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BOAST', v. & n. Cotgrave derives it from The boast of heraldry, the pomp of power,
BoAsr’ER, the French bosse, which he And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave,
explains, swollen; risen;

Await, alike the' inevitable hour;
puffed up. Anything

The paths of glory lead but to the grave. BOAST'INGLY,

Gray's Elegy. raised on a surface, and

Kingdoms, by thee to sickly greatness grown, BOAST'IVE, which is itself hollow, and

Boast of a florid vigour not their own. BOAST'LESS. without substance; some

Goldsmith. Deserted Village. thing tumid and inflated. This at once gives us


From the Germ. batten; to the origin and the meaning of the word in its

BOATMAN, thrust; to dash; to drive along. general acceptation. To boast is to swell above our natural dimensions ; is to be the subject of a

BOAT'SWAIN, So says Wachter, as quoted by moral disease, which, as it increases in magni

BOAT'LIKE, the Ency. Met. Ang.-Sax. tude, diminishes the health and vigor of the pa- refers more to the manner of conducting this

Boat'wise. bate or bat. This derivation tient. A boaster is a self-complacent manufacturer of lies to set off his own imaginary great- species of vessel through the water, than to the ness; who forms a very exaggerated estimate of nature of the thing itself. But perhaps that himself, and labors to deceive others on the which distinguishes a boat from all other nausame subject, and to the same amount; used, as

tical craft, is its comparative diminutiveness, and it sometimes is, in the sense of glorying in others, its being impelled along by oars rather than by it is not reprehensible.

sails filled with wind. Yet the boatswain is an

officer that is not required in such boats, at least Let not him that putteth on his harness, boast him according to the present duties allotted to that self as he that putteth it off.

Kings Confounded be all them that serve graven images,

personage. Formerly the servant, the swain that boast themselves of idols. Psalm xcvii. 7.

or swein, who managed the oars, received this They that trust in their wealth, and boast them: appellation, selves in the multitude of their riches.

I do not think that any one nation, the Syrian exPsalm xlix. 6. cepted, to whom the knowledge of the ark came, did

find out at once the device of either ship or boat, in Thus with your mouth you have boasted against me,

which they durst venture themselves upon the seas. and multiplied your words against me.

Raleigh's Essays. Exek, xxxv. 13.

Where the remote Bermudas ride Thou, that makest thy boast of the law, through

In the ocean's bosom unespied; breaking the law dishonourest thou God?

From a small boat that rowed along,

Romans i. 23. For I know the forwardness of your mind, for

The listening winds received this song.

Marvell. which I boast of you to them of Macedonia.

Boatmen through the crystal water show, 1 Cor. ix. 2.

To wondering passengers, the walls below. Por if I have boasted any thing to him of you,

Dryden. not ashamed.

2 Cor. vii. 14.

That booby Phaon only was unkind, And is the boast of that proud ladies' threat,

An ill-bred boatman, rough as waves and wind. That menaced me from the field to beat,

Prior. Now brought to this ?

Spenser. Sometimes the meanest boatswain may help to preMy sentence is for open war: of wiles,

serve the ship from sinking. More unexpert I boast not : then let those

Howell's Preeminence of Parliament. Contrive who need, or when thoy need, not now.

Reef topsails, reef, the boatswain calls again. Milton.

Falconer's Shipwreck. The spirits beneath,

Hark to the boatswain's call, the cheering cry! Whom I seduced, boasting I could subdue

While through the seamen's hands the tackle glides. The' Omnipotent. Id.

Byron. Neither do the spirits damned

Another morn-another bids them seek, Lose all their virtue, lest bad men should boast

And shout his name till echo waxeth weak; Their specious deeds.


Mount-grottocavern--valley searched in vain, If they vouchsafed to give God the praise of his

They find on shore a sea-boat's broken chaingoodness; yet they did it only, in order to boast the

Their hope revives.

Byron. Corsair. interest they had in them.


Boats. We look on it as a pitch of impiety, boastingly to

The construction, machinery, and avow our sins; and it deserves to be considered, whe

even the names of boats, are very different, acther this kind of confessing them, have not some affi

cording to various purposes for which they nity with it.

