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long, considerably larger at one end than the other; the edges are made so very sharp, and the wood being of the hardest kind, that a blow, aimed by a person who knows the use of these weapons, is sufficient not only to stun, but to kill a man on the spot.
are not claws; neither are they near the tail.
A most remarkable conflagration took place in 1769, when "the whole coast was on fire progressively from Surinam to the Demerary. The flames were supposed to have been unintentionally kindled by rebel negroes: they spread with marvellous continuity, licking up vast forests, and laying waste wide plantations."
We should have willingly given a place the imports and exports of the colony, had Mr. B. stated them later than Sir. W. Young. We believe these must be sought for in England.
The Indians have a sincere dislike and contempt for the blacks; considering them apparently as an inferior race, born, like cattle, to labour for the service of their betters. Of the rights of intellect to exert control, they have an instinctive conviction; and are still less scrupulous than the Euro-to peans, about the means of maintaining as cendancy. With them, tenderness begins where fear ends; there is in all their affections, a something of contempt; it is extended to women, to children, to the young, rarely to the adult. They are grateful to the most punctilious honour; but like people, who feel an obligation as an indignity, and who, being defied to an emulation of good offices, wish to surpass in them. A white planter, in this district, who shewed hospitality to a travelling Indian family, of which the woman happened to lie in at his house, was called on a year after by the husband, and presented with a beautiful female slave, the booty of a remote campaign.
The philosopher will find ample occasion for remark, in this description. These men are simple sons of nature; they are neither peverted by refinement, nor "sophisticated by the arts of superstition," (i. e. of religion) as a certain writer expresses himself. But, those who infer that they need no amelioration of manners, which implies the reception of better principles, have very different notions of human happiness, as well as of human excellence, from what we entertain.
A map of the district is prefixed by way of frontispiece.
Mrs. Leicester's School; or the History of several Young Ladies, related by themselves. pp. 178. Crown 8vo. Price 3s. Godwin, London, 1808.
THESE tales are supposed to be related by a number of young ladies, on their ar rival at school, when it opens after the holidays. The governess proposes this, in order to bring them acquainted with the history of each other, and to introduce sociability among them.
The work is liable to the same excep tion as others are, which attempt to describe the manners of childhood: the speakers are too old for the characters they sustain. Very few writers can combine the simplicity and energy of this early age, with a sufficient portion of amusement and vivacity. We might, The Moravians have a negro chapel in nevertheless, have admitted this produc Stabroek. They have translated the Bible tion to a place among those intended to and a book of hy mns into the Talkee-talkee, diversify the attention of youth, had we or negro language, of which they have not detected in it a too great importance composed a grammar. This is commend-attached to theatrical enjoyments. able: yet we are hardly satisfied with the elevation of this Talkee-talkee jargon to the dignity of a language. Is it impossible to teach the negroes a purer dialect? Might they not learn English by the same means as they now learn this mixture of tongues?
Mr. B. pays attention to the Natural History of the colony: he does not add much that is new to us; yet we think his diligence deserves praise, if he be the original observer. He is, however, no Naturalist: be describes the Aboma snake as having two claws, near the tail. They
ourview of the conduct and company of the theatre, we cannot but recommend a total indifference to it, in younger minds. Theatrical pleasures should never be held out as rewards; nor should the gratification to be expected from them be heightened by description or anticipa tion. We should be glad to characterize most dramatic representations of our time, as no worse than blanks: but, who would recommend a blank, to youth especially, as the reward of virtue already displayed, or as an excitement to exertions of talent, or excellence of deportment?
The Life of Thuanus, with some Account of his Writings, and a Translation of the Preface to his History: by the Rev. J. Collinson, M. A. 8vo. pp. 467. Price 99. Longman, London, 1807.
CERTAINLY the lives of illustrious men, who have been of eminent utility and importance to the world, by their stations or their talents, ought to be communicated to the public and if, from time to time, attention be called to them, by their appearance in new forms or new editions, so much the better. Those who have lived in times of distress and difficulty, who have had access to the secret springs that moved or directed the machine of the state, or who have examined the rival schemes and plans of opposing politicians, if they are at liberty to state them fairly, have the means of laying not only their contemporaries, but succeeding ages, under great obligations. "Never were such times, as those we exclaims the uninformed, to live in!" whom Knowledge
-her ample page, Rich with the spoils of Time, did ne'er unroll while those familiar with the events of prior ages know, that the calamities, and the intricacies, which afflict and perplex mankind, have frequently, too frequently, been the result of unprincipled ambition, and wanton pride.
by avoiding the misrepresentations to which both parties were prone, he has obtained the applause of all considerate men; and is deservedly preferred to those who, however eminent for station (Cardinals Baronius, Bellarmine, and du Perron), were too much identified with the cause they espoused, to be impartial narrators of events connected with it.
