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lumnius was Procurator, i. e. chief of the emperor's revenue, in this province. There are then two things extremely remarkable in our medal: first, that only on medals of Antioch are any names inscribed of those consular Romans, who were sent by the early emperors to govern the province of Syria: secondly, that the name of Volumnius, an inferior officer, should appear on the same coin with that of Saturninus, the proper governor. There must have been some reason

same rank as Saturninus: in which capacity he enforced another enrolment, from which this should be carefully distinguished." Or: "This was the first 'enrolment of Cyrenius, he being then governor of Syria associated with Saturninus: and should be distinguished from that he made eleven years afterwards, when he was the chief, the precedential, governor of the same province."

But where he has not equal authority, the writer's conjectures manifest considerable shrewdness. The derivations, to which he has recourse for the explanations of Hebrew names of places are many of them new; and most of them are so far successful as to disgust us with the former explications. This, however, was no very arduous undertaking; and the difficulty was much less, to convince that they were bad, than to substitute better. The following is an instance.

for this; and I conceive it was the follow-
ing: Antioch, the capital of Syria, where,
no doubt, Saturninus kept his court, was the
head of a very extensive province, and was
ill situated for being the seat of government,
being too far north. It may be presumed
too, that Damascus, a city of no small pre-
tensions, was included in this province; and
thus it might be proper, that, although one
was the primary, yet in fact, for the purus
poses of government, there were two presi-
dents of Syria, both appointed by the empe-
ror, [though Tertullian hints at the appoint-
ment of Cyrenius, by the Senate.]

It remains now that we examine the date on our medal; EA, 35, which, I presume, is from the Julian Era of Rome 705, and brings us to the year 740, for the time when this coin was struck. If Herod died in the year 750 or 751, and Quintilius Varus had succeeded Saturninus only about a year, at that time, then Saturninus must have held this station eight or nine years, supposing this medal to have been struck immediately on his appointment to the government. Volumnius, possibly, might die, or might quit his appointment, in, or before, the year 746 or 747, and be succeeded by Cyrenius. This nobleman was consul of Rome 742, was sent against the Homonadenses perhaps about 746, being then either the ordinary proconsul of Cilicia, or an extra officer in that province. Having terminated this commission, he was appointed to the adjoining province of Syria, suppose on the death of Volumuius; and in this character he superintended the execution of that enrolment, which was appointed by the decree of Augustus Cæsar. This statement allows for the opinion of those who think that Christ was born in 747, and Herod died about the Passover 750.] Thus, by means of our medal, we have vindicated Josephus, who describes Saturninus and Volumnius as governors of Syria: we have justified both St. Luke and Tertullian, though in a seeming contradiction: one affirming Cyrenius, the other affirining Saturninus, to have executed the enrolment: and we have justified the words of the Evangelist, which may be thus understood: "This enrolment was the first effected by Cyrenius; meaning, while he was the first time governor of Syria, of the same rank as Volumnius: of which province he was afterwards governor, of the

AROER. This word seems to import repeated liftings up, or risings; and it might be the character of the city Aroer, as well as of a region, to consist of small hills, or risings, or what we term knolls, or haughs.

This seems more probable than the idea of bustle, or stir, occasioned by crowds of peo ple; for though this agrees sufficiently with the city Aroer, yet it does not well describe a region. As the city Aroer was divided by the stream on which it stood, I would query, whether the duplicate form of the word does not denote two passages; which agrees well enough with the radical idea of bustle: “The Ferries." Vide AR, and RɛHOBOTH Oir, or Ar.But,

A further thought has struck me on considering this name and its derivation: we have not, that I know of, in the Hebrew, any word which certainly denotes a bridge, or construction, whether of arches, or other. wise, for passing over rivers: yet, undoubtedly, this convenience must have been known, since the very laying a plank across a stream would lead to it, and to a proper name for it, by way of distinction. But, if the root År, or Oir, import lifting up, or rising, then it well expresses the elevated nature of a bridge; which, being laid from bank to bank of a river, is certainly lifted up over the stream. Whether, when plural, it imports any thing like arches, may be left undetermined; that form of construction appearing in no truly ancient Egyptian structure, with which we are acquainted. By way of corroborating this idea we may examine a few instances of the application of the name Ar, or Oir.

1. AR, the city of the Moabites, was pro perly called Rabba, or Rabbath, and, if this name imports great town, Megalopolis, yet the name Ar might allude to its bridge. This is perfectly agreeable to what we read Numb.

xxi. 15.


"The stream of the brooks (plu-, ral) which go down to the termination (or point of land diminishing into nothing by the union of these streams) of Ar,"-so that Arly stood on a such a point of land. Deut. ii. "Thou art to pass over (the river) through Ar, the termination, or bound, of Moab: "-now it is impossible to suppose that the termination of the territory of the Moabites was immediately at this their capital city; but, the point of land on which this city stood might terminate there.