Decay of Piety. are calculated, and the services on which they No more delays, vaiu boaster! but begin! are to be employed. Thus they are occasionally I prophecy beforehand I shall win :

slight or strong, sharp or fat-bottomed, open or P'll teach you how to brag another time. Dryden. decked, plain or ornamented; as they may be

He the proud boasters sent, with stern assault, designed for swiftness or burden, for deep or Down to the realms of night.

Philips. shallow water, for sailing in a harbour or at sea, Boastful, and rough, your first son is a squire;

and for convenience or pleasure. The next a tradesman, meek, and much a liar. The Long-Boat is the largest boat that usually


accompanies a ship, is generally furnished with a Not Tyro, nor Mycene, match her name, mast and sails, and inay be armed and equipNor great Alcmena, the proud boasts of farne. Id. ped for cruising short distances, against mer

The world is more apt to find fault than to com- chant-ships of the enemy, or smugglers, or for mend; the boast will probably be censured, when the impressing seamen, &c.; her principal employ, great action that occasioned it is forgotten. Spectator. however, is to bring heavy stores or provisions

I am



on board, and also to go up small rivers to fetch hover about the coasts. The boatman is furwater, wood, &c.

nished mith a long musket, fixed in the bow of The Launch is a boat which of late years has the boat, and generally steers with a scull in the greatly superseded the use of the long boat; it stern, while he lays on his back in the bouiom of is longer, more flat-bottomed, and, by rowing a the boat; he takes the advantage of the tide to greater number of oars, is better adapted for go down on the birds, and fires, without taking going up narrow and shallow rivers. See the any particular aim, as the flock are rising out of article LAUNCH.

the water, by which means he frequently brings The Barge is a long, narrow, light boat, down a great many. employed to carry the principal sea-officers, A Moses is a flat-bottomed boat, used in the as admirals, and captains of ships of war, on

West Indies for bringing off hogsheads of sugar shore, and are very unfit for sea. See the article from the sea-beach to the shipping which are BARGE.

anchored in the roads, and is termed single or A Pinnace resembles a barge, but is smaller, double according to its size. never rowing more than eight oars; whereas, A Felucca is a large and strong passage-boat, a barge never rows less than ten. The pinnace used in the Mediterranean, having from ten to is for the accommodation of the lieutenants, &c. sixteen banks of oars. The natives nf Barbary

The Cutters of a ship are broader, deeper, often employ boats of this sort as cruisers. and shorter, than the barge or pinnace; they are The Society of Arts voted the gold medal in fitter for sailing, and commonly employed in the year 1807 Mr. Christopher Wilson, Richard carrying light stores, provisions, passengers, &c. Street, Commercial Road, London for a secure to and from the ships. In the structure of this sailing-boat, which is described in Vol. XXV. of sort of boats, the lower edge of every plank in the Society's Transactions as Mr. Wilson's the side over-lays the upper edge of the plank Neutral-built-self-balanced-boat. below it, which is called clinch-work. They are Mr. Wilson claims two distinct improvements, generally rowed with six oars, sometimes only viz. the neutral mode of building, and the appliwith four; in which case they are termed jolly- cation of the hollow sides or balance bodies. boats.

The first of these improvements relates to boats, Yawls are something less than cutters, nearly barges, &c. in general ; the other to such boats of the same form, and used for similar services. only as are designed for despatch, safety, or pleaOf all the small boats, a Norway yawl seems to But with respect to these claims, it is but be the best calculated for a high sea, as it will justice to state, that he has been anticipated in them often venture out to a great distance from the both. Mr. Boswell, to whom the navy is much coast of that country, when a stout ship can indebted for many useful hints, had a boat built hardly carry any sail.

in June 1803, the internal framing of which was A Gig is a long narrow boat used for expedi- precisely the same as in that of Mr. Wilson's; tion, generally rowed with six or eight oars, and and the only difference was, that, instead of is mostly the private property of the captain or having slips laid on the inside of the seams with commander.

