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the apex.

73. Ribbed (costatum), when the veins arise 92. Bigeminate (bigeminatum, bigeminum), out of the middle, and proceed in a straight line when a divided leaf-stalk at each poini bears two towards the margin in considerable numbers, and leaves;

as in some species of Mimosa. close together; as in the Calophyllum inophyl- 93. Trigeminate (trigeminatum or tergemi. lum, Canna, Musa, &c.

num), when a divided leaf-stalk on each point 74. Nerved (nervosum), when the vessels bears two leaves, and on the principal stalk, rising out of the petiolus run from the base to where it divides, there is a leaf at each side; as

in the Mimosa tergemina. 75. Three-nerved (trinervium), when three 94. Ternate (ternatum), when three leaves are nerves take their origin from the base. Thus supported by one foot-stalk; as in the clover, we likewise say, quinquenervium, septemnervi- Trifolium pratense. Strawberry, fragaria vesca. um, &c.

95. Biternate (biternatum, or duplicato-terna76. Triple-nerved (triplinervium), when out tum), when a foot-stalk, which separates into of the side of the middle rib, above the base, three, at each point bears three leaves. there arises a nerve running towards the point ; 96. Triternate (triternatum, or triplicato-teras in Laurus, Cinnamomum, and Camphora. natum), when a foot-stalk, which separates into

77. Quintuple-nerved (quintuplinervium), three, is again divided at each point into three, and when out of the middle rib, above the base, there on each of these nine points bears three leaves. arise on each side two nerves running towards 97. Quadrinate (quadrinatum), when four the point.

leaves stand on the point of a leaf-stalk; as He78. Septuple-nerved (septuplinervium), when dysarum tetraphylium. on each side of the middle rih, above the base, 98. Quinate (quinatum), when five leaves are three nerves arise, and proceed to the apex. supported by one foot-stalk : this, it is true, has

79. Venose-nerved (venoso-nervosum), when, some affinity with No. 89, but varies on account in a leaf having nerves, the vessels run into of the number five, as in the other there are gebranches, or in a veined leaf; as in the Indian nerally more leaves. cress, Tropæolum majus.

99. Umbellate (umbellatum), when at the 80. Streaked (lineatum), when the whole leaf point of a leaf-stalk there stand a number of is full of smooth parallel vessels, that run from leaves, closely set, and forming the figure of a the base to the apex.

parasol ; as Aralia sciodaphyllum, Panax chry81. Nerveless (enervium), when no nerves rise sophyllum. from the base.

100. Pedate (pedatum, ramosum), when a 82. Veinless (avenium),where there are no veins. leaf-stalk is divided, and in the middle, where it 83. Dotted (punctatum), when, instead of divides, there is a leafet, at both ends there is ribs and veins, there are dots or points; as in likewise a leafet, and on each side, between the the Vaccinium vitis idaea.

one in the middle and that at the end, another 84. Colored (coloratum), a leaf of some other or two, or even three leaves. Such a leaf therecolor than green.

fore consists of five, seven, or nine leafets, that 85. Cowled (cucullatum), when in a heart- are all inserted on one side; as in the Helleborus shaped leaf the lobes are bent towards each viridis, fætidus, and niger. other, so as to have the appearance of a cowl. 101. Pinnated (pinnatum), when on an undi

86. Convex (convexum), when the middle of vided leaf-stalk there is a series of leafets on each the leaf is thicker than the rim, raised on the side, and on the same plane; of this there are upper surface and hollowed on the under. the following kinds : a. Abruptly-pinnated (pari

87. Keel-shaped (carinatum), when on the pinnatum, or abrupte pinnatum), when at the under surface of a linear-lanceolate, or oblong apex of a pinnated leaf there is no leafet. leaf, the place of the middle rib is formed like B. Pinnate with an odd one (impari-pinnatum, the keel of a ship:

or pinnatum cum impari), when at the apex of a 88. Quadruply-keeled (quadricarinatum), when pinnated leaf there is a leafet. the middle rib, by means of a thin leaf above and .y. Oppositely pinnate (opposite pinnatum), below, projects, and the margin is incrassated, when the leafets on a pinnated leaf stand opposo that a horizontal section has the appearance of site to one another. 2 CTOSS; as Ixia cruciata.

