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the riband from her brother's neck, and rushing with it into the queen's presence, requested her majesty to place it in a drawer, observing hurriedly that the motive of her proceeding would shortly be discovered. As the young lady retired by one door, the king entered by another, and desired the queen, who was in the sixth month of her pregnancy with Charles the First, to produce the riband which he had lately given to her. Anne, without the slightest discomposure, drew it from the drawer in which she had just deposited it, and placed it in the king's hands. James examined it for some time, observing as he returned it," Evil take me, if like be not an ill mark." That Alexander Ruthven, and not his brother Lord Gowrie, was the object of the queen's regard, is confirmed by a letter from Sir Henry Nevill, dated London 15th November, 1600:-"Out of Scotland," he writes, "we hear there is no good agreement between the King of Scots and his wife, and many are of opinion, that the discovery of some affection between her and the Earl of Gowrie's brother, (who was killed with him,) was the truest cause and motive of all that tragedy." Peyton, on the other hand, in his Divine Catastrophe of the House of Stuart, while he accuses James of the guilt of Gowrie's murder, asserts that it was the earl himself who was the queen's paramour."After Huntley's death," he says, "the queen found others to satisfy her unruly appetite; as namely, the Earl of Gowrie, a lord of a comely visage, good stature, and of an attracting allurement; who, upon King James's suspicion of often society with the queen, converted to the poison of hatred the friendship and love of the earl; causing Ramsay, after Earl of Holderness, with others, to murder Gowrie in his own house; giving it out for a state, that the earl, with others, would have killed him; and to make his falsehood appear odious in shape of truth, appointed the fifth of August a solemn day of thanksgiving for his supposed delivery; and in this mocked the God of heaven." There is little doubt, however, that Peyton is wrong in his identity.

This writer is remarkably free in his allusions to the queen's gallantry. He mentions one Beely, a Dane, (who had accompanied Anne from her own country,) as having been particularly This modest indistinguished by her favours. dividual had the assurance to inform Peyton, "in great secrecie," that he was the undoubted father of King Charles. Peyton's evidence is suspicious, whenever, as is the case in this last incident, it happens to be unsupported by the testimony of others. He mentions as the queen's last favourites, two brothers of the name of Buchanan, to whom she equally distributed her smiles. The catastrophe of this fraternal intrigue is somewhat startling. Peyton says that they fell out for her love, fought a duel, and killed one another.

who saw it after her death, of more discourse | might alone be supposed to have given rise to
than I could have wished." In another place he the scandal above alluded to, had not Peyton
adds:-"And now in court a great person sent stated his authority, and detailed the circumstances
for me divers times to attend her, which summons with so much colour of truth.
though I obeyed, yet God knoweth I declined
coming to her as much as conveniently I could
without incurring her displeasure." Her mother
remonstrated with her on the impropriety of her
conduct, through the medium of her brother Ulric
Duke of Holstein. The interference, however,
appears to have excited her anger, without in the
least reforming her morals.

In the latter period of her life, the queen seems
voluntarily to have resigned the vanities of the
world, and to have exchanged the frivolities of
Somerset House and Whitehall, for the peaceful
seclusion of Hampton Court and Greenwich.-
Queen Anne died at Hampton Court on the first
of March, 1619, shortly after taking a last fare-
well of her favourite son Prince Charles. San-
derson says, "A lingering sickness and fulness of
humours brought her to a dropsy, and for her
recovery, she some years before frequented the
Bath, with continual physic." Camden places
On the fifth
her age at forty-five, which would make her only
fifteen at the time of her marriage.
of the same month, we are informed that her en-
trails were placed in a sexangular box or case,
and interred by her servants in Henry the Seventh's
On the ninth, her body
chapel at Westminster.
was conveyed at night to Somerset House, for-
merly the temporary resting-place for the remains
of the great, between the chamber of death and
their last home. Within less than three weeks
after her decease, we find the king enjoying him-
self at a horse-race at Newmarket. The queen
was finally interred at Westminster on the 13th
of May, 1619.

Such is the importance which the vulgar at
tach to rank, that a remarkable constellation,
which appeared in the heavens shortly before her
death, was considered as prophetic of that event;
as if nature would trouble herself with unusual
phenomena at the mere demise of a silly and las-
civious woman. Rushworth says," The com-
mon people, who were great admirers of princes,
were of opinion that the blazing star rather be-
tokened the death of the queen, than that cruel
and bloody war which shortly after happened in
Bohemia, and other parts of Germany." Howel
also says, in one of his amusing letters,-"Queen
Anne is lately dead of a dropsy, which is held to
be one of the fatal events that followed the last
She left a world of brave jewels
fearful comet.
behind; but one Piero, an outlandish man, who
had the keeping of them, embezzled many, and
is run away. She left all she had to Prince
Charles, whom she ever loved best of all her
chitdren; nor do I hear of any legacy she left at
all to her daughter in Germany."

Such are the particulars which we have been enabled to collect, respecting a lady to whom our Rapin says nothing of her character, principal historians have attached but little importance. and Hume dismisses her with remarkable brevity, as a "woman eminent neither for her vices nor probably adopted the panegyric of Arthur Wilson, her virtues." Eschard, on the contrary, who speaks of her in the highest terms: "She died," he says, "to the deep concern of all good men and loyal subjects, leaving behind her the name of a peaceable and dutiful wife, and a virtuous and pious queen." Little doubt, however, can exist, that this dutiful wife and pious queen, was a bigoted papist and a turbulent virago. It is sufficient, that the same writer speaks of James as "a very melancholy widower," when we find the easy monarch publicly enjoying himself at a a horse-race, not many days after the breath had departed from the body of his queen.