In like manner, Aroer is described, Deut. ii. 36, as being "by the brink of the river of Arnon, even in the city which is in the torrent; "-" in the middle of the torrent," Josh. xii. 2. "Aroer that is upon the bank of the river Arnon, even the city that is in the midst of the river." Josh. xiii. 9, and still more particularly, 2 Sam. xxiv. 5. "Aroer, the city which lieth in the midst of the river of Gad," From these places it is clear that Aroer was surrounded by water: i. e. it stood on the point of land formed by the junction of two streams: so that, to enter it, one bridge must be passed, over one of the streams; hence its distinction Ar, "Bridge-town" but after a bridge was built over each stream, it would naturally receive this distinction in a duplicate form: Ar Ar, Oir Oir; "Bridges-town."

This acceptation of the word Oir, as signifying a bridge, is of further use in that very perplexing question, why it is appended to Rehoboth, Gen. x. 11? Rehoboth ir. Under its proper article the reader will see how this addition has embarrassed the learned: but if we take it as a mark of distinction" Bridge Rehoboth," all becomes easy; and matter of fact agrees with it, as the situation to which we have assigned it, Altun-Kieupri, "the bridge of gold," is thus distinguished to this day. These specimens are transcribed from the Index of names and places. What are termed Excursions assume much more the air of disquisition; and some of them must have cost considerable pains, in the inquiries necessary to determine the wri ter's judgment.

We confess that the geography of Scripture appears to be much more extensive, than we had formerly thought: even China, it seems, was included in it, nor were the British islands wholly unknown. This, however, was not wonderful, if the Phenicians really traded to Britain for tin; as Judea might easily obtain report, if not correct information, from the Tyrians. We are sure that the knowledge possessed by the prophets of the southern parts of the globe extended deeply into Africa. So far as the connection of Egypt with Ethiopia, so far s the intercourse of Abyssinia with Judea,


after the days of Solomon, and so far as vessels from, or to, Egion-gaber might furnish intelligence of southern Africa, we may fairsuppose these channels of information would be encouraged and improved. prophet Isaiah appears to have had a very competent knowledge of Ethiopia, its manners, and productions. The prophet Ezekiel appears to have had an accurate knowledge of northern countries. Being settled during the captivity, for a time, if not altogether, on the northern border of the Assyrian empire, he seems to have heard described, whether by natives of them, or by travellers into them, those countries which now form the middle provinces of the Russian empire. I should think his knowledge hardly extended further north than Moscow: nor have we any reason to conclude that he had himself visited these regions. It only remains, that we inquire how far westward the geography of Scripture extends. This is rendered somewhat difficult, by the ambiguity attending the word islands, which appears to me to be used in Scripture in three senses, 1 as denoting a plantation, or settlement, or as we might say, a colony. 2. The islands of the Archipelago, they being the islands best known to the Hebrews; but as these could not well be described as very far off, I incline to think that, 3. A much more distant groupe of islands is intended; and sometimes even, possibly, the British islands. For instance, Isaiah, Ixvi, 19. "I will set a signto the islands afar off that have not heard my fame, neither have seen my glory; and they shall declare my glory among the Gentiles." As the prophet had already mentioned Greece (Javan) and Tarshish, he seems now to extend his views to countries more remote. It is possible he might include Spain; but it is extremely probable, that the British Isles habitations that he knew of. The isles in were his Ultima Thulé: the most western the Archipelago are excluded by the mention of Javan; and if Tarshish was Tartessus in Spain, then Spain could not be these still further distant islands; which are described as not having heard of Jehovah, Other passages may support this conjecture; perhaps Isaiah, chap. xliii. 5, 6. lix. 18, 19, and Jer. xxxi. 10, but, intending this only as a conjecture, I leave it to the judgment of the judicious; not without hope of its being favourably received.

We consider this volume as a valuable accession to the stores of Biblical learning; especi ally, during the present troubled state of nations, which has prevented the laudable exertions of a society formed for the purpose of procuring accurate information on the present condition and remaining antiquities of the Holy Land.

American Annals. By Abiel Holmes, D.D. 2 vols. 8vo. 18s. Reprinted for C. Taylor, London. 1808. (Continued from p. 267.)


were executed, and one pressed to death, all of whom asserted their innocence.*

furnishes an affecting proof of the imbecillity This part of the history of our coutnry of the human mind, and of the potent in fluence of the passions. The culture of sound philosophy, and the dissemination of useful knowledge, have a happy tendency to re and miserable effects. The era of English press chimerical theories, with their delusive learning had scarcely commenced. Laws then existed in England against witches; and the authority of Sir Matthew Hale, who was revered in New England, not only for his knowledge in the law, but for his gravity and piety, had doubtless great influence. The trial of the witches in Suffolk in England was published in 1684: and there was England dæmons and the New, that, it can so exact a resemblance between the Old hardly be doubted, the arts of the designing populace augmented, from the parent coun were borrowed, and the credulity of the try. The gloomy state of New England probably facilitated the delusion; for " stition flourishes in times of danger and dismay." The distress of the colonist, at this time, was great. The inland frontiers east and Indians. The abortive expedition to were continually harrassed by the French Canada had exposed the country to the re