è. Alternately pinnate (alternatim pinnatum), B. Compound Leaves.

when the leafets on a pinnated leaf stand alter

nately. 89. Compound (compositum), when several £. Interruptedly, pinnate (interruptè pinnaleaves are supported by one foot-stalk To this tum), when in a pinnated leaf each pair of alterterm belong Nos. 89, 92, 95, 96, 97. But when nate leafets is smaller. the leaf agrees with the above definition, although 5. Jointedly pinnate (articulatè pinnatum), it should not come under any of the following when between each pair of opposite pinnæ, or kinds, it is still to be considered a compound leaf. leafets, the stem is furnished with a jointed edge.

90. Fingered (digitatum) when the base of n. Decursively pinnate (decursive pinnatum), several leaves rests on the point of one foot-stalk; when from each particular pinnula a foliaceous as in the horse-chestnut, Aesculus Hippocastanum. appendage runs down to the following one.

91. Binate (binatum), when two leaves stand 9. Decreasingly pinnate (pinnatum foliolis deby their base on the top of one foot-stalk; but if crescentibus), when the successive foliola on a the two foliola of a binate leaf bend back in a pinnated leaf grow gradually smaller to the point; horizontal direction, it is called a conjugate as in the Vicia sepium leaf, folium conjugatum.

102. Conjugately pinnated (conjugato-pin



natum), when a leuf-stalk divides, and each part 121. Compressed (compressum), when a thick makes a pinnated leaf.

leaf is flat on both sides. 103. Ternato-pinnate (ternato-pinnatum) when 122. Two-edged (anceps), when a compressed at the point of a principal leaf-stalk there stand leaf is sharp on both edges. three pinnated leaves; as Hoffmanseggia.

123. Depressed (depressum), when the upper 104. Digitato-pinnate (digitato-pinnatum), surface of a fleshy leaf is pressed down, or, as it when several simply pinnated leaves, from four were, hollowed out, to five, stand on the point of one stalk; as in 124 Flat (planum), when the upper surface of Mimosa pudica,

a thick leaf forms an even plane. 105. Doubly pinnate (bipinnatum, duplicato- 125. Gibbous (gibbosum, or gibbum), when pinnatum), when a leaf-stalk bears, on one plane both surfaces are convex. on both sides, a number of leaf-stalks, of which 126. Scimitar-shaped (acinaciforme); a twoeach is a pinnated leaf.

edged thick leaf, on one side sharp and arched, 106. Trebly pinnate (triplicato-pinnatum, or on the other straight and broad. tripinnatum), when several doubly pinnated 127. Axe-shaped (dolabriforme), when a fleshy leaves are attached to the sides of a foot-stalk leaf is compressed, circular on the upper part

, on one plane.

convex on the one side, sharp edged on the 107. Doubly compound (decompositum) when other, and cylindrical at the base. a divided leaf-stalk connects several leaves; of 128. Tongue-shaped (linguiforme), when a long this kind are Nos. 90, 91, 93, 98, 99, 100. But compressed leaf ends in a round point., the term decompositum is only used when the 129. Three-sided (triquetrum), when the leaf division of the leaf-stalk of the pinnulæ is ir- is bounded by three narrow sides, and is al the regular.

same time long. 108. Super-decompound (supra-decomposi- 130. Deltoid (deltoideum), when a thick leaf tum), when a leaf-stalk, which is often divided, is bounded by three broad surfaces, and is at the sustains several leaves; to this belong Nos. 94, same time short. 101. But then the term is used only when the 131. Four-comered (tetragonum), when a leaf, divisions of the leafets are either more numerous long in proportion, is bounded by four narrow or not so regular.

surfaces; as in the Pinus nigra.