One word may fairly be said in favour of Anne of Denmark. She had the taste and the feeling The following letter, to be a kind friend and sincere admirer of the great Sir Walter Raleigh. praying the Duke of Buckingham to intercede for Sir Walter's life, is preserved in the British Museum; and besides its internal interest, exhibits what slight influence the queen must have possessed over her husband:


My kind Dog,*


If I have any power or credit with you, pray you let me have a triall of it at this time, in dealing sincerely and earnestly with the king, that Sir Walter Raleigh's life may not be called in question. If ye do it so that the success answer my expectation, assure yourself that I will take it extraordinary kindly at your hands, and rest one that wisheth you well, and desires you to continue still, as you have been a true servant to your master.

To the Marquiss of Buckingham.


A few of the queen's letters to her husband, from the originals in the Advocates' Library in My heart," and are Edinburgh, have recently been published. They commonly commence, Having said so much that is adverse to the generally brief, playful, and commonplace. queen's character, it may be right to mention (which we shall do as briefly as possible) the words of those writers who have endeavoured to brave queen, who very rescue her name from obloquy. Sir Anthony Harris says, that Weldon styles her a meddled with state affairs." never crossed her husband's designs, nor interthough she died without much lamentation from the king," she was not unbeloved by the people." The praise which Arthur Wilson bestows on her is still higher :-"She was in her great


Peyton details some loathsome particulars respecting the illness which preceded her death. If the famous Lord Herbert of Cherbury, in his He informs us, that Dr. Upton, who had married interesting life of himself, had afforded fewer in- his near kins woman, and who appears to have stances of personal vanity, we should have im-attended the queen professionally in her last ill-condition a good woman, not tempted from that agined that the queen had entertained a feeling, ness, assured him on his death-bed, that her masomewhat warmer than friendship, for that hand-jesty was enceinte; and that her dissolution was Lord Herbert, caused by the remedies which she had taken, in some and gallant philosopher. after mentioning that Richard, Earl of Dorset, had order to procure destruction to her unborn infant. paid him the compliment of seeretly obtaining a The doctor, moreover, expressed his conviction copy of his picture, from the hands of one Lark-to Peyton, in his last extremity, that his own ing, who had painted the original, thus evidently mortal sickness had been unfairly brought about, alludes to her majesty's predilection:-"But a in consequence of his having been the depositary The queen, by other greater person," he says, "than I will here nomi- of this important secret. nate, got another copy from Larking; and placing authorities, is stated to have died of the dropsy; it afterwards in her cabinet, gave occasion to those a disease which, from its external character,

* With this familiar phrase Anne usually commences her correspondence with Buckingham. The following letter is curious from the still more famiMy kind Dog, very welcome I have received your letter, which is liar manner in which she speaks of her husband. to me. You do very well in lugging the sow's ear, and I thank you for it, and would have you do so still upon condition that you continue a watchful dog to him, and be always true to him. So wishing you all happiness,


height she stood on to embroil her spirit much with things below her (as some busy-bodies do), only giving herself content in her own house with such recreations as might not make time tedious to her. And, though great persons' actions are often pried into, and made envy's mark, yet nothing could be fixed upon her that left any great impression, but that she may have engraven upon her monument a character for virtue." These writers, however, because they hated and abused the king, appear to have thought it incumbent on them to eulogise his queen. Sir Henry Wotton, who might have been expected to have said more, in his panegyric of King Charles, contents himself with calling her "a lady of a great and masculine mind." If these encomiums, however, be considered as merely applicable to Anne, during the period she was queen of England, it is not so easy to controvert them. In a negative point of view, she was neither factious to her husband, nor did she embroil herself with politics; but it was for the excellent reason that she was excluded from all access to the one, and all interference with the other. That she was tolerably popular, is not to be wondered at. The public had no reason to lay their grievances to her charge of her restless passions and disappointed ambition they knew nothing: to her inferiors, her manners appear latterly to have been courteous and conciliating; besides, her entertainments were frequent and splendid, and, with the vulgar, magnificence is the surest precursor of popularity.

The queen's principal residence was at Somerset House, at that period called Denmark House, in honour of the country which gave her birth. Her children were Henry, Prince of Wales; Robert, Margaret, and Sophia, who died young; Charles, who succeeded to the throne, and Elizabeth, married to the Elector Palatine. Sophia was born at Greenwich, 22d June, .1606, and survived her birth but three days. She was buried near the tomb of Queen Elizabeth, in Henry the VII.'s chapel. Mary was also born at Greenwich. Fuller tells us that no one ever remembered the ceremony of baptism to have been celebrated with so much pomp. James used to say, with more humour than reverence, that he did not pray to the Virgin Mary, but for the virgin Mary. This princess also died in her infancy, and was buried at Westminster.


