite, to be duced to return..



145 Is better treated, and intrusted with more autho-

Finds it necessary to leave France.



Returns to Rome, and there passes the remainder Puts himself at the head of his troops, and encamps

of her life..

at Torwood.


Military exploits of Charles X................ 145 While Cromwell 18 employed in cutting off his pro-

He conquers Poland...

146 visions, the king lifts his camp, and marches into

1658 Enters Denmark, and lays siege to Copen- England..



...... 146 Cromwell follows him with all possible expedition,

1659 His death ..

.......................... 146 leaving general Monk to complete the conquest of

1660 Peace of Oliva ......................... 146 Scotland .........


The batte of Worcester



The royal army utterly broken and ruined, and the

The History of the Commonwealth of England to He conceals himself for some time at Boscobel in

king obliged to attempt his escape in disguise 155

the Death of Cromwell : with an Account of the

the character of a peasant.......


Affairs of Scotland, Ireland, and Holland.

For greater security ascends a spreading oak .. 155

1649 Progress of Cromwell's ambition........ 146 Rides before the daughter of Mr. Lane, of Bentley,

State of England ...


on the same horse, to Bristol, in the character of

Commonwealth parliament................... 146 a servant ...

155, 156

Council of state ......

146 Intrusts himself to colonel Wyndham, of Dorset-

The prince of Wales assumes the title of Charles shire...



147 Loyalty and generosity of that gentleman and his

The covenanters declare him king of Scotland 147 family


Retrospective view of the affairs of Ireland... 147 | The king is obliged to assume various disguises, in

The marquis of Ormond lord-lieutenant....... 147 order to elude the vigilance of his enenies... 156

He concludes a treaty with the council of Kilkenny After forty days' concealment, he embarks in a small

(A. D. 1646)..

147 vessel at Shoreham in Sussex, and arrives safely

Delivers up (by order of the late king) Dublin, and at Fieschamp, on the coast of Normandy.... 156

every other fortified place in Ireland, to colonel Every place in the dominions of Great Britain and

Jones, who takes possession of them in the name Ireland submits to the commonwealth of Eng-

of the English parliament (A. D. 1647)...... 148



A combination formed for the support of the royal Retrospective view of the affairs of Holland .. 156

authority in that kingdom (A. D. 1648)...

...... 148 The Dutch abolish the dignity of stadtholder .. 156

Ormond again takes possession of the government, St. John, the English envoy, fails in an attempt to

and recovers many places

148 form a coalition between the two commonwealths,

Cromwell named lord-lieutenant of Ireland by the and returns in disgust....

English parliament

148 The Act of NAVIGATION


He sends over a reinforcement of four thousand Its purport and political operation.


men to colonel Jones, governor of Dublin.... 148 Naval war between England and Holland..... 157

Ormond totally routed by Jones, in attempting to Blake, the Englislı admiral, defeated by the Dutch

form the siege of that capital...

149 fleei, under Van Tromp and De Ruyter ..

Cromwell lands in Ireland, takes Drogheda by storm, Insolence of the Dutch after their victory..... 157

and puts the garrison to the sword

.......... 149 Blake totally defeats their fleet off Portland, and in

The whole island submits to him


a manner annihilates their naval power..... 158

Charles II. listens to the rigorous terms of the Scot- 1653 The English commonwealth parliament dis-

tish covenanters ....

150 solved by Cromwell..


1650 Agrees to them..

150 His behaviour on that occasion


New enterprise of the marquis of Montrose... 150 He remains possessed of the whole civil and military

He is defeated and made prisoner....


power of England, Scotland, and Ireland.... 159

Ignominiously treated by the covenanters...... 151 Account of the early part of Cromwell's life... 159

His magnanimous speech to the Scottish parlia. The steps by which he first rose in the army... 159


151 State of sects and parties in England when he as.

He is condemned to be hanged at the cross of Edin- sumed the reing of government ...



..... 151 His attention to the millenarians..


His dignified behaviour when led forth to execu- He summons a parliament of enthusiasts...... 160


......... 151 Dissolves it...


His death and character.

.. 151 Instrument of government


Arrival of Charles II. in Scotland............. 152 Oliver Cromwell protector ........


In order to please the covenanters, he submits to Dutch fleet defeated by Monk and Dean..

