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successfully by any of these great waters. We shall merely notice the account he gives of the velocity of an ice-boat; which he saw in Kingston dockyard, because its accuracy has been called in question. It was mounted on three skates, one attached to each end of a strong cross-bar, fixed under the forepart, and a third to the bottom of the rudder; rigged with a mast and sail, like those of a common boat.
Her properties are wonderful, and her motion is fearfully rapid. She can not only sail before the wind, but is actually capable of beating to windward. It requires an experienced hand to manage her, particularly in tacking, as her extreme velocity renders the least motion of the rudder of the utmost consequence. A friend of mine, a lieutenant in the navy, assured me that he himself last year had gone a distance of twenty-three miles in an hour; and he knew an instance of an ice-boat having crossed from York to Fort Niagara (a distance of forty miles) in little more than three quarters of an hour. This will be readily believed, when we reflect on the velocity which such a vessel must acquire when driven on skates before a gale of wind. These boats are necessarily peculiar to the lakes of Canada.'-De Roos, pp. 142, 143.
By no means necessarily' so. We remember, many years ago, two Englishmen fixing iron runners to a Russian sledge, with which, after rigging it with mast and sail, they started upon the Neva, and darted along at the rate of twenty-two miles an hour. Having, in their progress, observed a wolf crossing on the ice, they steered directly towards it, and such was the velocity of the sledge, that it cut the animal in two. They had no doubt that, with a double quantity of canvass, they could have nearly doubled the velocity.
Note to the Article on the Geology of Central France in No. LXXII.
WE stated in our last Number, p. 439, that, with the exception of a short paper in the Edin. Phil. Journal for 1820-21, by Dr. Daubeny, we recollected no English writers on the geology of Auvergne, until the works of Mr. Scrope and Dr. Daubeny On Volcanos,' came out nearly at the same time. We ought, however, to have mentioned, that, subsequently to the appearance of Dr. Daubeny's first communication, Mr. Bakewell published, in 1823, his observations on Auvergne at the conclusion of his Travels in the Tarentaise. Although his brief visit to the district around Clermont only permitted him to take a hasty survey, he succeeded in seizing with correctness many of the principal geological features of the country, and presented to the
Note on the Geology of Central France.
English reader a concise and intelligible outline of the leading phenomena. His remarks were illustrated by a section descriptive of the relative age of the fresh-water strata, and the two great divisions of ancient and modern volcanic products; and drawings were also added of some of remarkable volcanic cones.
In discussing the nature of trachyte, Mr. Bakewell declared his dissent from Dr. Daubeny's hypothesis, that the isolated mountains, composed of that substance, in Auvergne, had been ejected in the state of mud. (Bakewell, vol. ii. p. 372.) As the professor, in a second edition of his letters, has particularly adverted to this misconception of his meaning, we shall take this opportunity of inserting his explanation, — which has, perhaps, escaped the notice of some of Mr. Bakewell's geological readers. It was merely his intention to signify that trachyte and domite were the product of a peculiar class of volcanos, like those noticed by Humboldt in the New World, and those which produced the lava of the Lipari islands. One of the characters attributed by Dr. Daubeny to this class of volcanos was the giving rise to frequent ejections of mud, and he called them mud-volcanos, without meaning to place trachyte among the products of this kind, any more than obsidian or pumice. (See Dr. Daubeny's Second Letter to Professor Jameson on the Ancient Volcanos of Auvergne, p. 30. corrected and reprinted October, 1825.)
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