blair or other calking, they were rivetted on withThe Jolly-Boat is a smaller boat than a yawl, out, and the seams calked. This boat was exkept on board ‘ships for going on shore, and hibited in London, and a description of it other light work.

published in No. LXII. of the Repertory of The above more particularly belong to ships Arts, New Series, &c. The second improvement of war; as merchant-ships seldom have more claimed by Mr. Wilson, is essentially the same than two, viz. a long boat and a yawl; when they as that for which Mr. Lionel Lukin obtained a have a third it is generally calculated for the patent in the year 1785, the specification of countries to which they trade, and varies in its which was published in the Repertory of Arts, construction accordingly.

Vol. III. First Series. A Wherty is a light sharp boat, used in a river The difficulties and danger of passing a bar or harbour for carrying passengers from place to in stormy weather, and of landing troops on a place. The wherries allowed to ply about Lon- beach, when there is much surf, or a great swell, don, are either scullers, which means a single have given rise to various experiments, to prevent person with two oars, or two persons rowing boats being swamped or stove ; and among with each an oar.

The Portsmouth wherries are others, that of applying air trunks to boats built built broader and larger than those on the in the common way, agreeably to a plan lately Thames, and allowed to be a very safe descrip- proposed to the admiralty by Vice Admiral tion of boats, and will often keep the sea when Hunter, who, after forty years experience in difthose of a larger class are obliged to run into ferent parts of the world, strongly recommeuds port: they have frequently been known to cross it as the very best possible method yet thought the channel to France with safety, at different of

, to prevent boats sinking in case of being struck seasons of the year, and seldom meet with any by a heavy sea, or filled in going through a surf

. accident.

This plan is simple and practicable for preventing A Punt is a sort of oblong flat-bottomed boat, the loss of lives when a boa. is sent from her ship nearly resembling a floating stage used by ship- in bad weather ; or when troops are to be carwrights and calkers, for breaming, calking, or ried in boats through broken water, which may repairing a ship's bottom, and is chiefly used occasion their shipping enough to fill or swamp. for one person to go on shore in from small the boat in deep water ; and the Admiral is of vessels. It is also frequently used to go after opinion, that if every ship, whether in his Ma. wild-fowl during the winter season, when they jesty's or merchant's service, were to have at all



times a set of these trunks ready to apply, to ventnre out to her assistance in any boat of when they have occasion to use their boats in the common construction. On this melancholy bad weather, many valuable lives would be occasion the gentlemen of South Shields called a saved.

meeting of the inhabitants, and premiums were To those acquainted with the force of a heavy instantly offered for plans of a boat which should sea, it must appear much more difficult to pre- be the best calculated to brave the dangers of the sent a boat from being stove, than from being sea, particularly of broken water. Many prosunk. A mechanic has suggested that a much posals were accordingly offered, but the preference greater degree of stability might be given to our was given unanimously' to Mr. Greathead's, who common boats or small vessels, and that they was immediately directed to build a boat at the might be made to resist the shock of the waves, expense of the committee. This boat went off by diminishing their centre of gravity at the on the 30th of January, 1790, and so well has it instant such a measure was found necessary, answered, and even exceeded, every expectawhich would greatly augment their general tion, in the most tremendous sea, that during the gravity and resistance. He proposes, that in last twenty-five years not less than 300 lives the vertical plane of the boat's centre of gra- have been saved at the entrance of the Tyne vity, there be placed a rod of iron, formed of alone, which otherwise must have been lost. several billets of the same metal : at the ex- The principle of Mr. Greathead's boat appears tremity of this rod let there be fixed a weight to have been suggested by the following simple of iron or lead, the specific gravity of which fact : - Take a spheroid, and divide it into may be in proportion to the effect required to quarters; each quarter is elliptical, and nearly result from it. When there is no occasion for resembles the half of a wooden bowl, having a employing this weight, it might be contained in curvature with projecting ends; this, thrown + place made in the bottom, or keel, of the into the sea or broken water, cannot be upset or vessel, which part might be easily appropriated lie with the bottom upwards. The length of the for that purpose, without the weight occasioning boat is thirty feet; the breadth ten feet; the any embarrasment or friction.