... 162

many humiliations, and publishes a declaration Dutch ficet defeated by Mook, with the loss of

injurious to the honour of his family.......: 152 thirty ships..


He is not able, after all, to acquire the confidence Death of Van Tromp.


of the covenantery...

.... 152 1654 The Dutch purchase peace by yielding to

The English parliament makes vigorous prepara- England the honour of the flag


tions for the invasion of Scotland. ...... 152 Cromwell summons a free parliament..


Fairfax resigns his commission, and Cromwell is 1655 He dissolves it....


appointed commander-in-chief of their forces 153 Conspiracy against bis authority crushed...... 163

He enters Scotland with a veteran army of sixteen His arbitrary but vigorous government......... 163

thousand men ....

153 War with Spain....


Reduced to great distress, by the cautious conduct Bombardment of Algiers .


of David Lesly, the Scottish general ..... 153 Conquest of Jamaica


The enthusiastic zeal of the presbyterian clergy 1656 Destruction of the Spanish fleet in the bay of

obliges Lesly to give Cromwell battle, contrary to Santa Cruz......


his own opinion.

153 New parliament.

The Scots defeated with great slaughter in the bat- 1657 A motion made in the house of commons, and
tle of Dunbar....

154 a bill voted, for investing the protector with the

Cromwell makes himself master of Leith and Edin- dignity of king



154 He finds himself under the necessity of rejecting

The covenanters, under the pressure of misfortune, that dignity.....

treat the king with more respect............ 154. Humble petition and advice.


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..... 164

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1658 Cromwell attempts to constitute a house of The Spanish merchants eagerly engage in a trade


with the Moluccas.....


The commons refuse to acknowledge the authority Jealousy of the Portuguese.

...... 175

of that house ....

165 1529 Charles V. makes over to the crown of Por-
l'he protector dissolves the parliament........ 165 tugal his claim to those islands
Several conspiracies formed against him...... 165 1555 Philip II. of Spain plants a colony in the
His dread of assassination...

166 Manillas, to which he gives the name of the Phi-
He is seized with a slow fever, which changes into lippines
a tertian ague .....

166 Trade between those islands and the Spanish set-

Believes, contrary to the opinion of his physicians, tlements in South America..

that he shall recover ...,

166 How conducted..


Death and character of Oliver Cromwell ..... 166 Extent of the Portuguese dominions in the East



In Africa and America.


Corruption of their oriental government ...... 176

The History of the Commonwealth of England, 1572 The Indian princes confederate against

from the Death of the Protector, in 1658, to the



Restoration of the Monarchy, in 1660.

1580 Portugal falls under the dominion of Spain 176

Fatal effects of that revolution


Oliver Cromwell succeeded in the protectorship by 1594 Philip II. prohibits all intercourse between

his eldest son Richard..

167 Portugal and the United Provinces.


The new protector finds himself involved in diffi- Consequences of that prohibition ....



........ 168 The Dutch, beirg shut out from the markets of Por-

1659 Cabal of Wallingford-House

... 168

lugal, turn their eyes towards the East In-

Feeble but amiable character of Richard Crom- dies..


well ....

168 1595 Voyage of Cornelius Houtman thither... 177

He resigns the protectorship..

168 1597 Or Van Neck, who trades with the inhabit-

The council of officers possessed of supreme au- ants of the Moluccas, and establishes factories in


168 several of the islands


Their arbitrary proceedings..

168 | 1602 Incorporation of the Dutch East India Com-

They revive the rump, or remnant of the long par- pany.

.... 177


168 Admiral Warwick sails to the East with fourteen

Secret confederacy for the restoration of the royal ships belonging to that company, and founds the


169 city of Batavia in the island of Java

..... 177

Discovered, and an insurrection of the royalists War between the Portuguese and Dutch in the


169 East Indies....

Parliament expelled...

....... 170 | The Dutch gradually strip the Portuguese of al:

Committee of safety.

their settlements in the East, except Goa 177, 178

Melancholy state of England

.... 170 They also make themselves masters of the Portu-

Retrospective view of the affairs of the royal fa- guese settlements in Brazil, which they hold till

mily abroad

170 the year 1654


Account of general Monk, commander-in-chief in Rise of the English East India Company (A. D.





