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3 the one which may be supposed to be the monument of vinus. It is situated near the centre of the western face 1 the enclosure, and is joined, like the others, by the boun.
The natives call it “Koyonjuk-Tepe. Its form that of a truncated pyramid, with regular steep sides, ind a flat top. It is composed, as I ascertained from some excavations, of stones and earth, the latter predominating sufficiently to admit of the summit being cultivated by the nhabitants of the village of Koyonjuk, which is built on it at he N. E. exiremity. The only means I had, at the time I visited it, of ascertaining its dimensions, was by a cord, which I procured from Mosul. This gave 178 feet for the greatest height, 1,850 feet for the length of the summit E. and W., and 1,147 for its breadth, N. and S. Out of a mound, in the north face of the boundary, was dug, a short time ago, an immense block of stone, on which were sculptured the figures of men and animals. So remarkable was this fragment of antiquity, that even Turkish apathy was roused, and the pasha, and most of the principal people in Mosul, came out to see
One of the spectators particularly recollected, among the sculptures of this stone, the figure of a man on horseback, with a long lance in his hand, followed by a great many others on foot. The stone was afterwards cut into small pieces, for repairing the buildings of Mosul, and this inestimable specimen of the arts and manners of the earliest ages irrecoverably lost. To this day, stones of the largest dimensions, which clearly attest their high antiquity, are found in or near the foot of the mound.”
Thus the reader will perceive, that Nineveh is left without any monuments of royalty, and without any tokens of its splendour or its wealth ; that their place is not known where they were; that it is, indeed, a desolation, “ empty, and void, and waste," and an utter ruin, according to the Divine predictions.
“Her walls are gone; her palaces are dust:
Of men he turned from him. So to kings
And iron rod breaks down at length the hand
The site of Resen is indicated in the sacred text (Gen. x. 12) with more than ordinary precision; but we have no evidence to show where it stood. Most writers agree in stating that it was erected on the margin of the Tigris, between Nineveh and Calah; and Bochart conjectures it to be the Larissa of Xenophon, which, according to that historian, stood near the Tigris, and had been formerly a great city, eight miles in circumference, inhabited by the Medes, but was, at that date, destitute of inhabitants, and in ruins.
The best authorities concur in placing Calah on the Great Zab, before it enters the Tigris. From this city, the country on the north-east of the Tigris, and south of the Gordian mountains of Armenia, was called Callachene, or Calacine. It was one of those cities founded by Asshur, as recorded Gen. x. 11, but it has long since perished from off the earth. Bochart conceives that this is the same city with Halah, where the king of Assyria placed the captive Israelites, 2 Kings XVI. 6.
The site of Rehoboth has been fixed at many parts of Assyria. Thus some place it below Nineveh, others below Čalah, and others fix it on the western banks of the Tigris, opposite Resen. By some, again, it is considered to be the Oroba of Pliny, while others translate it to signify the streets of Nineveh. In the English translation, it is spoken of as one of the cities built by Asshur. See Gen. x. 11.
The rabbins say, that Erech, mentioned Gen. x. 10, as one of the cities built by Nimrod, is the same as Ur, the seat of the nativity of Abraham, and the death of Haran, and which is to the present day denominated by the Syrians, Urhoi, and by the Arabs, Urfah, or Orfah. But this is an unreasonable distance from Babel, in the vicinity of which it was erected; and it would, likewise, give too great an extent to the kingdom of Nimrod. It is generally believed to have been a city of Chaldea, from whence the present name of Irak is derived. Herodotus, Ptolemy, and Ammianus Marcellinus. mention cities, the names of which are evidently also formed from Erech. There was a city distinguished as And-Erech, in Susiana, near some fiery and bituminous pools; and there was another, denominated Ard-Erech, on the Euphrates, below Babylon. This latter city, perhaps, occupied the site of the original Erech.