Thuanus was born Oct. 9, 1553. His grandfather and father successively filled the office of First President of the Parlia ment of Paris, which is the highest distinction in the law; and in some sense, is not unlike our Lord Chancellor ; as it combines legal with political eminence. He was of delicate health in his child
hood, and was more than once given over as past recovery, from illness. This affliction interrupted his studies; but it left him at liberty to follow the bias of his mind; and he gained more from the conversation of eminent personages, than can be believed by those who seclude themselves too constantly from "the cheerful haunts of men.' however, the advantages of a regular He enjoyed, course of learning, being originally intended for the church; but, on occasion of his father's hopes being disappointed by the deaths of his elder sons, Thuanus quitted the sacred profession, and attached himself to the law. He was appointed President in 1587, being then 34 years of age; but was restricted, by an act, from giving judgment as President, until M. Thuanus, or de Thou, was Presi- he had attained the legal age of forty. He dent of the Parliament of Paris, and a married the same year. After this we confidential minister to two kings of find him engaged in various services, France, Henry III. and Henry IV. He for the kings, his sovereigns; and more saw the massacre of St. Bartholomew, than once, during the troubles of the Aug. 24, 1572: he saw the civil wars times, obliged to have recourse to disguise which religion, or a somewhat assuming for personal safety. He saw foreign the guise of religion, kindled, in his courts, also, and the wisdom that he native land; and he wrote in Latin the learned he made his own. The freedom history of those times. That work has and integrity of his advice was little faimmortalised his name. The sincerity vourable to his interest at court. The and accuracy of its author, the personal liberal sentiments that marked his writpiety, and the honest zeal for the prospe- ings, were construed perversely, by rity of his country, that appear in it, bigots. The Jesuits calumniated, not have distinguished it, and will continue to the work only, but its author. The king distinguish it, in the judgment of all from policy wavered in his protection; who are capable of proper esteem for such and the whole performance was condemnexcellent qualities. He beheld the ex-ed at Rome, while only one third part tremes of zeal, Catholic and Protestant; he was not ignorant of the evils attendant on such extremes. He does not suffer himself to be swayed by either party; but,
of it was published. Like other great men, he experienced the fickleness of court favour; and, like them, had recourse to sources of satisfaction within
himself. He never retired wholly from the duties of his station; but died in his office, after a long illness, May 7, 1617. Aged 64.
Thuanus left six children, three sons and three daughters, the eldest of whom was not more than ten years of age. The daughters, when arrived at maturity, married into respectable families.
Francis Augustus, the eldest son, applied to the study of the law, and rose to be a Counsellor of State, and Master of the Requests. Unfortunately he became privy to the conspiracy against the state, which M. de Cinq Mars, in concert with the Dukes d'Orleans and de Bouillon, princes of the blood, projected in 1642. The plot, though in reality directed againat the exorbitant and invidious power of Cardinal Richelieu, amounted to high treason; and young Thuanus, being treated as an accomplice in it, was beheaded at Lyons, September 12, 1642. He was in his 36th year, and suffered with great fortitude.
make him desert his cause in difficulty, nor was he detached from it by the inviting smiles and professions of the Duke of Guise. Yet was his service given more to his country thau to the monarch. He always maintained the independence of the parliament; and, in a memorable passage of his preface, exhorts the amiable Henry IV. to remember "that Frenchmen were all the servants of the laws, in order that they might be free."
Learned himself, he was a munificent patron of literature; and, by his lavish praises of scholars, seems to have entertained a predilection for polite learning, above any other attainment." His talents, if not of the first rate, were directed to the best purposes, with sound judgment and unwearied application.
His conduct, in private life, was most attractive. We may wish for more familiar and minute particulars and anecdotes of his manners and disposition: but it is sufficiently evident that he was without any disguise or concealment, of great simplicity, plain, sincere, and affectionate. He was a tender suf-husband and a provident father; and it is pleasing to observe, from his will, that he would not have his daughters forced to take the veil against their inclinations.
It has been asserted, perhaps without ficient grounds, that Richelieu instigated this act of severity, in revenge of an unfavourable but just character of his uncle, which had appeared in the history of Thuanus.
The contemplation of a noble character cannot but produce beneficial effects on the mind; we shall, therefore, insert the description of the more prominent parts of the character of Thuanus as given by the present writer.
It is evident that Thuanus disapproved persecution, and did not believe that those who dissented from the Church of Rome were excluded from all hope of salvation.