He collects his forces, and declares his intention of Successful voyage of captain James Lancaster 178

marching into England....

171 Disadvantages under which the English lay in the

Amuses the committee of safely with a show of East Indies...


171 1616 They send thither ships of force......... 178

The parliament restored

.... 171 Erect forts, and establish factories, in the islands of

1660 Monk advances southward with his army 171 Java, Poleron, Amboyna, and Banda........ 178

General Lambert made prisoner, and sent to the The Dutch endeavour to dispossess them...... 178

tower ........

171 Blvody engagements in the Indian Ocean between

Monk arrives at London, and declares for a free the ships of the two nations............ 178, 179

parliament .....

..... 171 1619 Peace between the two companies 179

Secluded members restored......

171 1623 Cruelties of the Dutch to the English settlers at

Parliament dissolved..

172 Lantore, Poleron, and Amboyna ..


Secrecy of Monk

172 English East India Company obliged to abandon the

He reveals his intentions, in favour of the king, to trade of the Spice islands to their perfidious and

sir John Granville, who had a commission from inhuman rivals



172 Low state of their trade during the reign of

New parliament attached to the royal cause... 172 Charles I....


Escape of general Lambert from the tower.... 172 It revives under the commonwealth, but decays

He is taken before he becomes formidable 172 under Charles II.....


Sir John Granville, introduced by Monk, presents Early discoveries of the English in North Ame-

to the parliament the king's declaration from rica....


........ 173 Voyage of sir Francis Drake round the world (A.D.

Restoration of Charles IL.

173 1579).


General joy of the nation at that event........ 173 Sir Walter Raleigh projects the settlement of Vir-

ginia (A. D. 1584)



London and Plymouth companies...


Adventurers of the London company, under Chris-

Progress of Navigation, Commerce, and Coloniza- topher Newport, land in the bay of Chesapeak,

tion, from the Beginning of the Sixteenth to the and build Jamestown in Virginia (A. D. 1606) 180

Middle of the Seventeenth Century.

Rapid progress of that colony


1632 Settlement of Maryland..

..... 180

Introductory reflections

173 Settlement of New-England...


1519 Voyage of Ferdinand Magellan... 274 Different governments formed in New-England 181

1520 He enters the South Sea by the straits that View of the English settlements in the West In-

bear his name ......

174 dies...


1521 Discovers the Manillas

... 175 1651 Navigation act...

....... 181

Is slain by the natives in the island of Zebu... 175 Its beneficial consequences

.. 181

The ships of his squadron touch at the Moluccas Great increase of the English colony-trade.... 182

or Spice islands..

175 The French colonies yet in their infancy...... 182

1522 Juan Sebastian del Cano, one of his captains, Those of Spain continue to flourish, and supply all

returns to Europe by the cape of Good Hope 175 Europe with the precious metals..... 189


..... 199

..... 199



General View of the Affairs of Europe, with a par

lands, and makes himself master of many

ticular Account of those of England, from the All Europe filled with terror at the rapid progress

places ·

... 196

Restoration of Charles II., in 1660, to the Triple of his arms........


Alliance, in 1668.

1668 Triple alliance the consequence of that ter-

Page ror...

..... 196

1660 Introductory reflection.

182 France and Spain equally displeased at the terms of

Great popularity of Charles II. of England at his this league


restoration, and eminent political situation among Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle................... 197

the powers of Europe.

182 Independence of Portugal acknowledged...... 197

His libertine and accommodating character.... 183

He forms his privy council from among all parties


and sects.....

...... 183

His prudent choice of his principal servants... 183 The general Vier of the Affairs of Europe con-

The earl of Clarendon, chancellor and prime mi- tinued, from the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, in

nister ....


1668, lo the Peace of Nimeguen, in 1678.

General act of indemnity.


Trial and execution of the regicides........... 184 Preamble.....


State of the church..

184 Retrospective view of the affairs of Hungary.. 198

Dissolution of the convention parliament...... 184 The Hungarian nobies revoll, and crave the assint-

1661 New parliament favourable to episcopacy and ance of the Turks


monarchical power ............

184 1669 The Turks make themselves masters of the

Act of uniformity

185 island of Candia.....

