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The king commenced by informing Cottington, that he believed him to be an honest man, and would therefore entrust him with a secret which he must disclose to no person living: Cottington," he added, "here is Baby Charles and Stenny, who have a great mind to go by post into Spain, and fetch home the Infanta, and will have but two in their company, and have chosen you for one ;-what think you of the journey?" Cottington afterwards repeatedly mentioned, that when this important question was put to him, he trembled so violently, he could with difficulty give utterance to his words. But the king peremptorily demanding his reply, Cottington told him fairly and openly, that he believed such a step would be a deathblow to the completion of the match. He was convinced, he said, that when the Spaniards had the prince once in their hands, they would immediately make new overtures, and greatly increase their demands; and that, more especially as regarded the advancement of the Romish faith in England. On hearing this candid opinion, in the agony of his grief, James actually threw himself on his bed, and breaking out into the most pitiable lamentations, exclaimed passionately that he was undone, and that he should lose Baby Charles for ever.

The prince and Buckingham were both extremely disconcerted. The latter turned to Cottington, and told him, in an angry tone, that the king had merely asked his advice as to the best mode of traveling in Spain, of which he was competent to give some opinion, but that he had presumed to offer his advice on matters of state; adding, that he should repent the impertinence as long as he lived. "Nay, by God, Stenny," said the king, "you are very much to blame to use He answered me directly to the question I asked him, and very honestly and wisely; and yet you know he said no more than I told you, before he was called in." On this occasion, however, notwithstanding Cottington's opposition, the king kept his word, and the journey was definitively settled.

him so.

CHAPTER II.

On the 17th of February, 1623, the prince retired privately from court, and came to Buckingham's house, at Newhall, in Essex. From thence they set out on the following day, (accompanied only by Sir Richard Graham, Master of the Horse to the duke,) and arrived though not without adventures, by way of Gravesend, at Dover. They had previously disguised themselves with false beards and adopted fictitious names; the prince passing as Mr. John Smith, and the duke as Mr. Thomas Smith.

The first accident which happened to them, was encountering the French ambassador, (who was, of course, well acquainted with their persons,) on the brow of the hill, beyond Rochester. Their horses, however, though merely hired at the last post, were fortunately able to leap the hedge by the roadside, and thus enabled them to escape observation. This circumstance was the more fortunate, as the ambassador, (as was then usual,) was traveling in one of the king's coaches; and their recognition by some of the royal servants would certainly have been the consequence of a personal encounter.

But a more important incident had nearly ar

for Monsier Grammont, the governor, had notice of him not long after he had taken post." Charles was certainly subjected to an examination before he quitted Bayonne. Grammont, the governor, told Lord Herbert, that, till the adventurers had quitted the place, he was ignorant of the prince's rank. Charles and his suite are described at this period as wearing "fine riding coats, all of one colour and fashion, in a kind of noble simpli

rested their progress. In crossing the river at Gravesend, for want of silver, they had given the ferryman a gold piece. The man was equally astonished and grateful for such liberality, and supposing that his benefactors were proceeding across ths channel for the purpose of fighting a duel, he thought it the kindest step he could take, to hint his suspicions to the authorities of the nearest town. Accordingly information was instantly despatched to the Mayor of Canterbury; city." and just as the prince and Buckingham were Another escape was from the hospitality of the about to mount fresh horses, they were sum- Duke D'Epernon, who, as strangers, kindly inmoned to the presence of that important person-vited the party to his chateau. Cottington, howage. The duke, finding concealment impracti- ever, informed him they were persons of such cable, divested himself of his beard, and private- low degree as to be unfit for such splendid society, ly informed the mayor who he really was:-he and thus eluded the invitation. was going, he said, in his capacity of lord high admiral, to acquaint himself secretly with the condition and discipline of the fleet. His identity was easily proved, and the adventurers were allowed to depart. A boy, who rode post with their baggage, had also recognised their persons, but the silence of this individual was not very difficult to be bought.

The arrival of Charles and Buckingham at Madrid was altogether a surprise, even to the English ambassador, the Earl of Bristol, who, on the 10th of March, 1623, thus announces their safety to King James: "Upon Friday, which was the 7th of this month, about eight of the clock at night, the prince and my lord of Buckingham, without any other company but their At Dover they were joined by Sir Francis Cot-postilion, arrived at my house; where my lord tington and Endymion Porter, who had been marquis meeting at the door with Henry Jermyn, despatched beforehand, to provide a vessel for a son of Sir Thomas Jermyn's, told him that his their conveyance across the channel. Both of name was Smith, and that he had met my servant these persons, from their long residence in the Gresly by the way, who had fallen into thieves' country, were well acquainted with the Spanish hands, by whom he had been very ill-used, and language and customs. The party, which was had all his letters taken away; he said he had now increased to five, arrived safely at Boulogne, got a fall, and hurt one of his legs, so that he whence they rode post to Paris. On their way could not come up stairs but with great pain. they fell in with two German gentlemen, who Whilst Henry Jermyn was making this relation had recently seen the prince at Newmarket, and unto me, Sim. Digby went to see who it was, who fancied they remembered his person. The and knew my lord of Buckingham; but dissemimprobability, however, of their being right in bled it so well, that before I could come to him, their conjectures, and the apparent astonishment, he had got him up to his chamber, and went preand cool denial of Sir Richard Graham, when sently down to the prince, (who stood all this they hinted to him their suspicion, had the effect while in the street with his postilion,) and brought of convincing them they were mistaken. him likewise so handsomely up to his chamber, that there I found them both together, and we carried the business so dexterously, that that night they were undiscovered by any, till the next morning, by the coming of Mr. Secretary Cottington and Endymion Porter, the secret was revealed."