Those who wish to be acquainted with the shades of our Author's character will perhaps discover that he felt a too great consciousness of his own merit, which made unbending, and sometimes degenerated into the gravity of his manners appear formal and expressions of vanity and pride. Though in most respects superior to the idle prejudices of the age in which he lived, he was a believer in omens and presages.
To be gratified with the incense of flattery is so general a tendercy of human nature, that it can hardly be ascribed as a peculiar failing to Thuanus.
These two tenets, of the Papal infallibility, and of the final perdition of all who are not of the Romanish Communion, have, His weaknesses never amounted to vice; perhaps, never been strongly maintained by but the energy he possessed was all employed sensible and humane Romanists. They, in- on the side of virtue. So severe and nice deed, bear no relation to the Gospel of Christ; were his principles, that he seems unwilling but it must be allowed that they are powerful to allow that he regarded in any action the instruments to sway the minds of the multi-praise even of good and wise men; but endeatude, and have actually been at the root ofvoured to regulate his whole conduct upon the most dreadful tumults and excesses.
He was uniform and consistent in the prac tice of virtue; and was one of the few of whom to record the truth is their best praise." The words which Tacitus applies to the expression of Agricola's countenance, may, with some propriety, be adopted in summing up the general character of Thuanus: "Bo
If Thuanus was not a good Papist, we may be allowed to call him a good Christian; for his sincerity in religion cannot be doubted by those who attend to the language he uses. It is probable that he saw many errors in the Church of Rome, and wished that it might silently reform the abuses that had crept into it, and thus obviate schism and contention.num His political principles were of the purest. kind. Fortune, dignity, life itself, were never by him put in competition with his duty and the suggestions of his conscience. The imbecility of King Henry III: did not
virum facilè dixeris, magnum libenter :" You pronounce him without hesitation to have been a good man; you feel willing to rank him among the great."
Thuanus was eighteen years of age when the massacre of St. Bartholomew
took place at Paris. It is probable, that | maxims of other states, beside that in the this enormity confirmed his hatred of service of which he is engaged. bigotted zeal on the Catholic side: as the calamities his country endured from the religious wars, to which the Protestants were one party, might lead him to think of whatever persuasion had recourse to arms. Doubtless he discover ed more of the pride of man, than of the fear of God, in many whose professions deceived the world. We have seen in our own days events at Paris, which render perfectly credible all the horrors of the famous St. Bartholomew.
Paris at that time resounded with preparations for the nuptials of the young king of Navarre with Margaret of Valois, sister to Charles IX. King of France. Thuanus, with some difficulty, gained admission to the ceremony, and took particular notice of the celebrated Coligni, chief of the Protestant party, and who, not many days after, was wounded by a concealed assassin. This occurrence first interrupted the public tranquillity; and on the 24th of August, six days after the nuptials, ensued the dreadful massacre of St. Bartholomew. Of this transaction, Thuanus expresses his decided detestation, and defends his opinion against the prevailing arguments of the time, by the example of his father, an acknowledged Catholic, whom he considers an unexceptionable guide in all political and religious concerns, and who applied to that day these verses of Statius:
Excidat illa dies avo, nec postera credant Sæcula; nos certè taceamus, et obruta multa, Nocte legi nostræ patiamur crimina gentis. May that foul day be blotted in time's flight, And buried in th' oblivious gloom of night: We will at least forbear the deed to name, Nor let posterity believe our shame.
As he went to mass, (for the festival of St. Bartholomew took place that year on a Sunday) he was forced to behold some of the mangled bodies, and to suppress his tears, which even the slaughter of beasts would have excited in one of his tender disposition," he retired from the tumult to a house of his brother Christopher's, near Montmartre, from which place the body of Coligni, suspended on a gibbet, was discernible. ing lately seen that victorious general crowned with honour and triumph, he was induced to reflect on the vicissitudes of life, and silently to adore the wonderful judgments of God, which continually remind man of his frail and perishable state."
The life of a statesman may be supposed to afford some insight into the
At Strasburgh Thuanus visited Languet, the illustrious prime minister of the Elector of Saxony, who gave him much valuable information respecting the Germanic constitution." From him he learned that the abolition of celibacy had greatly distressed the now obliged to bestow their daughters in marGerman princes and nobles, as they were riage, with a portion, whom they formerly dedicated to a religious life, with the prospect of their becoming abbesses of rich convents."