depth, from the top of the gunwale to the lower The rod might be secured by an apparatus very part of the keel in midships, three feet three ineasily made; and it might be provided with ches; from the gunwale to the platform (within), teeth, by which it could be manœuvred by a two feet four inches; from the top of the stems crane, by means of a single handle; the weight (both ends being similar) to the horizontal line might be made to descend to the depth of of the bottom of the keel, five feet nine inches. eighteen, twenty, or twenty-four inches, beneath The keel is a plank of three inches thick, of a the lower plane of the keel; and it will appear proportionate breadth in midships, narrowing evident that the descent of this weight must gradually towards the ends, to the breadth of the cause a difference in the power of the boat's stems at the bottom, and forming a great conresistance against the efforts of the waves. See vexity downwards. the Life Boat, below.

The stems are segments of a circle, with conTrim the Boat, is an order to sit in the boat in siderable rakes, The bottom section, to the such a manner as that she shall float upright in floor-heads is a curve fore and aft, with the sweep the water, without leaning to either side.

of the keel. To balé the Boat is to throw or scoop out the The floor timber has a small rise curving from water that may have got in her bottom, by leak- the keel to the floor-heads. A bilge plank is age or otherwise.

wrought in on each side, next the floor-heads, Moor the Boat, is an order to fasten a boat with a double rabbet or groove, of a similar thickwith two ropes, so as that the one shall counteract ness with the keel ; and on the outside of this the other, and keep her in a steady position. are fixed two bilgetrees, corresponding nearly Boat's Crew are the men appointed to man

with the level of the keel. any particular boat, as the barge's crew, cutter's The ends of the bottom section form that fine crew, &c.

kind of entrance observable in the lower part of the Boat, Life. The life-boat is a modern inven- bow of the fishing-boat called a coble, inuch used tion of the utmost consequence to the lives and in the North. From this part to the top of the safety of seafaring persons.

stem it is more elliptical, forming a considerable The construction of a boat for the preservation projection. of lives from ships driven on the shores of this The sides, from the floor-heads to the top of kingdom, was originally suggested by the sub- the yunwale, flaunch off on each side, in proporscribers to the News Room at the Law House, tion to above half the breadth of the floor. The South Shields, in 1789; who, from situation, breadth is continued far forwards towards the were the more immediate spectators of the de- ends, leaving a sufficient length of straight side struction inevitably attending vessels and their at the top. The sheer is regular along the crews coming on the sand at the south entrance straight side, and more elevated towards the of Tynemouth Haven.

ends. The gunwale fixed to the outside is three In September, 1789, the ship Adventure, of inches thick. The sides, from the under part of

was stranded on the Herd Sands, on the gunwale, along the whole length of the reguthe south side of Tynemouth Haven, in the midst lar sheer, extending twenty-one feet six inches, of the most tremendous breakers; and all the are cased with layers of cork to the depth of sixcrew dropped from the rigging, one by one, in teen inches downwards; and the thickness of this the presence of thousands of spectators ; not one casing of cork being four inches, it projects at of whom could be prevailed on by any reward the top a little without the gunwale. "The cork


on the outside is secured with thin plate, or waves and sunk, when impelled against them; slips of copper, and the boat is fastened with and boats constructed for burden meet with too copper nails.

much resistance from the wind and sea when The thwarts, or seats, are five in number, opposed to them, and cannot, in such cases, double banked; consequently, the boat may be be rowed from the shore to a ship in distress. rowed with ten oars.

Mr. Greathead gives the following instructions The thwarts are firmly stanchioned. The side for the management of the life-boat :- The boats bars are short, with iron tholes and rope gro- in general of this description, are painted white mets, so that the rower can pull either way. on the outside; this color more immediately The boat is steered with an oar at each end; and engaging the eye of the spectator, when rising the steering oar is one-third longer than the from the hollow of the sea, than any other. The rowing oar.

bottom of the boat is at first varnished (which The platform placed at the bottom, within the will take paint afterwards), for the more minute boat, is horizontal, the length of the midships, inspection of purchasers. The oars she is equipand elevated at the ends for the convenience of ped with are made of fir of the best quality; the steersman, to give him a greater power with having found, by experience, that a rove ash oar, the oar.