The darling of his contemporaries; the Marcellus of his age; justly beloved and regretted as one of those princes who have been remarkable for the precocity of their talents and their untimely ends. With a taste for all that adds grace to society, or dignity to human nature; with every quality that might have been expected to form both a great aud a good king; uniting a love of literature and science with a chivalrous thirst for military reputation (that graceful combination which formed the brilliant characters of such men as Lord Herbert of Cherbury, Sir Kenelm Digby, and the Admirable Crichton); mingling a Christian temper with a Roman virtue; with all the pleasant characteristics, and none of the irregularities of youth; it is not to be wondered that the historian lingers fondly over the page which records the brief but beautiful career of Henry Prince of Wales.

Prince Henry, the eldest son of James the


Striveling, 24th of July, 1595."

First and Anne of Denmark, was born at Stirling my surety, and I have concredited unto you the
on the 19th of February, 1594. Lord Zouch charge of his keeping, upon the trust I have of
was deputed by Queen Elizabeth to congratulate your honesty, this I command you out of my
the happy parents on the birth of their heir. A own mouth, being in the company of those I
brief account of a royal christening, in the six-like, otherwise for any charge or necessity that
teenth century, especially as an archbishop has can come from me, you shall not deliver him;
condescended to detail it, may not be uninterest- and in case God call me at any time, see that
ing. On the day appointed for the ceremony, neither for the queen, nor estates their pleasure,
the infant was brought from its own apartment to you deliver him till he be eighteen years of age,
the queen's presence chamber, in which a state and that he command you himself.
bed was prepared for its reception. As soon as
the foreign ambassadors were arrived, the Coun-
tess of Mar, with the assistance of other ladies, The prince's extraordinary character was early
took the prince from his bed, and delivered him displayed. As a child, he was never seen to
to the Duke of Lennox, by whom he was for- weep, and appeared indifferent to pain. On an
mally presented to the ambassadors. The pro-
occasion of his receiving a severe fall from another
cession then marched to the chapel in the follow-boy, we are told that he neither "whined nor
ing order, and it is not a little amusing to observe wept." When little more than five years of age,
the way in which the rude and warlike Scottish a son of the Earl of Mar, somewhat younger than
nobles were employed on the occasion:-first himself, fell out with one of the royal pages and
went Lord Hume, carrying the ducal crown of "did him wrong." The prince instantly reproved
Rothsay; then Lord Livingston, bearing the his play fellow. "I love you," he said, "be-
towel or napkin," Lord Seaton carrying the cause you are my lord's son and my cousin ; but,
basin, and Lord Semple the "Laver." Next if you be not better conditioned, I will love such
followed the English ambassador, the Earl of an one better,"-naming the child whom the
Sussex, who, as having the place of honour culprit had misused.
awarded to him, bore the royal baby in his arms.
The prince's train was supported by Lords Sin-
clair and Urquhart, and above him was a canopy
sustained by four Scottish gentlemen of distinc-
tion. On the arrival of the procession at the door
of the chapel, the king rose from his seat and
received the ambassadors at the entrance of the
choir: the infant was then presented to the Duke
of Lennox, who delivered him over to the nurse.
The ambassadors having been ceremoniously
conducted to the seats which had been prepared
for them, "every chair having a tassel board co-
vered with fine velvet," the service was performed
by Cunningham, Bishop of Aberdeen. As soon
as the ceremony was concluded, the procession
returned in the same order to the royal apart-
ments, and the prince was again laid upon his
bed of state. The Lyon herald then proclaimed
his titles as follow:-Henry Frederick, Knight
and Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Earl of
Carrick, Duke of Rothsay, Prince and Steward
of Scotland. Gold and silver were thrown out
of the window among the populace, and at night
there was a splendid banquet, at which many
knights were created. Plays and tilting were
not wanting, and the rejoicings lasted for some

Henry, at his birth, had been committed to the charge of the Earl of Mar, in whose family was vested the hereditary guardianship of the king's children. The Countess of Mar, who had formerly been the king's nurse, was installed in the same capacity to his son. Whatever may have been James's motives in depriving the queen of the care of her child, it is certain that she was far from submitting tamely to the loss. She not only attempted every legitimate means to regain possession of the prince, but endeavoured to tamper with the chancellor and others of the council, in order to effect her object. The dispute excited much ill feeling between the royal parents, and raised the king's anger to the highest pitch. He accordingly wrote the following letter to the Earl of Mar, by which he established him still more firmly in his office of guardian. It sufficiently exhibits the king's irritation, and his total independence of his wife :

"My Lord of Marre,


His tutor was Adam Newton, a good scholar and a strict disciplinarian, exactly the sort of person James was likely to select. Probably Newton was not sparing in his chastisements. On one occasion, when the prince was about to strike the ball, while playing at goff, a stander-by exclaimed, Beware, sir, that you do not hit Mr. Newton." The prince desisted from the stroke, at the same time observing, with a smile, "If I had done so, I had but paid my debts." Another story is related by Mr. D'Israeli, in the Curiosities of Literature, descriptive of the rela tive position of the prince and the tutor we must allow him to tell it in his own agreeable manner. "Desirous of cherishing the generous spirit and playful humour of Henry, his tutor encouraged a freedom of jesting with him, which appears to have been carried at times to a degree of momentary irritability on the side of the tutor, by the keen humour of the boy. When Newton, playing at shuffleboard with the prince, blamed him for changing so often, and, taking up a piece, threw it on the board and missed his aim, the prince smilingly exclaimed, Well thrown, Master;' on which the tutor, a little vexed, said, He would not strive with a prince at shuffleboard.' Henry answered, Yet you gownsmen should be best at such exercises which are not meet for men who are more stirring.' The tutor, a little irritated, said, I am meet for whipping of boys.' You vaunt, then,' retorted the prince, that which a ploughman or cartdriver can do better than you.' I can do more,' said the tutor, for I can govern foolish children.' On which the prince, who, in his respect for his tutor, did not care to carry the jest further, rose from table, and in a low voice to those near him, said, 'He had needs be a wise man who could do that." "