132. Warty (verrucosum), when short flesly In respect of the place.

leaves are truncated, and stand in thick heaps ; 109. Radical (radicale), when a leaf springs as in some Euphorbiæ. from the root, as in the violet, Viola odorata. 133. Hook-shaped (uncinatum), when a fleshy Sagittaria sagittifolia.

leaf is flat above, compressed at the sides, and 110. Seminal (seminale), when a leaf grows bent back at the point. out of the parts of the seed, as in the hemp; In respect of situation and position. where, as soon as it springs, there appear two 134. Opposite (folia opposita), when the bises white bodies, which are the two halves of the of the leaves are next each other, on opposite seed that change into leaves.

sides of a stem. 111. Cauline (caulinum), which is attached to 135. Dissimilar (disparia), when of two leaves, the principal stem. The root leaves and stem placed opposite, the one is quite die ently leaves of a plant are often very different formed from the other; as some species of Me

112. Rameous (rameum), when a leaf rises lastoma. from the branches.

136. Alternate (alterna), see No. 11. 113, Axillary (axillare or subalare), which 137. Scattered (sparsa), when the lears siaud stands at the origin of the branch.

thick on the stem, without any order. 114. Floral (forale), which stands close by the 138. Crowded (conferta, or approxinau), slien flower,

the leaves stand so close together that t' e sem

cannot be seen. In respect of substance.

139. Remote (remota), when the leases are 115. Membranaceous (membranaceum), when separated on the stem by certain interstices. both membranes of a leaf lie close upon one 140. Three-together (terna), when three leaves another, without any pulpy substance between stand round the stem : there are sometimes four, them; as in the leaves of most trees and plants. five, six, seveu, eight, &c., quaterna, quina, sena,

116. Fleshy (carnosum), when between the septena, octona, &c. membranes there is much soft and pulpy sub

141. St: like (stellata, or verticillata), when stance; as in houseleek, Sempervivum tectorum. several leaves stand round the stem at certain

117. Hollow (tubulosum), when a somewhat distances; as in ladies-bedstraw, Galium, &c. fleshy and long leaf, as in the onion, Allium 142. Tufted (fasciculata), when a number of Сера.

leares stand on one point; as in the larch, Pinus 118. Bilocular (biloculare), when in a linear larix, Celastrus buxifolius. leaf, internally hollow, the cavity is divided by 143. Two-rowed (disticha), when leaves are a longitudinal partition into two. Lobelia so placed on the stem that they stand on one dortmanna.

plane; as in the pitch fir, Pinus picea, Lonicera 119. Articulate (articulatum, or loculosum), symphoricarpus. when a cylindrical hollow leaf has its cavities 144. Decussated (decussata), when the stem, divided by horizontal partitions; as Juncus articu- in its whole length, is set round with four rows latus.

of leaves at each branch, and when one looks per120. Cylindrical (teres), when it is formed like pendicularly down upon it, the leaves seem to a cylinder.

form a cross; as in Veronica decussata.

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145. Imbricated (imbricata), when one leaf 166. Rooting (radicans), when the leaf strikes lies over another, as the tiles upon a roof. Of root. this there are the following kinds :

167. Swimming (natans), when the leaf swims a. Bifariously imbricated (bifariam imbricata), on the surface of water; as in Nymphæa alba.' when the leaves are so laid upon one another that 168. Immersed (demersum), when the leaves they form but two rows longitudinally on the are found under water. stem.

169. Emerging (emersum), when the leaf of B. Trifariam imbricata, three rows.

an aquatic plant raises itself out of the water. 7. Quadrifariam imbricata, &c. four rows, &c. 203. Besides the petiole, the stipulæ, and the In respect of insertion.

lamina, which have now been described, there are 146. Petiolated (petiolatum), when a leaf is wo appendages which properly belong to the furnished with a foot-stalk.

foliage, and still remain to be noticed ; these are

the ramentum, and the cirrhus or tendril. 147. Palaceous (palaceum), when the footstalk is attached to the margin.

204. The rament (ramentum) is a small, 148. Peltated (peltatum), when the foot-stalk and more or less of a brown color; sometimes

often bristle-shaped, leafet, that is oblong, thin, is inserted into the middle of the leaf.