At Paris, where the travellers remained a whole day, the prince and Buckingham, in order to disguise their features still more, provided themselves with periwigs. Trusting to this further disfigurement, they contrived, through French politeness, and the fact of their being strangers, to obtain a sight of the queen-mother at dinner. The same evening they were spectators of a masked ball at court, where all the beauty of Paris was present, and at which Charles first beheld the princess whom he afterwards married: and Buckingham, that young and light-hearted queen whom at a later period he dared to address as a lover.

The famous Lord Herbert of Cherbury happened to be ambassador at the French court, during the short sojourn of Charles. The prince, however, fearing lest the visits or attention of the ambassador might draw upon him some suspicion of his real rank, neither communicated to Lord Herbert his arrival nor his intentions, at which the latter in his memoirs discovers some slight pique. Lord Herbert tells us, that the only person in Paris who recognised the features of Charles, was a maid-servant, who had formerly sold linen in London, and who insisted to every one that she had seen the Prince of Wales.

Nothing of importance occurred from this period, till the travellers had almost set foot on Spanish ground, when their progress was again on the point of being arrested. Howell writes from Madrid,-"The prince's journey was like to be spoiled in France, for if he had stayed but a little longer at Bayonne, the last town of that kingdom hitherwards, he had been discovered:

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The prince," writes Howell," and the Marquis of Buckingham arrived at this court on Friday last, upon the close of the evening: they alighted at my lord of Bristol's house, and, the marquis Mr. Thomas Smith, came in first, with a portmanteau under his arm; then Mr. John Smith. the prince, was sent for, who stayed awhile on t'other side of the street, in the dark." Having written to announce his arrival to his father, the prince retired to rest.

"saw

The next day Buckingham waited on the Spanish king, and formally acquainted him with the arrival of the prince. The duke was introduced through a secret passage to his majesty's private apartment. Bristol was present, and deseribes the interview. "I never," he says, the Spanish gravity laid aside before, nor any man more overtaken with joy than the king was, for he secretly understood of the prince's being here." His majesty instantly despatched his prime minister Olivarez to do honour to his illustrious visiter. Olivarez threw himself on his knees to Charles, and in the course of the day the king himself waited on the prince. Nothing could be more cordial than their strange interview, and after many "salutations and divers embraces," it was not till a late hour that they separated.

From this period Madrid was a constant scene

of magnificence and rejoicing. Nothing was omitted that could make the prince's stay agreeable to himself, or that might banish from his mind any apprehension of being detained as a captive; a consummation, however, of this wild adventure, which was much dreaded at home, and which, to all appearance, was not unlikely to happen. In order fully to appreciate the generous forbearance of the Spanish court, we must advert to an inhospitable practice of former times; that of treating as a captive any prince who might set his foot uninvited in the dominions of another. Richard the First, of England, passing in disguise through the territories of the Archduke of Austria, Philip the First of Spain, having been cast by a tempest on the coast of England,James the First of Scotland, whose vessel was

seized by the English ;—and lastly, Mary Queen of Scots, trusting herself in the hands of Elizabeth, were alike detained as prisoners. But this dishonourable practice, of which so many examples had been set by the English themselves, was so far from being followed by the high-minded Spaniards, that they refrained even from imposing a single fresh condition in the marriage treaty. The people of Madrid were much struck with the romance and gallantry of the visit. The famous Lopez de Vega aroused his rapid muse on the occasion, and his verses were every where

chanted in the streets.

Carlos Estuardo soy

Que, siendo Amor mi guia,
Al cielo d' España voy

Per ver mi estrella Maria.

Charles Stuart, I am,

Love has guided me far;
To the heaven of Spain
To Maria my star.

Monastery; the place from whence, on the days
of their coronation, the Spanish monarchs make
their entry into the capital. Here he was mag-
nificently feasted, the officers of state waiting on
him bareheaded. As soon as the banquet was
over, the king came in person to escort him into
Madrid. Placing the prince on his right hand,
they rode together under a rich canopy, followed
by a brilliant train; the houses hung with pic-
tures and tapestry, and the people shouting en-
thusiastically as they passed. The reception of
Charles by the queen was no less gratifying.
She presented him with several rich presents,
among which were perfumes and fine linen.*
Charles, for the first time, beheld the infanta
on the Sunday after his arrival. The occasion
was on the Prado at Madrid.
"The king,

(writes Howell from the spot,) with the queen,
his two brothers, and the infanta, were all in one
coach, but the infanta sat in the boot with a blue
riband about her arm, on purpose that the prince
might distinguish her; there were above twenty
coaches besides of grandees, noblemen, and ladies,
that attended them.

As soon as the infanta saw
the prince, her colour rose very high, which we

hold to be an impression of love and affection,

for the face is oftentimes the true index of the

heart. The people here do mightily magnify
the gallantry of the journey, and cry out that the
prince deserved to have the infanta thrown into
his arms the first night he came."