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In order to stimulate him in his studies, the king one day hinted, that if he did not take more pains, his younger brother Charles would outstrip him in learning. Newton some time afterwards reminding the prince of his father's remark, Henry asked him if he really thought his brother would prove the superior scholar. The tutor answering, that he had considerable fears on the subject," Well, then," said the prince, with ready wit, "I will make Charles archbishop of

"Because in the surety of my son consisteth Canterbury."

On the 2d of July, 1603, when only nine years old, he was invested, at a solemn feast of St. George, at Windsor, with the Order of the Garter. His companions in this honour were the Duke of Lennox, and the Earls of Southampton, Mar, and Pembroke. Even at this early age, his "quick, witty answers, princely carriage, and reverend obeisance at the altar," are said to have been the admiration of the bystanders.

On the 4th of June, 1610, he was created Prince of Wales, the king having previously knighted him, without which honour, it seems, he was incapable of sitting at dinner with the sovereign.

His military taste was early displayed. When asked what musical instrument he most delighted in, his answer was, "a trumpet." The French ambassador coming one day to take leave of him, inquired if he could deliver any message from him to the king his master? "Tell him," said the young prince," the manner in which you see me employed:"-he was amusing himself with practising with the pike.

As early as the year 1606, Henry the Fourth of France appears to have had an insight into, and to have regarded with anxiety, the extraordinary character of his young namesake. The French ambassador, Antoine le Fevre de la Boderie, had directions to treat him with particular respect—a remarkable compliment to a boy of twelve years old. The ambassador writes in a letter to France, "He is a prince who promises very much, and whose friendship cannot but be one day of advantage." Henry had sent the Dauphin a present of some dogs; the ambassador recommends in return, that the latter should send over "a suit of armour well gilt and enamelled, together with pistols and a sword of the same kind;" and, he says, "if he add to these a couple of horses, one of which goes well, and the other a barb, it will be a singular favour done to the prince."

(which will be found in the Archæologia,) he was
compelled to remain the whole time on his knees,
and, in this dispiriting posture, to combat the fri-
volous charges which were brought against him.
"I was, at length," he says, "almost dishearten-
ed and out of breath, but the prince's highness,
standing near me, from time to time encouraged
me as far as he might without offence to his father,
labouring to have me eased by standing up, but
the king would not permit it." When the king,
at length decided iu Pett's favour, Henry cried
out enthusiastically, "Where are those perjured
fellows that dare abuse the king's majesty with
their false accusations? Do not they worthily
deserve hanging!" James, alluding to the nature
of one of the charges, wittily observed, "that the
cross-grain appeared to be in the men and not
in the timber." Pett shortly after this was em-
ployed to build a ship of war, which was called
"the Prince," after Henry. The prince, to show
his regard for Pett, and his respect for his talents.
carried his fascinating sister, afterwards the
queen of Bohemia, to visit the ingenious shipwright
at his humble residence; an honour which ap-
pears completely to have gained the hearts of the
worthy Pett and his wife.

His amusements were generally of a martial
character, but his great delight was in tennis.
The pursuits of the English Marcellus are thus
described by Mons. de Boderie, in a letter to
France, dated 31st October, 1606. "He is a
particular lover of horses, and what belongs to
them, but is not fond of hunting; and when he
goes to it, it is rather for the pleasure of galloping
than that which the dogs give him. He plays
willingly enough at tennis, and at another Scot's
diversion very like mall; but this always with
persons older than himself, as if he despised those
of his own age He studies two hours a day,
and employs the rest of his time in tossing the
pike, or leaping, or shooting with the bow, or
throwing the bar, or vaulting, or some other ex-
Henry, young as he was, seems to have enter-ercise of that kind, and he is never idle. He
tained a project of retrieving the national credit,
by the recovery of Calais from the French. When
in 1607, the Prince de Joinville returned to France,
Henry sent over an engineer in his train, who
had secret orders to examine all the fortifications
of that town, and especially those of Rix-bane.
He lost no opportunity of cultivating the acquain-
tance of the most celebrated officers in Europe,
and especially those of Upper and Lower Ger-
many. It was also his custom to walk consider
able distances on foot, in order that he might
enure himself to long and harassing marches.