This city is considered by the most able geographers to be the Sittace of the Greeks, and the Akkerkoof of the present time; both of which names retain some elements of its ancient denomination. It is situated about nine miles west of the Tigris, at the place where that river makes its nearest approach to the Euphrates. The opinion that this was the site of the original Accad, is founded, not only upon the circumstances of its situation and name being favourable to its identity, but also, because there is a remarkable monument there, which the Arabs, to this day, call Tel Nemroud; and the Turks, Nemroud Tepasse: both which appellations signify, the " Hill of Nimrod." This hill is surmounted by a mass of building, which has the appearance of a tower, or an irregular pyra7
It is mid, according to the point from which it is viewed. 300 feet in circumference at the bottom, and rises 125 or 130 The feet above the inclined elevation on which it stands. foundation of the structure is composed of a mass of rubbish, formed by the decay of the superstructure. The different layers of sun-dried bricks, of which it is composed, may be These bricks are traced very distinctly in the tower itself. cemented together by lime or bitumen, and are divided into courses, varying from fifteen to twenty feet in height, and separated by layers of reeds, such as grow in the marshy parts of the country. These reeds are in a state of wonderful preservation. It is supposed, from the solidity and loftiness of the pile, as well as the difficulty of discovering any other use for it, that it was one of those towers which were consecrated by the ancient heathen to the worship of the heavenly bodies, and which served at once as temples and observatories. Piles of this nature have been found in all the primitive cities of this region: the Tel Nemroud, therefore, sufficiently indicates the site of a primitive town; and, consequently, it may have been Accad.
Both ancient and modern, European and Oriental authorties, concur in fixing the site of this city at what was the great city of Ctesiphon, upon the eastern bank of the river Tigris, about eighteen miles below Bagdad. On the opposite side of the river stood Seleucia, which was built by the Greeks for the express purpose of draining Babylon of its inhabitants, and which was made the capital of their empire, east of the Euphrates. After the lapse of several ages, Ctesiphon, which appears to have been in existence as a small town, (which small town was ancient Calneh, built by Nimrod,) began to assume an importance as a rival to Seleucia, in the hands of the Parthians, those inveterate and fierce foes of the Greeks.
There is a diversity of opinion among authors concerning the situation of this city. By Ptolemy and Pliny it is placed at a great distance from the Tigris; but Xenophon, who traversed the whole country, and had himself been at Sittace,
says, that it stood only about a mile and a half from that river. In the days of this historian, it was a large and populous city.
This city is placed by Ptolemy between the rivers Gorgus and Silla. It is mentioned by Polybius and Stephanus, who reckon it the twentieth town between Babylon and Susa.
According to Strabo, this city was anciently of great note, and stood about fifty miles east of Seleucia. It is noticed by Tacitus. Isidore, Characenus, Stephanus, Pliny, Ptolemy, and other Oriental geographers. By Isidore it is placed on the river Silla Both this city and Apollonia were, without doubt, as their names indicate, of Greek origin.
The city of Arbela (now Arbil, or Erbil, a miserable village, according to Niebuhr's observations) stood on the ordinary route from Bagdad to Mosul, in 36° 11'. According to Rennell, it was forty-six miles from Mosul. It was situated between the Lesser and the Greater Zab, but nearer the latter, in a hilly and fertile district. The city was once in possession of an hereditary race of Mohammedan princes, whose dominion extended to Tabreez, in Azerdbijan, and it was then (about the fifteenth century of the Christian era) a large city, defended by a castle, situated on a hill of a conical shape. Part of the present town, which consists of wretched houses, buik of sun-dried bricks, is on this hill, and part around it. The castle has almost disappeared. There are no antiquities at Erbil, but there is a minàreh, belonging to a mosque, at a
le distance, which was erected by sultan Musaffer. This minareh is strongly built of burned bricks and mortar, and has two entrances facing one another, each leading to a flight of steps, by which two persons may ascend the tower without seeing one another till they meet on the summit.
The city of Arbela is famous in history for having given name to the last great battle between Alexander and Darius,
c. 331. The battle was fought at a spot called Gaugamela, now Karmelis, a little place, about thirty-six miles W. by N. from Arbela, according to Niebuhr; but, according to Arrian, about sixty miles E. of Gaugamela, on a stream called the