Don Carlos and the Cardinal Don Fernando, his
brethren; the Conde de Olivarez, and the Conde

de Gondomar, following him with much of the
nobility of that court, both of ladies and lords.
The prince, on the other side went disguised in
the Duke of Cea's coach, and was attended in
the same coach by the lord marquis, [Bucking-
ham,] the Earl of Bristol, and the Conde de Gon-
domar, and Sir Walton Aston; and both the king
and the prince made diverse turns and returns in
their several coaches, and in several parts of the
town and Prado, (which is a place of recreation
where the nobility is often wont to take the air,)
and every one of them saw each other in a clear
light, not being able to sustain from saluting each
other with the hat as they passed by, though
they had agreed to take no notice of one another;
and this was all they did for that time. The
king and all the royal company returned by night
by a world of torch-light, which made a most
glorious show." Howell describes the infanta
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as a very comely lady, rather of a Flemish
complexion than Spanish, fair haired, and carries

a most pure mixture of red and white in her
face."

The personal appearance of Charles at Madrid produced, however, but little effect in hastening vate interview with the infanta; her family givthe marriage. He was constantly refused a priing as their reason the non-arrival of the dispensation. Still a certain cold intercourse was subsequently allowed in public, on which occasion the Earl of Bristol acted as interpreter; the king, however, always took care to be at hand, in order that he might overhear the conversation. Charles really appears to have admired the infanta's person. Howell tells us that he has seen him in a thoughtful mood, with his eyes immovably fixed on his mistress for half an hour at a time; and that he has known him to remain an hour in a close coach, in a particular street, watching for the infanta to come abroad. Olivarez, the Spanish minister, remarked pointedly that the prince watched the infanta as a cat does a mouse.

It was not his own fault that Charles did not address his mistress with all the passion of nature and romance. The princess was in the habit of spending the summer mornings at a suburban residence of her brother, the Casa de Campo. Here she used to wander by the river side, gathering maydew, and perhaps musing on the gallantry and accomplishments of her chivalrous lover. Charles, hearing of these visits, rose purposely one morning very early, and with only one companion, found his way into the garden of the Casa. The infanta, however, was in the orchard, and the door between them was double sents consisted of a great basin of massy gold, which *Rushworth, vol. i. p. 76 and 77. "These pre-locked. Charles, determined not to be baffled, was borne by two men; a curiously embroidered nightgown was folded in it. Two trunks bound with bands of pure gold, and studded with nails of gold, with locks and keys of gold; the coverings and linings of amber leather, and filled with fine linen and perfumes. These were accompanied by a rich writing desk, every drawer of which was full of varieties and curiosities.”—D'Israeli's Commentaries on Charles I. vol. i. p. 65.

According to a curious tract, published at the period, the meeting on the Prado was a preconcerted measure. The prince being extremely anxious to obtain a sight of the mistres† for whom he had adventured so much, and the strictness of Spanish etiquette unfortunately precluding a formal introduction till a dispensation had Only a short time before, the Spaniards are been received from the pope, the King of Spain said to have pictured the English as a nation lit- kindly hit upon the expedient of the blue riband tle removed from savages. This notion had been and the Prado. The following passage is from fostered by the priests, who even described Sir the little work above alluded to:-" In conformiFrancis Drake to their congregations as a mon- ty to the prince's desire, his majesty being that ster, half dragon and half man. These ridicu- night acquainted with it by the conde, resolved lous prejudices had been dissipated in a great to give his highness all satisfaction, And so he degree by the recent embassy of the Earl of Not- went abroad next day, at the hour appointed, tingham; on which occasion the Spaniards had which was about three o'clock in the afternoon, been much astonished at the splendour of his and to the Prado, being the certain place agreed train, and the beauty of the heretical English. upon between them, his majesty conducting with But when they beheld the heir of a great monar-him the queen, his sister the infanta, the infantes chy risking liberty and life in furtherance of a romantic enterprise ;-when they became eyewitnesses of an act of gallantry, which, even in their own chivalrous annals, had scarcely been surpassed; and when there arrived at Madrid that brilliant band of courtiers, who had hastened from England as soon as the prince's departure was publicly known, the astonishment and enthusiasm of the Spaniards knew no bounds. But the conduct of the Spanish king, Philip the Fourth, is beyond all praise. He insisted on Charles taking precedence of himself; he set apart a principal quarter of the royal palace for his accommodation; he appointed a guard of one hundred men to attend his person; and he presented him with a golden key, which, at any hour, would give him access to the royal bedchamber. The prisons, moreover, were every where opened; hundreds of captives were set at liberty, and a recent proclamation against excessive costliness in dress was suspended in honour of the occasion. A day was appointed for the ceremony of a public entrance into Madrid; on which occasion the prince was attended by Gondomar and the ministers of state to St. Jerome's

†The fact is corroborated by the Earl of Bristol in a letter to King James. "My lord marquis," he says, "having intimated the great desire the prince had, as soon as might be, to see his mistress, they acquainted the king therewith, who was so forward therein, that, notwithstanding the next day was Sunday, and in Lent, yet he dispensed with his gravity so far as to go in a coach abroad, to a place called the Prado, which is a hole without the town, where men do take the air,with his sister with him, and all the court, where the prince was to stand disguised in a coach to see them.-Dalrymple's Memorials, p. 154.

climbed the wall, and though the height was considerable, sprang to the ground. The infanta was the first to perceive him, and gave a loud scream. An old marquis, who was her guardian, immediately approached the prince, and falling on his knees, conjured him to retire; adding that he should probably lose his head should he allow him to remain. The door consequently was unlocked and the prince reluctantly departed.