In naval affairs he took almost an equal interest: it appears, indeed, to have been principally at his instigation, that, in the year 1612, two ships, the Resolution and Discovery, were sent out, with a view to the discovery of a northwest passage to China: the expedition, however, was not the first of its kind. This taste of the prince enables us to relate an instance of his strong sense of justice and powers of appreciating talent. His love of the sea had made him acquainted with the famous Phineas Pett, so celebrated for his genius in naval architecture. Pett was at one time on the point of being crushed by the envy and rival interests of other competitors in his line. There persons so far attained their object as to bring Pett to an examination, at which the king presided in person, when charges were preferred against him of professional incompetency, and of having made use of inferior materials in the construction of his ships. During this investigation, of which Pett has himself given an account,

nobleman's house in the country, in which parsimony and bad fare were the order of the day.His attendants were loud in their complaints, of which the prince took no notice at the time. The lady of the mansion, however, happening the next morning to pay him a visit of respect, discovered him amusing himself with a volume containing prints, to one of which he was paying particular attention. It was descriptive of a company seated at a banquet: "Madam," said the young prince, "I invite you to a feast." "To what feast?" she inquired. "To this feast," replied Henry. "What," said the lady, "would your highness only invite me to a painted feast?" "No better, madam," said the prince, looking significantly into her face, "is to be found in this house."

He had the greatest esteem for Sir Walter Raleigh; and once observed, alluding to the latter's long imprisonment in the tower, that "no king but his father would keep such a bird in such a cage." He had a fine taste for the arts, and made a magnificent collection of books, medals, statues, coins, &c.; Evelyn says his cabinet was superior to any at home, and to the generality abroad: it was lost to the royal family in the civil wars. He knew how to distinguish genius, and courted the society of the learned. Archbishop Williams, shortly after taking orders, happened to preach before the court at Royston. "He acquitted himself so well," says Ambrose Philips," that his majesty was pleased to speak much in his commendation; and the prince, not content to let him go off with hungry praise, looking upon him as an honour to Wales, assured him that he would not be unmindful of his great merits. But he dying untimely, the father bestowed that preferment on him which the son intended.”

He held his court at St. James's Palace, which was set apart for his residence. Here he frequently entertained the young and the brilliant of both sexes, and kept about his person a number of young gentlemen whose spirit and tastes assishows himself likewise very good-natured to his milated with his own. A great proof of his dependants, and supports their interests against popularity is the manner in which his court was any persons whatever, and pushes what he under-attended. Possessing but little or no political intakes for them or others with such a zeal as gives fluence, and having but few opportunities of resuccess to it. For, besides his exerting his warding his friends, his court was nevertheless whole strength to compass what he desires, he far more frequented than that of the king himself. is already feared by those who have the manage- So jealous was James of this circumstance, that ment of affairs, and especially the Earl of Salis- he once made use of the remarkable words, bury, who appears to be greatly apprehensive of "Will he bury me alive?" Though pleasure the prince's ascendant; as the prince on the other was not excluded, his establishment was governhand, shows little esteem for his lordship."—ed with discretion, modesty, and sobriety, and Henry excelled in dancing, but seldom practised it unless strongly pressed.

His tact was remarkable even when very young. A certain patriotic Welshman, asserting in the king's presence that he could produce 40,000 men in the principality, who were ready to sacrifice their lives for the prince, against any king in Christendom, James with some jealousy inquired, "To do what?" Henry instantly averted the alarm by answering playfully, "To cut off the heads of 40,000 leeks." The instances of his wit are not few. A musician having delighted the company with some music which he had composed at the moment, was requested to play it over again. "I could not," said the performer," for the kingdom of Spain; for this were harder than for a preacher to repeat word by word a sermon that he had not learned by rote." A clergyman standing by, expressed his opinion that this need not be impossible. "Perhaps not," replied Henry, "for a bishopric." When a mere child, he happened to be entertained in a

with an especial reverence for religious duties. It may here be observed that, in 1810, his household amounted to four hundred and twenty-six persons, of whom two hundred and ninety-se' en were in the receipt of regular salaries.

We are informed by his faithful follower, Sir Charles Cornwallis, that though the most beautiful women of the court and city were invited to his entertainments, yet that he could never discover the slightest inclination on the prince's part to any particular beauty. He admits, however, the existence of reports that the prince's heart had not been always unsusceptible. There seems reason indeed to believe that Henry was the unsuccessful rival of Somerset, for the affections of the lovely and profligate Lady Essex. It is stated in the Aulicus Coquinariæ as a "notorious truth,” that he made love to the Countess of Essex, "before any other lady living." Arthur Wilson tells us that, thinking to please the prince, one of the courtiers presented him with Lady Essex's glove, which he had accidentally picked up. The prince

instantly rejected it, observing disdainfully that he "scorned it, since it had been stretched by another." Certainly the young prince bore Somerset any thing but good will. On one occasion he is said to have either struck, or offered to strike, him with his racket. Essex, however, had been the playfellow of Henry, which might, in some degree account for the prince's enmity towards a man who had so deeply injured his friend by debauching his wife. Still there is a doubt hanging over the prince's purity in this affair: Sir Symonds D'Ewes states, that the Earl of Northampton, Lady Essex's uncle, incited her to win the prince's affections, and that he was the first upon whom she bestowed her favours.

inches high, of a strong, straight, well-made body; with somewhat broad shoulders, and a small waist, of an amiable, majestic countenance, his hair of an auburn colour, long faced, and broad forehead, a piercing grave eye, a most gracious smile, with a terrible frown." His face was supposed to bear a resemblance to that of Henry the Fifth. Ben Jonson took advantage of the flattering compliment which this circumstance enabled him to pay to the prince, on the occasion of a pageant presented before the king on his progress through London in 1603. The prophet Merlin, after recounting the heroic deeds of his kingly ancestors, thus alludes to the prince's resemblance to the hero of Agincourt.