.... 198

Repeal of the act for triennial parliaments 185 Lewis XIV. meditates the conquest of thc United

Rigour of the high-church party.............. 185 Provinces .....

1662 Presbyterian clergy ejected... ... 185 Charles II, of England gives up his mind to arbi-

This impolitic measure unites the Protestant dis- trary counsels

senters in a common batred of the church .. 185 Concludes a secret treaty wigh France


The king and his brother the duke of York, being 1670 Mock treaty intended to conceal the real

secretly Catholics, forin the plan of a general to- one ..



185 Death of the dutchess of Orleans............. 200

Declaration to that purpose...

186 Rise of the dutchess of Portsmouth.


The plan of toleration opposed by the parliament, The French monarch makes himself master of

and laid aside...


Lorraine .......


Presbyterians persecuted in Scotland. ...... 186 The king of England obtains a large supply from

King's marriage

186 his parliament......


Sale of Dunkirk

186 The duke of York declares himself a Catholic 201

1664 War with the United Provinces.......... 186 1671 Charles II., still necessitous, shuts the ex-

State of the affairs of that republic,




Character of the pensionary De Wit..

187 Exercises several acts of arbitrary power...... 201

Great naval preparations of England and Hol- 1672 Attempt upon the Dutch Smyrna fleet.... 201


187 France and England declare war against Hol-

2665 Dutch defeated by the English fleet under the land


duke of York...

188 Great preparations both by sea and land ...... 202

lague rages in London.

188 Defenceless state of the United Provinces..... 202

France and Denmark league with the United Pro-Account of William III. prince of Orange..... 202

vinces against England

188 He is appointed commander-in-chief of the forces of

1666 Memorable sea-fight of four days. ....... 189 the republic ........


After various turns of fortune, the Dutch fleet, De Wit and De Ruyter with ninety-one Dutch ships

under De Ruyter and young Tromp, forced to of war, give battle to the combined fleets of

retreat by the English, commanded by prince France and England, commanded by D'Estrees

Rupert and the duke of Albemarle

189 and the duke of York (May 29) ............ 203

The Hollanders insulted in their harbours..... 190 Desperate valour of the earl of Sandwich...... 203

Fire of London....

190 Furious combat between De Ruyter and the duke

State of religion in Scotland...

191 of York.....


Insurrection of the presbyterians

191 The Dutch admiral ultimately compelled to seek

Battle of Pentland Hills.

191 safety in flight....


The rebels routed, and the presbyterian prisoners Lewis XIV. enters the United Provinces at the head

treated with severity....

191 of a great army, and advances to the banks of the

State of Ireland...




1667 Act of the English parliament prohibiting the Famous passage of that river (June 12) 204

importation of Irish caitle..

192 Rapid progress of the French arms


Thai law ultimately beneficial to Ireland...... 192 Distracted state of the United Provinces 205

Negotiations at Breda...........

193 The sluices opened, and the country laid under

The Dutch fleet under De Ruyter, takes possession water


of the mouth of the Thames ............. 193 The prince of Orange r'eclared stadtholder (July

Burning of the ships at Chatham .............

193 5)....


Consternation of the city of London.......... 193 Massacre of the De Wits.


l'eace of Breda....

193 Magnanimous behaviour of the prince of Orange 206

Impeachment and banishment of the earl of Cla- Heroic resolution of the Dutch...


rendon ..............

.............. 194 The kings of France and England endeavour to

His character....

corrupt the young stadtholder.


Retrospective view of the state of France and He rejects all their tempting offers..



194 Circumstances that contributed to save the republic

Character of Lewis XIV.

194 of Holland..


flis munificence, splendour, and popularity..

.... 194 1673 Meeting of the English parliament....... 207

Dangerous greatness of the French monarchy.. 195 The king's declaration of liberty of conscience 207

Examples of the arrogance of Lewis XIV..... 195 He finds himself under the necessity of recalling

He refuses to pay to England the honour of the




195 The test act


His claims upon the Spanish monarchy..... .. 195 Three indecisive engagements between the Dutch
Feeble administration of Mary Anne of Austria, fleet, conducted by De Ruyter and Van Tromp,
queen-regent of Spain...

195 and the combined fleets of France and Eng.

The king of France invades the Spanish Nether- land..


.. 194

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