Jewels, the value of which is said to have amounted to one hundred thousand pounds, were forwarded from London to Madrid, and lavished by Charles and Buckingham on the Spanish ladies. "The prince," says Arthur Wilson,

presented his mistress with a necklace which all Spain could not parallel; pearls that had not been long plucked from their watery bed and had left there but few fellows." The infanta, however, declined receiving them for the present, and they were deposited in the hands of the minis

ters of the crown till her marriage day. It was much to the honour of the Spanish court, that when the match was broken off, and a war threatened, these jewels were returned.

James was himself very desirous that the prince and Buckingham should appear with unusual splendour at the Spanish court. In a letter to Charles, dated 17th March, 1623, he writes: "I send you the robes of the Order [of the Garter], which you must not forget to wear upon St. George's Day, and dine together in them, which I hope in Heaven you may; for it will be a goodly sight for the Spaniards to see my two boys dine in them. I send you also the jewels I promised, with some of mine, and such of yours, I mean both of you, as are worthy the sending, for my Baby's presenting his mistress.' The king concludes," God bless you both, my sweet boys, and send you, after a successful journey, a joyful and happy return to the arms of your dear dad. "JAMES REX."

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Another extract from one of King James's letters (in reply to the requisition of the prince and Buckingham for fresh supplies of jewels) will show how ready he was to grace his son and favourite, and to gratify their exorbitant demands: "For my Baby's presenting his mistress, I send him an old double cross of Lorrain, not so rich as ancient, and yet not contemptible for the value;—a good lookiug-glass, with my picture in it, to be hung at her girdle, which ye must tell her have caused so to be enchanted by art ye magic, as whenever she shall be pleased to look in it, she shall see the fairest lady that her brother or your father's dominions can afford: ye shall present her with two pair of long diamonds set like an anchor, and a fair pendant diamond hanging at them; ye shall give her a goodly rope of pearls; ye shall give her a carcanet or collar; thirteen great ball rubies, and thirteen knots or conques of pearls; and ye shall give her three goodly peak pendants diamonds, whereof the biggest to be worn at a needle on the midst of her forehead, and one in every ear. As for thee, my sweet gossip, I send thee a fair table diamond, which I would once have given thee before, if thou would have taken it, for wearing in thy hat, or where thou pleasest; and if my Baby will spare thee the two long diamonds in form of an anchor, with the pendant diamond, it were fit for an admiral to wear, and he hath enough better jewels for his mistress, though he has of thine own, thy good old jewel, thy three Pindars diamonds, thy picture-case I gave Kate, and the great diamond chain I gave her, who would have sent thee the last pin she had, if I had not staid her."

The Lord Treasurer Middlesex made great complaints of the prodigality of Charles and Buckingham. The following is a MS. note of Sir William Musgrave to one of the tracts in the British Museum respecting the prince's journey: "It appears by the enrolment book in the office for auditing the public accounts (vol. iii. fol. 175), that the prince's expenses for his journey into Spain, during his abode there, and for his return from thence, amounted unto £50,027, which was paid in part out of the King's Exchequer, and in part out of the Prince's Treasury." It is even asserted in a letter from Mr. Meade to Sir Martin Stuteville, that £600,000 worth of jewels had been sent from the Tower into Spain, to be at the disposal of Charles and Buckingham. That the Spaniards entertained strong hopes of the prince's conversion to the Romish faith, and of the consequent re-establishment of the

gion wherein he was bred, is infinitely confirmed and corroborated by the spectacles which he hath seen of their devotions here."

After the decease of Archbishop Usher, the following memorandum was discovered in the handwriting of that prelate:-"The King (Charles I.) once at Whitehall, in the presence of George Duke of Buckingham, of his own accord, said me, that he never loved popery in all his life, but that he never detested it before his going into Spain.