Yet rests the other thunderbolt of war, Harry the Fifth, to whom in face you are So like, as Fate would have you so in worth. Prince Henry's career was destined to be as brief as it was brilliant. He died on the 6th of November, 1612, after a long illness, which he bore with exemplary piety and resignation. He had frequently expressed his indifference about death, and regarded length of days as an unenviable boon: "It was to small purpose," he said,

who were heard to swear; the proceeds of which were distributed among the poor. Coke informs us, that his father used to relate several stories respecting the young prince. He was once out hunting, when the stag, harassed by the chase, happened to cross a road while a butcher and his dog were passing. The dog killed the stag, but the carcass was too heavy for the butcher to carry off, as he wished to do. The huntsmen coming up endeavoured to incense the prince against the man. Henry, however, merely observed that it was not the butcher's fault but the dog's. "If your father had been here," they said, "he would have sworn so, that no man could have endured it." "Away," retorted Henry, "all There was an intention to marry Prince Henry the pleasure in the world is not worth an oath." to the Infanta Major, or eldest daughter of the He hated flattery and dissimulation, vanity and King of Spain. Sir Charles (afterwards Lord) ostentation, and regarded with contempt the epheCornwallis, was sent to Madrid to negotiate on meral sycophants of his father's court. He was the subject; but he met with so little encourage- extremely temperate and abstemious, except in ment that the project fell to the ground. His MS. the "article of fruit," in which, according to account of the treaty, related in a letter to Lord Birch he liked to indulge. His temper is stated Digby, is preserved in the Harleian collection. by his biographers, to have been almost always The match appears to have been far from agree-mild and even. It appears, however, to have been able to the prince, who had the greatest repug- more than once ruffled in the excitement of his nance to allying himself with a papist. favourite game of tennis. An instance of the prince falling out with So-" for a brave gallant man, when the prime of merset at this pastime has already been alluded his days were over, to live till he were full of to: Codrington, in his life of Robert Earl of Es- diseases." In the Aulicus Coquinariæ, there is sex, the prince's early companion, mentions an interesting account of the progress of his last another occasion of his warmth of temper, under illness;" In the nineteenth year of his age, similar circumstances. Henry and the young appeared the first symptoms of change, from a earl were amusing themselves in the tennis-court, full round face and pleasant disposition, to be when a dispute took place on some point in the paler and sharper, more sad and retired; often game: Essex persisting on his rights, the prince complaining of a giddy heaviness in his forehead, at last grew so angry as to call the earl the son which was somewhat eased by bleeding at the of a traitor, alluding to the catastrophe of his nose; and that suddenly stopping, was the first father, the spoiled victim of Elizabeth. Essex, of his distemper, and brought him to extraordigrowing furious in his turn, struck the prince nary qualms, which his physicians recovered on the head with his racket so severely as to with strong waters. draw blood. The king sent for the earl; but, on being acquainted with the real circumstances of the affair, dismissed him unpunished. James told the prince, that the boy who had just struck him would not hereafter be remiss in striking his enemies. Essex afterwards grew to be the famous parliamentary general.

The prince's affection, indeed for the Church of England, was only equaled by his aversion to the Church of Rome; a fact the more remarkable, since his mother had early sought to tamper with his religious principles, and used every means to reconcile him to the Romish persuasion. Bishop Burnet says, he was so zealous a protestant, that, after the failure of the Spanish match, when James was desirous of marrying him to a popish princess, (either the archduchess, or a daughter of Savoy,) he wrote a letter to the king, praying him, if it was intended thus to dispose of him, that he might be married to the youngest princess of the two, for he should then have more hopes of her conversion: he requestea also that whatever liberties might be allowed her in the exercise of her faith, they should be conducted in the most private manner possible. The original of this letter was shown to the bishop by Sir William Cook, and was dated less than a month previous to the death of the prince. His affection for protestantism was regarded as of such importance, that the Puritans looked upon him as their future saviour, and even discovered his prototype in the Apocalypse; a construction, from whence they argued that he was to become the avenger of protestantism, and the destroyer of the Romish church. According to Harrington, the following indifferent distich was extremely popular at the time

Henry the Eighth pulled down the abbeys and cells,
But Henry the Ninth shall pull down bishops and


So deep a feeling of religion in one so young, and so attached to the stirring interests of life, is indeed remarkable. He was strict in his attendance at divine worship, and was accustomed to retire three times a day to his private devotions. Sir Charles Cornwallis says, that had the prince lived, it was his intention to select one of the most learned and experienced of his chaplains, whose advice he proposed to follow in all matters of conscience.

He had the greatest horror of an oath. Osborne says he never swore himself, nor retained those about him who did. At each of his residences, St. James's, Richmond, and Nonsuch, box was kept, in which were deposited the fines collected from those members of his household

The prince's rapid progress in his studies, his
military genius, and extreme popularity with all
ranks of people, excited a painful feeling of jea-
lousy in the mind of his father. So deep indeed
was the prejudice, that it appears to have de-
stroyed all natural affection for his offspring.
Burnet says, the prince was rather feared than
loved by his father. Once, on the downs at
Newmarket, when James and his son had bidden
one another farewell, in order to retire to their

respective homes, it was remarkable that all the
principal persons followed the prince, leaving the

king almost entirely to be escorted by servants.
Archee, the court-fool, with an ill-timed joke,
pointed out the circumstance to his master; at
which the king is said to have been so much af-
fected as to shed tears. Archee, however, for
his officiousness, was, for some time afterwards,
tossed in a blanket wherever he could be met
with: by which party the punishment was in-
flicted does not appear, but in all probability by
the prince's. The king, observes Osborne, was
much annoyed to find that all the worth which
he had imagined to belong to himself, was wholly
lost in the hopes which the people entertained of
his son.