149. Sessile (sessile), when the leaf is attached placed, like the stipulæ, in the angles of the peto the stem without any foot-stalk.

tiole; but sometimes, likewise, without any 150. Loose (solutum, or basi solutum), a suc- their buds open, and falls soon after. On the

order on the stem. It appears on all trees when culent cylindrical or subulate leaf, which seems oak it stands like the stipulæ, on the Scotch fir, to have no connexion with the stalk on which it Pinus sylvestris, it is soon dispersed. rests, but seems to hang the more loosely; as Sedum album.

When the stem of a plant is covered with fine 151. Riding (equitans), a sword-shaped or

dry scales, that have the appearance of the Ralinear leaf, that forms at its base a sharp and mentum, it is properly called a ramentaceous

stem, caulis ramentaceus. deep furrow, whose surfaces lie on one another, and embrace the stalk; Dracaena ensifolia, Sisy- which serves for attaching plants to some support.

205. The tendril (cirrhus), is a filiform body, rinchium striatum, &c. 152. Decurrent (decurrens), when the foliace the plant; for instance, in the vine, of a leaf


It is always an alteration of some other part of ous substance of a sessile leaf runs down along and in the Artabotrys of a part of the infloresthe stem. 153. Embracing (amplexicaule), when a ses

cence. „Climbing plants are furnished with tensile leaf is heart-shaped at the base, and with drils. They are in general spiral. The species both lobes embraces the stem.

are as follows: 154. Connate (connatum), when opposite and

1. Axillary (axillaris), when rising from the

axillæ of the leaves. sessile leaves are joined at their base. N.B. A perfoliated leaf (folium perfoliatum), is

2. Foliar (foliaris), when springing from the already described in No. 59.

points of the leaves.

3. Petiolar (petiolaris), when standing on the In respect of direction.

point of the common foot-stalk of a compound 155. Appressed (adpressum), when the leaf leaf. turns up, and lays its upper surface to the stem. 4. Peduncular (peduncularis), when rising

156. Erect (erectum, or semiverticale), when from the foot-stalk of a flower. the leaf is directed upwards, and makes with the 5. Simple (simplex), when not ed. stem a very acute angle.

6. Convolute (convolutus), when winding re157. Vertical (verticale), which stands quite gularly round a prop: upright, and thus makes with the horizon a right 7. Revolute (revolutus), when winding irreangle.

gularly, sometimes to this side, sometimes to 158. Bent sideways (adversum), when the that. margin of a vertical leaf is turned towards the stem. 206. To the INFLORESCENCE are to be referred

159. Spreading (patens), which goes off from all those parts which are placed above the the stem in an acute angle.

articulation which unites the flower with the 160. Bent in (inflexum, or incurvum), when plant; strictly speaking, the term denotes the an upright leaf is bent in at its point towards the mode in which the flowers are arranged upon stem.

their stalk or rachis. We will first describe the 161. Oblique (obliquum), when the base of different manners in which this is effected, and the leaf stands upwards, and the point is turned then explain the nature and modifications of the towards the ground.

accessory leaves. 162. Horizontal (horizontale), when the upper

207. The inflorescence in many plants is an surface of the leaf makes with the stem a right important character, and the following kinds angle.

have been described, viz.: The whirl (verticillus), 163. Bent down (reclinatum, or reflexum), the head (capitulum), the ear (spicula), the spike when the leaf stands with its point bent towards (spica), the raceme (racemus), the fascicle (fascithe earth

culus), the umbel (umbella), the cyme (cyma), 164. Bent back (revolutum), when the leaf is the corymb (corymbus), the panicle (panicula), bent outwards, and its point from the stem. the thyrse (thyrsus), the spadix (spadix), and,

165. Hanging down (dependens), when the finally, the catkin (amentum). base is turned to the zenith, and the point towards

208. A whirl (verticillus), consists of several

flowers that encircle the stem, and stand unVol. IV.

2 D

the ground.

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