Pope's ascendancy in England, there can be but little doubt; indeed, it was generally believed by the Spanish court, that the prince had made up his mind to become a catholic before he left his own country, a fact acknowledged by Bristol himself. The Pope wrote to the Bishop of Couchen, conjuring him not to let slip so glorious an opportunity of advancing the interests of their church. He addressed letters of expostulation also to Charles and Buckingham. To the latter he writes on the 19th of May, 1623,-exhorting him not only to become a Roman Catholic him- The wishes of King James, and the prejudices self, but to use his utmost endeavor to bring over of the people of England, were greatly at va the court and kingdom of England to that per- riance as regarded the Spanish match. The latter suasion. His holiness's letter to Charles is had been long murmuring at the increase of the dated the day following::-"We have command- Roman Catholics and the encouragement they ed," he writes, " to make continually most hum- received; but when the heir to the throne was ble prayers to the Father of Lights, that he would actually engaged to a catholic princess; when be pleased to put you as a fair flower of Chris- articles were being drawn up, which permitted tendom, and the only hope of Great Britain, in the children of the Prince of Wales to be educat possession of that most noble heritage, that your ed among papists, and by which compact their ancestors have purchased for you, to defend the being members of that faith would be no bar to authority of the sovereign high priest, and to fight their succession to the crown, we cannot wonder against the monsters of heresy." He speaks that the protestants were greatly incensed at the also of the projected marriage, as "having elevat- conduct of James. But the king was alike deaf ed him to the hope of an extraordinary advan- to the murmurs of his people and the strong retage.", Charles returned an answer which he monstrances of the house of commons. His should never have written, and in which, if he only feeling was anger at their interference; and does not actually profess himself a papist, he at while the latter were drawing up their protest, least intimates that he is well inclined to the he withdrew himself discontentedly to NewPope's authority, and that he may eventually be-market, nominally on the plea of impaired health, come a proselyte to the Romish faith. Hume, though in reality to escape from their unwelcome alluding to this correspondence, merely observes, importunities. that the prince having received a very civil letter from the Pope, was induced to return a very civil

answer.

The Court of Madrid was far from discovering any backwardness in supporting the views of the holy father. Olivarez, and others about the prince's person, were entrusted with arguments by the heads of the church, which they constantly and ingeniously enforced. It was intimated to Charles, how much his conversion would smooth the path to his marriage; and when this inducement appeared insufficient, Archbishop Spotswood says, that it was even hinted to him, that unless he embraced their religion, he could scarcely think of winning the infanta. It was objected by the prince, among other arguments, that his apostacy would, in all probability, produce a rebellion in England. To this it was coolly replied by the Spanish court, that they would gladly assist him with an army against such a rebellious people.

Among other incentives to conversion, all the splendours of religious pageantry were brought into action. The architectural magnificence of their churches, the inspiration of their music, and the solemn sacrifice of the mass, would instil, it was hoped, into the heart of Charles an exalted notion of the catholic mode of worship, and an equal contempt of his own. The most pompous processions were exhibited before him; he was carried to such persons as were famous for pretended miracles; popish books were dedicated, and popish pictures presented to him: nor was any thing omitted that could either fire the imagination, or awe the heart into reverence. Nothing, however, could allure Charles from the religion of his country and his conscience. Indeed, his visit was very far from infecting him with a more favourable opinion of Romish tenets. On the 5th of April, 1623, the Earl of Carlisle writes to King James, from Madrid: "I dare boldly assure your majesty, that his highness's well-grounded piety, and knowledge of the reli

It would be impertinent to detail the many objections which preclude a union between the heir to the throne of England and a daughter of the Romish persuasion. The general fact of inex pediency is sufficiently proved by the misfortunes which the union of Charles and Henrietta Maria eventually entailed upon their posterity, and the people of England at large. Strange indeed as it may appear, no one better understood than James himself, the miseries that would probably result from such a step. In his Basilicon Doron, written expressly for the benefit of his son, Prince Henry, he had published, but a few years previously, the following sensible remarks on the subject,-"I would rather have you marry one that was fully of your own religion, her rank and other qualities being agreeable to your es tate; for although to my great regret, the number of any princes of power and account, professing our religion, be but very small, and that therefore this advice seems to be the more strait and difficult; yet ye have deeply to weigh, and consider and ye upon these doubts, how wife can be of one flesh, and keep unity betwixt you, being members of two opposite churches: disagreement in religion bringeth ever with it disagreement in manners; and the dissension betwixt your preacher and hers will breed and foster dissension among your subjects, taking their exam ple from your family; besides the peril of the evil education of your children."

your

But the prospect of a splendid alliance, and a no less splendid marriage portion, was too tempt ing to be resisted. The articles of the Spanish treaty are still extant, and exhibit singular proofs of the indifference of James to the interests of the protestant religion. Indeed, when we discover the degrading terms which are there insisted upon; when we find the King of England, and the head of the Reformed Church, affixing his name and approval to a document, in which a sect so hostile to the interests of his people is styled officially the Holy Roman Church when

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it is approved that the infanta shall not only have a private chapel for the exercise of the Romish faith, but also a public church in the metropolis; when the King of England is content to be dietated to by the King of Spain, as to the manner in which he shall govern his own subjects; when a foreign prince is allowed to alter the laws of his country; and finally, when a protestant king consents that every separate stipulation shall be I allowed and approved by the pope, we cannot view the conduct of James in any other light than that of wonder and disgust. As the treaty itself is a curious document, and as it may be useful to compare it hereafter with the no less disgraceful compact between Charles and Henrietta Maria, we will transcribe the most important of the articles.

3d.—That the gracious Infanta shall take ! with her such servants and family as are convenient for her service; which family, and all her servants to her belonging, shall be chosen and nominated by the Catholic King, so as he nominate no servant which is vassal to the King of England without his will and consent."

"5th. That she shall have an oratory and decent chapel at her palace, where, at the pleasure of the most gracious Infanta, masses may be celebrated; which oratory or chapel shall be adorned with such decency as shall seem convenient for the most gracious Infanta, with public church in London," &c.

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“6th.—That the men-servants and maid-servants of the most gracious Infanta, and their servants, children and descendants, and all their families, of what sort soever, serving her highness, may be freely catholics."

