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affected by the greatness of the thoughts and the expressions : 'Fear not, I am THE FIRST and THE LAST: I am He that was dead, but now liveth: Behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen, and have the keys of Hades, and of Death,” i. 17, 18.

"The Apocalypse has something in it which enchants and insensibly inspires the reader with the sublime spirit of the author. When future blessedness is promised (to the righteous), or the New Jerusalem described, a man must be devoid of feeling who is not affected: and when the author denounces 'judgment to the wicked,' and represents the smoke of their torment ascending up for ever and ever, before the throne of GOD and his Angels,' one must be either prejudiced before one reads, or one cannot read without terror.

"A great part of the imagery is borrowed from the ancient Prophets; but the imitation is for the most part more beautiful and more magnificent than the original, which is particularly true of what is borrowed from Ezekiel; and the imagery which is taken from the Theology of the Rabbins, acquires in the Apocalypse a taste and eloquence, of which the Rabbinical writings themselves are wholly destitute.

"St. John's Gospel has likewise its beauties; but then they are beauties of a very different kind. For while the author of enchanted ground, and

the Apocalypse hurries us away to resembles a torrent which carries every thing before it, St. John the Apostle is plainness and gentleness, and is like a clear rivulet which flows without rapidity and violence.--Is it possible, therefore, that St. John the Apostle, and the author of the Apocalypse, called St. John the Divine, were one and the same person?" p. 533, 534.

Yes, we will reply to this most unequal and provoking critic, whom we must praise and censure in the same breath. Yes, the very difference he stumbles at is the surest proof of the identity of both.

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"John the Apostle" wrote in his proper character, and in his own language; "John the Divine," in the language of inspiration, as THE SPIRIT gave him utterance." Of course, they differ as much as "the language of the Gods and Men" in Homer. And they ought to differ, that the learned might not idly mistake the Apocalypse for a human composition, the Apostle being only the vehicle of the divine Afflatus, like the Prophet of old,

"Who saw the vision of THE ALMIGHTY,

Entranced, but having his (mental) eyes open."

And like his "most noble compeer †," so highly favoured with "abundance of visions and revelations of THE LORD," who was rapt into Paradise, and even into the third Heaven, (whether in the body, or out of the body, he knew not, GOD only knew,) and heard unutterable expressions, which it was not allowed for man to speak."

Still we are highly indebted to Michaelis for that candour and fairness of mind, that did not withhold the curious and valuable counter-evidence which his copious stores of general learning supplied; though we cannot but regret, for his own sake, that he did not sufficiently avail himself of that information he has so liberally supplied to others. He had, indeed, more learning than judgment, and too great a deference to authorities of inferior weight.


We shall conclude this article with the valuable testimony of the ancient and learned historian, Sulpitius Severus, A.D. 401. During the reign of Domitian, [about A.D. 95,] John, the Apostle and Evangelist, was banished to the Isle of Patmos, where, after hidden mysteries had been revealed to him, he wrote and published his book of the sacred Apocalypse, which is foolishly or wickedly rejected by many." See Lardner, v. p. 164.

From the foregoing critical investigation, we may collect the most probable


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So much the rather, THOU CELESTIAL LIGHT,
Shine inward, and the mind through all her powers

Irradiate: there, plant eyes, all mists from thence
Purge and disperse; that I may see, and tell

Of things invisible to mortal sight !-Milton.

+ Par nobile fratrum, the two most highly illuminated mortals that ever appeared on earth, were John and Paul.

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The credibility of the Acts and Epistles may partly be collected from the foregoing enquiry into their authenticity; evincing a remarkable harmony and consistency between them, in a great variety of minute and incidental circumstances scattered throughout, so rarely to be found in miscellaneous historical documents. It will further appear, from the concurring information they afford, collectively, of the history of this period; to which we now proceed, after these preliminary observations.


After OUR LORD's ascension, (the particulars of which are recorded, as we have seen in the first chapter of the Acts, 1—11,) the infant community of our Lord's disciples, consisting of the "eleven Apostles," and the seventy disciples, (we may presume,) our Lord's mother, " Mary," and the rest of the pious 66 women," and the brethren, to the amount of 120 persons, (like the grain of mustard seed,) all persevered, with one consent in prayer and supplication, ver. 12-15.


To supply the vacancy in "the glorious company of the Apostles," occasioned by the defection and death of Judas; "in those days," and probably on the ensuing Lord's day, when they were assembled together for public worship, and might expect the presence of CHRIST, virtually at least, if not visibly, according to his gracious promise, Matt. xxviii. 20, Peter stood

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up, and took the lead, as president, and being now converted himself, confirmed his brethren," Luke xxii. 32, and proposed this measure. In his speech, after reciting the dreadful catastrophe of Judas, who was "guide to them that apprehended JESUS," he applied two remarkable prophecies to both. "Let their abode * be desolate, and let no one dwell therein," (Psalm Ixix. 25,) so exactly fulfilled in the ensuing desolation of Jerusalem; and, "Let another take his episcopal office," (Psalm cix. 8,) now to be fulfilled in the appointment of a successor to the transgressor Judas +.

Instead of the received reading of the former citation, ɛravdıg avrov, we have been induced to substitute Tavλig avтwv, for the following reasons.