The internal part of the boat, next the that will dress clean and light, is too pliant sides, from the under part of the thwarts down to among the breakers ; and when strong and the platform, is cased with cork; the whole heavy, from rowing double-banked, the purquantity of which, affixed to the life-boat, is chase being short, sooner exhausts the rower; nearly seven hundred weight. The cork indis- which rendets the fir oar, when made stiff, putably contributes much to the buoyancy of the preferable. boat, is a good defence in going along-side a In the management of the boat she requires vessel, and is of principal use in keeping the twelve men to work her; that is, five men on boat in an erect position in the sea, or rather for each side, rowing double-banked, with an oar giving her a very lively and quick disposition to slung over an iron thole, with a gromet (as prorecover from any sudden cant or lurch, which vided), so as to enable the rower to pull either she may receive from the stroke of a heavy wave. way, and one man at each end to steer her, and But, exclusively of the cork, the admirable con- to be ready at the opposite end to take the steer struction of this boat gives it a decided pre- oar when wanted. As, from the construction of eminence. The ends being similar the boat can the boat, she is always in a position to be towed be rowed either way, and this peculiarity of form either way, without turning the boat : when assists her in rising over the waves. The curva- manned the person who steers her should be ture of the keel and bottom facilitates her mover well acquainted with the course of the tides, in ment in turning, and contributes to the ease of order to take every possible advantage; the best the steerage, as a single stroke of the steering method, if the direction will admit of it, is to oar has an immediate effect, the boat moving as

head the sea. upon a centre. The fine 'entrance below is of The steersman should keep his eye fixed upon use in dividing the waves, when rowing against the wave or breaker, and encourage the rowers them; and, combined with the convexity of the to give way as the boat rises to it, being then bottom, and the elliptical form of the stem, ad- aided by the force of the oars, she launches over mits her to rise with wonderful buoyancy in a it with vast rapidity, without shipping any water. high sea, and to launch forward with rapidity, It is necessary to observe, that there is often a without shipping any water, when a common strong reflux of sea, occasioned by the stranded boat would be in danger of being filled. The wrecks, which requires both dispatch and care faunching or spreading form of the boat, from in the people employed, that the boat be not her floor-heads to the gunwale, gives her a con- damaged. When the wreck is reached, if the siderable bearing; and the continuation of the wind blows to the land, the boat will come in breadth well forward, is a great support to shore without any other effort than steering. her in the sea; and it has been found, by ex- The particular construction of this boat will be perience, that boats of this construction are the best understood by referring to our plate, LIFEbest sea-boats for rowing against turbulent waves. Boat, where fig. 1, represents a cross section of

The internal shallowness of the boat from the the boat. gunwale down to the platform, the convexity of F F, the outside coatings of cork. the form, and the bulk of cork within, leave a very G G, the inside cork filling. diminished space for the water to occupy; so H H, the outside planks of the boat. that the life-boat, when filled with water, con- 1, one of the stems of the boat. tains a considerable less quantity than the com- K, the keel. mon boat, and is in no danger either of sinking the timber-heads. or upsetting

P, the thwarts, or rowers's seats. It may be presumed by some, that in cases of R, one of the stantions under the thwarts, each high wind, agitated sea, and broken waves, a boat being thus firmly supported. of such bulk could not prevail against them by s, a section of the gang-board, which crosses the force of oars; but the life-boat, from her pe- the thwarts, and forms the passage from one end culiar form, may be rowed a-head, when the of the boat to the other. attempt in other boats would fail. Boats of the

T, the floor-heads, or platform for the rower's common form, adapted for speed, are of course feet. put in motion with a small power; but for want u v, the two bilge pieces, nearly level with of buoyancy and bearing, are over-run by the the keel.


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