9th. That the chapel, church, and oratory,

may be beautified with decent ornaments, of altar

and other things necessary for divine service, which is to be celebrated in them according to the custom of the Holy Roman Church; and that it shall be lawful for the said servants, and others, to go to the said chapel and church at all hours, as to them shall seem expedient."

"11th. That to the administsation of the sacraments, and to serve in chapel and church aforesaid, there shall be so many priests, and assis'ants, as to the Infanta shall seem fit, and the election of them shall belong to the Lady Infanta, and the Catholic King her brother; provided that they be none of the vassals of the King of Great Britain; and if they be, his will and consent is to

be first obtained."

15th. That the servants of the family of the Lady Infanta, who shall come into England, shall take the oath of allegiance to the King of Great Britain, provided that there be no clause therein which shall be contrary to their consciences and the Roman Catholic religion, and if they happen to be vassals of the King of Great Britain, they shall take the same oath that the Spaniard doth." “17th.—That the laws made against catholics in England, or any other kingdom of the King of Great Britain, shall not extend to the children of they shall not lose the right of succession to the this marriage, and though they be catholics,

kingdom and dominions of Great Britain."

18th. That the nurse which shall give suck to the children of the Lady Infanta (whether they be of the kingdom of Great Britain or of any other nation whatsoever), shall be chosen by the Lady Infanta as she pleaseth, and shall be accounted of her family, and enjoy the privileges

thereof."

"19th. That the bishop, ecclesiastical persons, &c. of the family of the Lady Infanta, shall

wear the vestment and habit of his dignity, pro- satisfied with the sincerity of the Spanish court
fession, and religion, after the custom of Rome." at this period; the queen, moreover, candidly
"21st. That the sons and daughters which confessed to him, that her sister was very well
shall be born of this marriage, shall be brought inclined towards the prince.
up in the company of the most excellent Infanta,
at least until the age of ten years, and shall freely
enjoy the right of succession as aforesaid."

24th. That conformable to this treaty, all these things proposed are to be allowed and approved of by the pope, that he may give an apostolical benediction, and a dispensation necessary to effect the marriage."

CHAPTER III.

At last, about six months after the arrival of Charles at Madrid, the dispensation was received from Rome. The affair, to all appearance, was now concluded, and all anxiety at an end. But whether this important document was accompanied by secret instructions from the pope, or whether the court of Spain was willing to take advantage of the prince's undisguised anxiety to make the infanta his bride, new difficulties unexpectedly arose. The Spaniards insisted on some fresh articles, as regarded religion, being inserted in the marriage treaty, and the correspondence between the courts of London and Madrid was again renewed.

match could ever have been accomplished, even
It has been doubted whether the Spanish
if Charles had become a convert to the church of
Among other articles to be imposed, it was re-
Rome; or indeed whether the Spanish court ever quired, and eventually agreed to on the part of
sincerely intended its fulfilment. Certainly, in Charles, that he should be open at all times to
the early stages of its discussion, James was the the arguments and exhortations of such of the ad-
mere dupe of Spanish policy.* But the negotia-versaries of his faith as might be inclined to en-
lighten him on the subject; while, on the other
tion was protracted during the reigns of two suc-
cessive monarchs, whose opinions on the subject hand, no one should presume to tamper, either
appear to have been widely different. Philip the directly or indirectly, with the religious principles
Third, the father of the infanta, who died during of his bride. An oath was also privately taken
the progress of the discussion, had certainly not by James, that the papists should have free exer-
the remotest intention that the treaty should ever cise of their religion throughout his dominions.
These additional articles having been at length
terminate in marriage. This fact is sufficiently
apparent from the following letter addressed by duly subscribed to, so satisfied was James once
his son, Philip the Fourth, to his minister Oliva- more of the successful termination of the treaty,
that he was heard to exclaim in the fulness of his
rez: it is dated 5th November 1622.
"The king, my father, declared at his death satisfaction,-" Now all the devils in hell cannot
that his intent never was to marry my sister, the hinder it." A bystander wittily observed. that
Infanta Dona Maria, with the Prince of Wales, there were no devils left in hell, for they had all
which your uncle Don Balthazer understood, and gone to Spain to assist in the match.
so treated this match, ever with intention to de- But again new difficulties arose.
When ap-
lay it, notwithstanding it is now so far advanced,parently on the eve of fulfilment, the demise of
that (considering all the averseness of the infanta Pope Gregory the Fifteenth proved the final
to it), it is time to seek some means to divert the hindrance to the marriage, The Spaniards in-
treaty, which I would have you find out, and I sisted that a fresh dispensation was necessary
will make it good, whatsoever it be. But in all from the new pope; Charles naturally became
other things, procure the satisfaction of the King annoyed by the frequent delays, and Bucking-
of Great Britain (who hath deserved much), and ham, having quarreled with Olivarez, was no
it shall content me, so it be not in the match.”
less disgusted with the Spanish court, and made
use of every argument to persuade the prince to
return to his own country. Even James himself,
sanguine as he had so lately been, began to en-
tertain doubts of the sincerity of the Spaniards.
He wrote to Buckingham, that the court of Mad-
rid could hardly entertain any cordial intention to
complete the treaty, and conjured him to bring
back the prince with all speed; or if the latter
should be still unwise enough to remain, he
charges his beloved favourite, on his allegiance,
to come away, and to leave the prince to the
prosecution of his own affairs.

