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Abundant evidence upon every point connected with this subject has been collected by the committee, and the substance and result of their inquiries are very ably condensed in their Reports. Full information has been laid before them respecting the demand for labour, and the advantages which are offered to emigrants in the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, at Prince Edward's Island, at the Cape of Good Hope, in New South Wales, and in Van Diemen's * Land; countries, some of which are extensive enough to afford ample room for all our swarms, and for their own increase, for an indefinite length of time before us. They have ascertained at what rate of expense per head families may be conveyed to the nearest or to the remotest of these possessions, and the cost of settling them in the North American colonies, with everything necessary for establishing themselves, and with rations for fifteen months. They have proposed that the settler should repay the whole expense of his removal and location by annual payments, either in money or in produce, commencing three years after he has been actually located, with ten shillings, and adding the same amount yearly, till the annual payment comes to four pounds, after which it is no longer to be received in kind, but in money. That the emigrants will be able to make such repayment is considered certain by all the witnesses who are acquainted with the state of the country, and the facts necessary for forming an opinion upon the subject; that they will be willing so to do appears from the applicants themselves, who have declared that they acknowledge the justice of such an arrangement, and are sensible of the benefit which they should derive from it, and are desirous of being removed upon such terms. The committee recommend a pecuniary advance, in the nature of a loan, for the purpose of facilitating a regulated system of emigration upon this principle. They remark, that the English witnesses concur as to the expediency of raising a fund upon the security of the poor-rates,' toward the expense of removing paupers by emigration; and they quote the
*It ought to be remarked, but with a different feeling, that the committee examined Sir Robert Wilson, concerning the plan of the Columbian Agricultural Association, and also Mr. Stewart, Secretary to the said Association: (one of the joint stock companies which sprung up about three years ago, like mushrooms, or rather, toadstools :) published a map of the intended settlement, and another of Columbia, (at the public expense, as it appears,) showing the spots which had been granted to the Company, and thus lent, in some degree, the sanction of the committee to a scheme which proved almost as fatal to those who were decoyed into the adventure, as the notable project of Sir Gregor Mac Gregor, Cacique, or Prince of Poyais!
An actual repayment of money, to be transmitted to England, is not contemplated; but a payment which should be applied in the colony, for purposes which it is not necessary to defray exclusively from the funds of the mother country.'-First Report, p. 7.
On the principle of the money permitted to be raised under Mr. Sturges Bourne's opinion
opinion of Mr. Malthus, that parishes would act prudently as regards their interest, in charging their poor-rates for this purpose, and that even a national tax would be justifiable for it, if a bare probability existed of the vacuum not being filled up.' But when a patient is suffering from plethora and in danger of apoplexy, where is the medical practitioner who would be withheld from bleeding him, because nature may again in a short time surcharge the vessels which had been thus relieved? A regular as well as a regulated system of emigration is required in the stage of society which we have attained: it becomes as necessary in the economy of a state as of an ant-hill, or a bee-hive.
The same readiness to incur present expense, for the purpose of present relief, and in the hope of future security, has not been found in Scotland. There, the committee say, it appears, from the concurrent testimony of all the witnesses, that a general disinclination would be felt to advance any sum for facilitating emigration.' There is a strong disposition among the people to emigrate, and no people make more valuable settlers than the Scotch but there is no disposition in the country to assist in removing them; and pressing as the applications are from the suffering manufacturers in that part of the United Kingdom, the want of that disposition has prevented the committee from proposing any scheme for their relief, otherwise than as they may be eventually relieved, by turning from them the tide of Irish immigration. Happily, in Ireland there is not the same difficulty; the evil indeed is far more pressing, and the cause of that evil permanent, without any such alternation as a year of prosperous commerce affords to the manufacturers in the Lowlands. No doubt is entertained that the Irish proprietors will contribute toward the expense of a system which is the only one by which their estates can be disburthened of a destructive population. The local contributions are proposed by the committee to be employed in the removal of the emigrant to the coast, and in the cost of his passage; the rest to be undertaken by government. Previous experiments, which have succeeded well, have shown what arrangements may best be followed, and at what expense; and beginning, as they propose, with 4000 families (allowing five to each family) in the first year, increasing the number to 6000 in the second, 9000 in the third year, they calculate that each succeeding emigration will be fed by the surplus food produced by the preceding shoal. Finally, the committee propose, that a board of emigration be formed in London, having agents in Great Britain, Ireland, and the Colonies acting under their direction; and they state, in the strongest manner, their deep conviction, that whatever may be the immediate and urgent demands from other quarters, it is vain to hope
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for any permanent and extensive advantage from any system of emigration, which does not primarily apply to Ireland, whose population, unless some other outlet be opened to them, must shortly fill up every vacuum created in England or Scotland, and reduce the labouring classes to a uniform state of degradation and misery.
There are other parts of the subject upon which we shall enter hereafter, such as, the circumstances of those countries to which it is proposed that our emigrants should be removed, and of those to which they are invited, and the effects which such an immigration is likely to produce upon the state of society there.
NOTE to the article on Mr. Markland's proposal for a National Museum of
Since this article went to press, we have seen a letter from a gentleman who has recently been travelling in the North of Europe, which may furnish Mr. Markland and the Antiquarian Society with a valuable hint or two. We extract, therefore, the following brief account of the Museum of National Antiquities formed within the last sixteen years at Copenhagen.
"The collection is kept in part of the library adjoining to Tycho Brahe's Round Tower; has been wholly formed within the last fourteen or sixteen years; and already consists of upwards of 15,000 pieces. They are chiefly, I think, male and female ornaments, composed of gold, silver, and I believe copper and brass, though with respect to these last I am not so certain,-implements of war, and tools for domestic purposes. Some of the oldest ornaments are of very fine gold, beautifully wrought, and the gentleman by whom they were shown, said he was decidedly of opinion that the gold had, in those days, come in considerable quantities through Russia from the East. The implements of war are chiefly those which were in use among all the Northern nations; and though they are of all shapes, kinds, and sizes, I cannot take it upon me to point out those classes, which those who are acquainted with the subject would deem most remarkable. Those for domestic purposes are in amazing quantity, particularly hammers and axes. A considerable number, also, were employed for the purposes of religion.
All these are beautifully arranged, through the zeal and intelligence of the secretary, whose name I think is Anderson, (but not English or Scotch;) and spearheads, axes and hammers are seen in the most perfect preservation through all stages of the manufacture; from specimens where they are found merely blocked out from a piece of flint or granite, up to the perfect, polished, and unused state; and then again downwards through every degree of tear and wear, mending, and decay. The way in which metals and stones are employed and joined together is also very curious, from the tipping of spears and edging of axes with iron and steel, till the axes and hammers come to be wholly formed of the former metal.
"This Museum of Northern Antiquities is reckoned by many o be more intrinsically valuable than any other collection at Copenhagen, and with the exception of the splendid Public Royal Library, I should think it may be fairly so considered. No pursuit seems now to be carried on in Denmark with so much enthusiasm as the collection of national antiquities, and the publication of national antiquarian books.
'I ought not to omit to mention, that one of the subjects which has most engaged the attention of the members or managers of this collection is, how they could best prevent any specimens of antiquity which might be discovered throughout the country from being lost to the society. For this purpose they have taken all means of making it generally known over the country, that they are ever ready to give a larger price for such articles than individuals are likely to obtain elsewhere; and, by the way, they have found no sort of advertisement half so effectual, as the insertion of a paragraph to this
effect in the common almanacs.'
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