The prince's person is minutely described by
Sir Charles Cornwallis: "He was of a comely,
tall, middle stature, about five feet and eight

"About this time, several ambassadors extraordinary being despatched home, he retired to his house at Richmond, pleasantly seated by the Thames river, which invited him to learn to swim in the evenings after a full supper, the first immediate pernicious cause of stopping that gentle flux of blood, which thereby putrefying, might engender that fatal fever that accompanied him to his grave. His active body used violent exercises; for at this time being to meet the king at Bever in Nottinghamshire, he rode it in two days, near a hundred miles, in the extremity of heat in summer; for he set out early, and came to Sir Oliver Cromwell's, near Huntingdon, by ten o'clock before noon, near sixty miles, and the next day betimes to Bever, forty miles.

"There, and at other places, in all that progress, he accustomed himself to feasting, hunting, and other sports of balloon and tennis, with too

much violence.

"And now returned to Richmond in the fall of the leaf, he complained afresh of his pain in the head, with increase of a meagre complexion, inclining to feverish; and then for the rareness thereof called the new disease; which increasing, the 10th of October he took his chamber, and took counsel with his physician, Dr. Hammond, an honest and worthy learned man. Then removes to London to St. James's, contrary to all advice; and (with a spirit above indisposition) gives leave to his physician to go to his own home.

"And so allows himself too much liberty in accompanying the Palsgrave, and Count Henry of Nassau (who was come hither upon fame to see him), in a great match at tennis in his shirt,

that winter season, his looks then presaging sickness. And on Sunday, the 25th of October, he heard a sermon, the text in Job, Man that is born of a woman, is of short continuance, and is full of trouble.' After that he presently went to Whitehall, and heard another sermon before the king, and after dinner, being ill, craves leave to retire to his own court, where instantly he fell into sudden sickness, faintings, and after that a shaking, with great heat and headache, that left him not whilst he had life."

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inclined to fix the guilt is undoubtedly Robert not digested. The chirurgeons and physicians Carr, Earl of Somerset, afterwards a convicted found no sign or likelihood of poison." murderer in the case of Overbury, a man openly physicians, in support of their opinion, drew up held in contempt and dislike by the prince, and on paper the result of their post-mortem examiwhose utter ruin was sure to follow, in the event nation, in which they minutely described the of Henry's succession to the throne: besides appearance of the prince's body. It has, howthese circumstances there existed the well-known ever, justly been remarked, that though this rivalship for the affections of Lady Essex. Bur- medical detail gives no reason to believe that net says: "Colonel Titus assured me that he had poison was administered, yet that it affords no from King Charles the First's own mouth, that direct proof to the contrary. he was well assured Prince Henry was poisoned The Archbishop of Canterbury and Dr. Mel- by the Earl of Somerset's means." Lord Chief born, Dean of Rochester, constantly attended at Justice Coke hinted openly in court, that Overhis bedside, and prayed with him during his ill-bury was made away with to prevent a discovery Cornwallis says, that "he bore his sick- of Somerset's share in the prince's death; an ness with patience, and as often recognition of imprudence which lost Coke the king's favour, his faith, his hopes, and his appeals to God's and eventually his place.* Wilson and other mercy, as his infirmity, which afflicted him alto- writers also allude to the dark suspicions which gether in his head, would possibly permit." He were entertained of Somerset's guilt. died at St. James's at the age of eighteen years, eight months, and seventeen days. His body, having been embalmed, was interred in Westminster Abbey.


His death had been foretold by Bruce, an eminent astrologer of the period, who, however, at the instigation of the Earl of Salisbury, was banished for his discrimination. Before quitting England, the astrologer sent to Salisbury, assuring him that his words would prove but too true, though the earl himself would not live to see it. His prediction turned out correct. The prince died in November, six months after Salisbury's dissolution. To falsify this story, it has been argued that Bruce retired voluntarily abroad; and also, (supposing the prediction to have been really made), that it required no great prophetical powers to calculate that the earl's shattered frame would in all probability yield to the prince's youth, and apparently vigorous constitution.