It appears by this curious document, that Philip
the Fourth was originally as much averse to the
fulfilment of the treaty as had been his father,
Philip the Third. The hope, however, of con-
verting Charles from heresy; the latter's great
popularity in Spain, and the personal interest
which he had acquired in the heart of the in-
fanta, probably turned the scale in his favour.
Certainly, Bristol, the English ambassador, was
fully satisfied with the sincerity of the court of
Madrid. He writes to the Bishop of Lincoln,-
It may be, your lordship will hear many com-
plaints, that the match never was, nor yet is in-
tended; I beseech your lordship to give little be-
lief in that kind, and the effects will now speedily
declare the truth, if the fault be not on our side."
Lord Herbert of Cherbury, a man of strong sense,
and who, from his situation as ambassador at
of the Infanta, the Queen of France, was fully
Paris, had much intercourse with the elder sister

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On the 12th of September, 1623, after a magnificent audience with the queen and the infanta, Charles, leaving the marriage to be performed by proxy, at length turned his back upon Madrid. Some suspicions there certainly were, that the Spanish court intended to detain him, the latter suspicion to Buckingham, the reply of and it was even whispered that his departure

would be a secret one. When Olivarez mentioned

the duke did him great credit; he retorted haughtily, "That if love had induced the prince to steal out of his own country, fear should never make him run ont of Spain; and that he would depart with an equipage such as became the

* Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador, perfectly succeeded in convincing James of the sincerity of his court. In a letter to the Duke of Lerma, he boasts that he has lulled King James so fast asleep, that ter, the Queen of Bohemia, nor of her children, nor he flatters himself that neither the cries of his daughPrince of Wales." The Earl of Rutland was at the repeated solicitations of his parliament and his the time cruising along the Spanish coast ready to subjects in their behalf, will have the effect of support the vaunt of Buckingham with a powerarousing him from his lethargy.—Acta Regia, p. 549. | ful fleet. The prince's attendants were overjoyed

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at their expected departure. They had long complained that they had nothing to do but play at cards.

66

event is recorded by a bust of the prince, which,
with a suitable inscription, is affixed to the walls
of that town, where it may still be saen. How
this interesting memorial escaped the fury of the
civil wars does not appear.

The return of Charles was hailed by the popu-
lace of London with a warmth of enthusiasm
which has seldom been exceeded on similar oc-
casions. Tables were spread in the streets, and
wine and sack flowed every where abundantly:
bonfires and the joyous peal of bells enlivened
the night. In relation to his future destinies it
might be likened to a scene in a ballet introduced
into a tragedy; how different an appearance was
presented by the streets of the capital, when
Charles for the last time beheld them from the
fatal scaffold! Having passed directly through
London, Charles and Buckingham hastened to
Royston to pay their respects to the king. Ap-
prised of their arrival, James met them on the
staircase, and throwing his arms around their
necks, wept like a child.

The king of Spain and his two brothers accompanied Charles as far as the Escurial, about twenty miles from Madrid, and would even have attended him to the place of embarkation, had not the queen been fast approaching the period of her confinement. At the spot where they parted, writes Howell, there passed wonderful great endearments and embraces in divers postures between them a long time; and in that place there is a pillar to be erected as a monument to posterity. There are some grandees, and Count Gondomar, with a great train besides, gone with him to the Marine, to the sea-side, which will be many days' journey, and must needs put the King of Spain to a great expense, besides his seven months' entertainment here. We hear that when he passed through Valladolid, the Duke of Lerma was retired thence for a time by special command from the king, lest he might have discourse with the prince, whom he extremely desired to see: The infanta is the person most to be pitied this sunk deep into the old duke, insomuch that throughout the whole of this memorable affair, he said, that of all the acts of malice which Oli- and we cannot but regret that she should have varez had ever done him, he resented this more been rendered the victim of mere political expethan any. He bears up yet under the cardinal's diency. She appears to have become really athabit, which hath kept him from many a foul tached to Charles, and is said to have feelingly storm, that might have fallen upon him else from observed, that had he really loved her, he would the temporal power." The name of this person- never have quitted her. At his departure she age carries back our recollection to the part as- caused mass to be sung daily for his prosperous signed to him in Gil Blas; and the narrative of voyage; she had applied herself to learn the the prince's visit to Valladolid is not rendered less English language; and even went down on her interesting, from its having taken place during the knees to the king to persuade him to the restituperiod when Le Sage sketched the manners of tion of the Palatinate. Bristol, the English amthe Spanish grandees. This same Duke of Ler-bassador, dwells almost with enthusiasm on the ma was in fact the patron of Gil Blas. It was for Philip the Fourth, the brother of the infanta, that Gil Blas is represented as procuring the frail Catalina, and as suffering his memorable imprisonment in the Tower of Segovia.