1. This is the rendering of the Septuagint version, following the Hebrew, and describing the woes destined to be inflicted upon the Jews, for rejecting and persecuting CHRIST; which is the drift of the former Psalm; and the various reading, avtwv, is also supported by the Vulgate, Ethiopic, and Armenian versions of the New Testament, edit. Cant. and five MSS. including the Lincoln, (33,) and the Vienna, (43.) See Griesbach, edit. secund.

2. The prophecy, as applied to Judas, seems rather irrelevant, for though he was certainly included among our Lord's persecutors in general, yet his case being particularly described in the latter Psalm, and the latter prophecy brought from thence, to warrant the choice of a successor in his apostolical office; the former prophecy, if applied to him, seems to be rather superfluous; whereas it is peculiarly applicable " to them that apprehended JESUS;" and whose midnight treachery, likewise, deserved to be also censured by the Apostle, as it was by OUR LORD, Matt. xxvi. 55. Another Psalm has combined both.

"Many are the afflictions of the JUST ONE, (CHRIST,)

But THE LORD delivereth him out of them all.

He preserveth all his bones,

Not one of them is broken.

Evil shall slay the wicked one, (Judas,)

And the haters of the JUST ONE (the Jews,)

Shall be desolate." Psalm xxxiv. 19-21.

3. The learned Dr. Owen, in his vindication of the modes of quotation adopted by the evangelical writers, though he retains the received reading, avrov, yet, rather inconsistently, is forced to explain it in the same sense of avrov.-" There is in this quotation, it must be acknowledged, some difficulty. And this difficulty, I know not how otherwise to solve, than by observing, that Judas is not here specified as the only traitor, though the chief and most infamous; but as "the guide of them that took JESUS," ver. 16. They therefore, plurally, were all concerned and involved in the prophecy. And as the prophecy was now singularly fulfilled in Judas, the head: so with reference to its plural construction, it was a plain presage, that the rest, the body of the Jews, would surely meet with the like fate; which they woefully experienced not long after, p. 63. This reluctant witness against the received reading, strengthens the foregoing argu


+ Commentators have been greatly divided about the meaning of that expression concerning Judas, Tоpevoŋvai eiç TOV TOTOV TOv idiov, "to go to his own place," Acts

From this case we learn the qualification of a candidate for the Apostleship, and the mode of election. 1. He was required to be an eye-witness of the resurrection of the LORD JESUS, chosen out of the attendants on him during his ministry, from his baptism till his ascension. 2. Two candidates were selected by the Apostles, (probably out of the seventy disciples.) 3. They were recommended by prayer to THE LORD*, as the

1. The generality understand thereby that region of Hades allotted to the souls of bad men; as in the parable of Lazarus and the rich man, in which the latter "lift up his eyes in Hades, being in torments," &c. Luke xvi. 23; and they ground this on our Lord's declaration, "Woe unto that man by whom THE SON OF MAN is delivered up; it had been good for that man if he had never been born!" Matt. xxvi. 24. This seems to have been also the decided opinion of the primitive Fathers. Polycarp thus speaks of the Apostles and Martyrs, ότι εις τον οφειλομενον αὐτοῖς τόπον εισι παρα τῳ κυριῳ. "That they are in the place due to them, with THE LORD."

Clemens Romanus thus speaks of Peter himself, ούτω μαρτυρήσας επορεύθη εις τον οφειλόμενον τοπον της δόξης. "Having thus testified, he went to the due place of glory. And Ignatius notices both, επικείται τα δυο όμου, ὁ τε θανατος και ἡ ζωη και έκαστος εις τον ίδιον τοπον μελλει χωρειν. "Death and life are both impend

ing and every one is destined to go to his own place."

2. The harshness, however, of Peter's thus passing judgment on an offending brother, who had been himself guilty, and had been recently forgiven, has induced some to look for a different interpretation. And Gilpin, with others, applies the expression to Matthias, who was appointed "to receive the lot of this ministry and apostleship, (from which Judas transgressed,) in order to go into his own place," or to take the station assigned to him. It may, however, be questioned, whether rожоç, here, can be properly taken in the figurative sense of station, combined with the transitive verb πopevoŋvai, to go, or travel.

3. Another interpretation may be offered, which is not liable to that objection, and seems to correspond also with the context. Peter had declared before, that "Judas purchased a place with the wages of iniquity," (xwptov,) ver. 18, or "the potter's field, to bury strangers in;" the purchase being attributed to him, since made with his money. Might it not then be said, with propriety, that when Judas transgressed, and became guilty of suicide," he went to his own place," the potter's field, to be buried there as a 66 stranger," alien, or outcast from the congregation of Israel? The words xwptov and roos, are used indiscriminately. We propose this, however, with diffidence; for after all, the first interpretation is best supported by ancient authorities.

Συ κύριε, καρδιογνωστα παντων. It is a matter of high importance to the cause of VITAL CHRISTIANITY, to know who is "THE LORD," here addressed as "SEARCHER OF ALL HEARTS." That this title belongs to THE FATHER, is unquestionable; and it is expressly attributed to Him, Psalm vii. 9, xxvi. 2, 1 Sam. xvi. 7, Jer. xi. 20, xvii. 10, xx. 12, &c.

It is also applied to THE SON, John i. 48-50, ii. 24, 25, vi. 64, xvi. 30, xix. 35, xxi. 17.

And that on this occasion it was immediately addressed to "THE LORD JESUS," we may humbly collect from the following reasons.

1. Because He was "THE LORD" specified immediately before this invocation, in Peter's discourse, ver. 21.

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