The description of the conduct of the Holy See, we believe to be perfectly just :
At Rome, the following interesting communication was made privately, and in the presence only of Thuanus, by one of the cardinals to De Foix, who had a vexatious cause pending in the ecclesiastical court. "Our court," said the Cardinal di Santa Cruce, is disposed, when it can really exercise severity with impunity, to oppress foreigners, and to protract the causes of men of rank by unnecessary delays, for the purpose of making our name reverenced and feared abroad. The papal power flourishes indeed through the prevalence of weakness and superstition; and as the crafty Florentine (Machiavelli) says, is supported by those acts which prove roinous to other empires. When the parties discover vigor and spirit, this severity is relaxed cautiously, and with much dissimulation. For instance, the Chevalier de St. Goard (who I am informed is now your ambassador at the court of Spain) had directions from the King of France to reclaim one of his subjects, who had been unjustly seized by the Holy Office. After much expostulation and solicitation, continued from day to day, he at length, with a resolute air, told the Pope in council, that he had orders from the king his master to depart, and to take the French ambassador with him, unless satisfaction were given; and, having thus said, left the spot. The Pope (Pius IV.) was much enraged, abused him, after
he was gone, in violent terms, and, tossing about his arms, cried out that the papal authority would be extinct, if thus braved with impunity by a boy. The result, however, was, that the gentleman in question was shortly released. Let me recommend you, Sir, to profit by this example; and remem bering the advice, to forget the monitor."
We insert a circumstance, deserv ing the attention of naturalists. We have in Smith's Kerry, a similar instance; to the great relief of a poor man, who supported his family during a summer of scarcity, with provisions obtained by stealth from an eagle's nest. Such histo
ries manifest how subservient even ab- | satiate the thirsty plains, is but a precursor solute wildness may be rendered to the purposes of rationality.
to that of harvest: the conversion of man "from the error of his ways," by the power of Divine Goodness, is an earnest of future and eternal felicity. Can there be a more noble employment, than that of promoting the diffusion of such blessings among mankind? Can the charities of our nature be more honourably, more
When they reached Mande, the bishop of the place entertained them in the most sumptuous manner for some days. They perceived that the game at table generally wanted a wing or a leg, and sometimes the head; on inquiry they were surprised to hear that it was supplied from the nests of eagles in the neigh-characteristically engaged, than in probouring cliffs. The peasants build small hovels or huts near, to screen themselves from the fury of the parent bird, which brings food for its young, and after the spoil is deposited, flies away. The peasants then hasten to remove what they find, chickens, hares, patridges, or pheasants, and throw in garbage to the eaglets; but some portion of the prey is generally devoured. Three or four nests supply an elegant table through the year, and chains are fastened round the young, to prevent their flying as soon as they otherwise would. Thuanus had the curiosity to ascend to one of these nests, and was a witness of the scene described.
Christianity in India. An Essay on the Duty, Means, and Consequences, of introducing the Christian Religion among the Native Inhabitants of the British Dominions in the East. By J. W. Cunningham, A. M. 8vo. pp. 212. Price 5s. 6d. Hatchard, London, 1808.
THE mild principles of Christianity. are, undoubtedly, the greatest blessing that Divine Benevolence has bestowed on mankind. Free in their nature as the passing breeze, they visit and refresh all ranks and stations without exception. Unconfined as the cloud laden with the principle of fertility, they "drop fatness" without partiality. Pure christianity discharges itself in benefits, as the cloud dissolves, without reserve. The joy of the agriculturist, when the descending showers
mulgating the principles of brotherly love, among the human race, and binding in one sacred bond, all, all the sons of men, however distinguishable by form or colour, by opinion or practice; however separated by local peculiarities, or marked by the strong distinction between rudeness and civilization? The true christian sighs for the introduction of that state upon earth, which his imagination attaches to the establishment of the Millennium. He beholds, in that state, the prevalence of good, and the absence of evil: genuine piety producing her natural effects, onmingled by human frailties. He contemcivil and sacred; one immense amalga plates one vast organization of virtues mation of excellence of every form and order, of every description and connection. Is there in any other religion professed among men, a conception so the idea of such perfection? Who among grand?-which holds out to mankind, the institutors of those modes of worship, world, has directed the expectation of his or principles of faith, that obtain in the followers to the universal prosperity of piety and religion, the unpolluted purity of manners and of life? Let this expectation of human perfection stand as one the great Father of all; and let none be mark of a dispensation originating from condemned for awaiting it, although alas! we need no proofs,additional tothose which every day presents, that the "Kalee Yug" is not yet expired.
The spread of Christianity is one of those precursors whose approach announces glad tidings. In various parts of our work, we have recorded the progress of this joyful harbinger. Among our red brethren in America; among our black brethren in Africa, or in the West Indies, their non-native islands; among the frozen regions of the north, where within a few years the Laplanders, as well as the Greenlanders, have embraced the doctrines of the cross; and amid the desarts