At St. Andero, where the English fleet awaited him, Charles narrowly escaped being drowned. He had been entertaining the Spanish grandees on board his own ship, and was courteously conducting them to the shore in his barge, when the wind suddenly arose. The darkness of the night, and the fury of the storm, prevented them alike from reaching the land, or regaining the ship. The rowers becoming faint from their exertion, nothing appeared left but to trust to the mercy of the ocean, when fortunately they observed a light from one of the vessels of the fleet. It was, however, with extreme difficulty and hazard that they fetched the ship, and were safely assisted on board, not without encountering some risk of being dashed to pieces in the attempt. Waller celebrated the prince's escape in a juvenile poem, remarkable to the curious in poetical anecdote as having been wrtiten only twenty-five years after the death of Spenser.

Now had his highness bid farewell to Spain,
And reached the sphere of his own power, the main;
With British bounty in h s ship he feasts
The Hesperian princes his amazed guests,
To find that watery wilderness exceed
The entertainments of their great Madrid.

Charles was no sooner in safety on the bosom of that element upon which an Englishman seldom knows fear, than his first remark was on the "great weakness and folly of the Spaniards," in having allowed him to depart out of their dominions. It was the highest compliment he could have paid to their generosity. Charles arrived at Portsmouth on the 5th of October, 1623. The

In the mean time, it was believed, both at London and Madrid, that the match was progressing in the most prosperous manner, and that the second dispensation was only wanting to render it definitive. At St. James's a catholic chapel was in the progress of being built, of which the Spanish ambassador had laid the foundation stone. The infanta's portrait was to be seen in every street in London, and her arrival was almost daily expect ed. At Madrid also, she was already styled the Princess of England; her suite had not only been selected, but had even provided themselves with their liveries; and the English ambassadors, the Earl of Bristol and Sir Walter Aston, refused, as Princess of England, to stand covered before her. "The infanta," writes Howell, is providing divers suits of rich cloaths for his highness of per fumed amber leather; some embroidered with pearl, some with gold, some with silver. Her family is a settling apace, and most of her officers and ladies are known already: we want nothing now but one despatch more from Rome, and then the marriage will be solemnised, and all things consummated." The admiration which the prince's gallantry had excited in Madrid, by no means subsided after his departure, and even to this period is not quite forgotten. Never," they said," was princess so bravely wooed." In the collection of royal letters in the British Museum there is an interesting one in Spanish from the infanta to James. The neglected infanta afterwards formed a splendid alliance with the Emperor Ferdinand the Third. She died in 1646.

66

At last, the second dispensation actually ar rived from Rome. A day was fixed by the Spanish court for the performance of the marriage infanta's feelings and her constancy. In a letter by proxy; cannons were fired off as soon as the from Madrid dated 21st of September, 1623, after tidings became publicly known; a church was alluding to the prevalence of a report that Charles covered with tapestry for the occasion; and bonhad no intention to fulfil his engagement, he thus fires were lighted throughout the whole of Spain. writes to the prince: "I dare assure your high- But whether the sincerity of the Spaniards was ness, it hath not been possible for any to raise in still doubted, or whether, as is generally supposed, her the least shadow of mistrust or doubt of want the arguments and personal prejudices of Buck of your highness's affection, but she hath with ingham induced Charles to secede from his enshow of displeasure reproved those that have pre-gagement, it is now impossible to ascertain: sumed to speak that kind of language; and her- certain it is, however, that from the court of Engself never speaketh of your highness, but with land emanated the final interruption of the match. that respect and show of affection, that all about A message was despatched by James to Madrid, her tell me of it with a little wonder. There was insisting that, unless the restitution of the Palatiof late in some a desire here, that, before your nate was positively conceded, the treaty must be highness's embarking, the princess ought to have considered as at an end. It was replied by the sent unto your highness some token, whereunto Spanish monarch, that the concession did not rest I assure your highness that the Countess of Oli- in himself, but that he was ready to assist Engvarez was not backward, nor, as I am assured, land with an army. His word was either really the princess herself; but this was not to be done doubted, or was affected to be disbelieved, and without the allowance of the Junta; and they for Philip, observing the English court to be detera main reason, alleged that, in case your highness mined on a breach, refused to admit the Earl of should fail in what had been agreed, she would Bristol to any further audience. He insisted, by these further engagements be made unfit for also, that all correspondence with the infanta any other match; which coming to her know- should instantly cease, and that she should no ledge, I hear that she was infinitely much offend- longer be regarded or addressed as Princess of ed, and said, that those of the Junta were maxa- England. Such was the termination of the famous deros, to think her a woman for a second wooing, Spanish match, in which the duplicity manior to receive the parabien twice for several hus-fested by the court of Madrid at the commencebands. The truth is, that now, in your high- ment of the negotiations, was met, it would ap ness's absence, she much more avowedly de-pear, by a similar line of conduct on the part of clareth her affection to your highness, than ever the court of England at their close. she did at your being here; and your highness cannot believe how much the king, and she, and all the court, are taken with your highness's daily letters to the king and her."*

chew the same, should presently into the house of los Discalceatos, a monastery of barefooted nuns." The archbishop was certainly in a situation to acquire the best information, and his book is even dedibishop Spotswood writes, that the prince left Madrid that of other writers (some of whom were as likely * Clarendon State Papers, Appendix, p. 19. Arch-cated to Charles, but his account is so different from because he saw nothing was really intended. He to be as well informed as himself) that it is imposadds, that it was intimated to Charles, that "if the sible to regard his version as correct.-Spotswood, match should be further pressed the infanta, to es- p. 545.

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