The untimely deaths of promising young princes are frequently attributed to unfair means, and Prince Henry's among the number, is said to have been occasioned by poison. Certainly the suspicion was more than whispered at the time. One of his chaplains actually preached a sermon at St. James's (which was afterwards printed), wherein he alluded so openly and feelingly to the manner in which the prince was cut off, as to melt his congregation into tears, and to procure his own dismissal from court. Arthur Wilson says, there were strange rumours at the time, some attributing the prince's decease to poisoned grapes, and others to a pair of gloves which had been similarly tampered with. When Henry was dying, Sir Walter Raleigh sent him a cordial from the Tower, which he said would infallibly cure him unless his malady was the effect of poison. The prince took the cordial, but not recovering, the queen is said to have laid so much stress on Sir Walter's proviso, as to have believed to the last that her son had met with foul play. It has been suspected that John Holles, Earl of Clare, comptroller of the prince's household, was the depositary of some important secret, relative to the death of his young master. His sudden emancipation from a prison to a peerage appears to have given rise to this notion, besides the undue importance which was attached to some lines written in the earl's pocket-book, beginning

Acteon once Diana naked spied

All unawares, yet by his dogs he died. Supposing, however, that the argument in faour of Henry's being poisoned is at all tenable, he individual on whom we should naturally be

What probably threw so painful a suspicion upon the king, was the command he gave, that the Christmas festivities should proceed as usual: moreover, he issued an indecent order that no mourning should be worn for his deceased son. It has been attempted to disprove this fact, by asserting that, at the marriage of the Princess Elizabeth, which shortly followed, both the king and his daughter were dressed in black. We do There has existed another horrible surmise, not know what may have been the king's costhat the son's life was cut short by the jealousy tume on the occasion, but Sir James Finett, a of the father. Hume says, "the bold and nice observer, and master of the ceremonies to criminal malignity of men's tongues and pens the court, distinctly says, that the princess was spared not even the king on the occasion." Arthur Wilson openly hints his suspicious, though, with affected and ingenious delicacy, he talks of them as a subject for his fears, and not for his pen. Rapin very properly remarks, in noticing this unnatural aspersion, that the proofs should be "as clear as the sun," before they are accepted as evidence.



With reference to the general question as to the manner of the prince's death, it is right to add, that the physicians who attended him during his illness, and who examined his body after his decease, gave it as their unanimous opinion that he was not poisoned; and Sir Charles Cornwallis expresses his opinion that the rumours to a contrary effect were without foundation. Bishop Goodman, in his Memoirs, has an interesting passage on the subject:-"That Prince Henry,' he says, "died not without vehement suspicion of poison, this I can say in my own knowledge. The king's custom was to make an end of his hunting at his house in Havering, in Essex, either at the beginning or in the middle of September. Prince Henry did then accompany him. I was beneficed in the next parish, at Stapleford Abbots. Many of our brethren, the neighbour ministers, came to hear the sermon before the king, and some of us did say, looking upon Prince Henry, and finding that his countenance was not so cheerful as it was wont to be, but had heavy darkish looks, with a kind of mixture of melancholy and choler,-some of us did then say, that certainly he had some great distemper in his body, which we thought might proceed from eating of raw fruit, peaches, musk-melons, &c. A while after we heard that he was sick, his physicians about him, none of his servants forbidden to come to him; he spake to them when he knew he was past hopes of life; he had no suspicion himself of poison; he blamed no man; he made a comfortable end, and when he was opened, as I heard, there were found in his stomach some remnants of grapes which were

* Kennett, vol. ii. p. 689, note. Lord Dartmouth, in a note on the anecdote of Bishop Burnet above quoted, makes the following remark. "If he was poisoned by the Earl of Somerset, it was not upon the account of religion, but for making love to the Countess of Essex; and that was what the lord chief justice meant, when he said at Somerset's trial, God knows what went with the good Prince Henry, but I have heard something." "Burnet, vol. i. p. 19.

apparelled in white," and, moreover, alludes to the splendid jewels that were worn by the king himself. A similar order had been issued by James at the demise of Queen Elizabeth. Sully, the French ambassador to England, informs us that, after having been at the expense of providing mourning habits for his suite, he was compelled to change their apparel, in order that he might not mortally offend James,—and yet his mission was principally that of condolence.

We may conclude the memoirs of this extraordinary young prince with the character drawn of him by his treasurer, and affectionate follower, Sir Charles Cornwallis :*-"He was courteous, loving, and affable; his favour, like the sun, indifferently seeming to shine upon all; naturally shame-faced and modest, most patient, which he showed both in life and death. Quick he was to conceive any thing; not rash, but mature in deliberation, and constant having resolved. True of his promise, most secret even from his youth, so that he might have been trusted in any thing

character, is certainly unfair, and, I believe, incor

* Dr. Lingard, in his estimate of Prince Henry's


"The young prince, faithful to the lessons which he had formerly received from the mother, openly ridiculed the foibles of his father, and boasted of the conduct which he would pursue, when he should succeed to the throne. In the dreams of his fancy he was already another Henry V., and the conqueror of his hereditary kingdom of France. To those who were discontented with the father, the the most hyperbolical praise; the zealots looked on him as the destined reformer of the English church; some could even point out the passage in the Apocalypse which reserved for him the glorious task of expelling Antichrist from the papal chair. With the several matches prepared for him by his father, well as his temporal and spiritual conquests, was it were idle to detain the reader; his marriage, as anticipated by an untimely death, which some writers have attributed to poison, some to debauchery, and others, with greater probability, to his own turbulence and obstinacy. In the pursuit of amusement he disregarded all advice. He was accustomed to bathe for a long time together after supper; to expose himself to the most stormy weather, and to take violent exercise during the greatest heats of summer," &c. The vein of sarcasm which runs through this passage, and the impression it was intended to leave, are too apparent to require any commnet. In the present instance, however, the idolised champion of protestantism could scarcely expect to be a fa

abilities and virtues of the son became the theme of


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