THE second volume of this work, it approaches nearer to our own times, encreases in interest, if it diminishes somewhat in curiosity. We are no longer presented with the view of a people, struggling amid the hardships of want, and disease; or alternately courting and conquering savage tribes. We behold them settied, acquiring property and importance, and cherished by the mother country with the most parental attention. We see her defending them against their enemies: engaging in war with powerful nations on their account; and, at length, a separation ensuing between the parent state and her offspring, which, however it might be lamented at the time, has proved of the greatest advantage to Britain; while her rival, who fomented the disturbance, and widened the breach to the utmost of her power, has fallen a victim to the natural consequences of the principles she encouraged, and has sunk under the recoil of efforts made to overwhelm a dreaded antagonist. Never was a lesson so severe taught to self-sufficient statesmen! never was Gallic finesse so completely counteracted, by the very success of its own favourite but fallaciously political devices.

As we have already brought our readers acquainted with Dr. Holmes's labours, we shall do little more, in the present article, than transcribe some of those pieces of information of which these voJumes comprize many. The following is proper to be had in everlasting remembrance, lest the same credulity, which is not wholly extinct among our rustics, should revive, and perhaps, with accumulated borrors.

A. D. 1692. A strange infatuation had already begun to produce misery in private families, and disorder throughout the community. The imputation of witchcraft was accompanied with a prevalent belief of its reality; and the lives of a considerable number of innocent people were sacrificed to blind zeal, and superstitious credulity. The mischief began at Salem, in February; but it soon extended into various parts of the colony. The contagion however was principally within the county of Essex. Before the close of September, nineteen persons


sentment of France, the effects of which were perpetually dreaded, and, at the same time, had incurred a heavy debt. The old charter was gone; and what evils would be introduced by the new, which was very reluctantreceived by many, time only could determine, but fear might forbode.

How far these causes, operating in a wilderhave contributed toward the infatuation, it is ness, that was scarcely cleared up, might difficult to determine. It were injurious

*Coll. Hist. Soc. v. 76. Hutchinson, ii. 59. Calef, part v. Giles Cory, refusing to plead, had judgment of peine fort et dure for standing mute, and was pressed to death; the only instance of this barbarous punishment, that ever has occurred in New England. More than a hundred women, many of them of fair characters and of the most reputable families, in the towns of Salem, Beverly, Andover, Billerica, and other towns, were apprehended, examined, and generally committed to prison. Ibid. No person was safe. What Montesquieu says of the Greeks, in the time of the Emperor Theodorus Lasca ris, might be applied here: "A person ought to have been a magician to be able to clear himself of the imputation of magic. Such was the excess of their stupidity, that, to the most dubious crime in the world, they joined the most uncertain proofs." Spirit of Laws, book xii, chap. v,

however to consider New England as peculiar | tury. The why and wherefore well deserve the politician's inquiry. The settlement of the province of Georgia, may be taken as an instance of the mode of conducting an original treaty of settlement, between the English and the In

to this culpable credulity, with its sanguinary effects; for more persons have been put to death for witchcraft in a single county in England in a short space of time, than have suffered, for the same cause, in all New England since its first settlement.

Although the trials on indictment for witchcraft were prosecuted the subsequent year, yet no execution appears to have taken place. Time gradually detected the delusion. Persons in high stations, and of irreproachable characters, were at length accused. The spectral evidence was no longer admitted: The voice of Reason was heard; and all, who had been imprisoned were set at liberty.

We do not perceive that Dr. H. has quoted Mather on this subject, though he has on others: yet some of Mather's stories we remember to have perused with mingled pity and astonishment. Some late events in the North of England have contributed to induce our selection of this passage: We trust that we need not caution the present time against indulging a superstitious bitterness of spirit in opposition to superstition itself.


The number of inhabitants in the English American colonies, and about the commencement of this century, was estimated at 262,000.

The particulars of this estimate are as follow:

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1733. The trustees of Georgia lost no time in the prosecution of their design for planting a colony. James Oglethorpe, esq. one of the trustees, had embarked at Gravesend for Georgia, in November, with one hundred and sixteen persons, destined for settlement in the country. On the fifteenth of January he arrived at Charlestown, where he was treated with hospitality and respect by the

and received great encouragement and assistgovernor and council of South Carolina, ance. Arriving on the first of February at Yamacraw, on the Savannah river, he explored the country, and fixed on a high spot of ground, in the vicinity of that Indian town, as the most convenient and healthful situation for the settlers. The tents were set up that night; and the people were occupied until the seventh in unloading and mak ing a crane. Oglethorpe then employed some of them in erecting a fortification, and in felling the woods, while he marked out the town and common. The first house was begun on the ninth; and the town, after the Indian name of the river, which ran by it, was called Savannah. The fort being completed, the guns mounted, and the colony put in a state of safety, the next object of Oglethorpe's attention was, to treat with the Indians for a share of their possessions. The 15,000 territory was principally occupied by the 20,000 Upper and Lower Creeks, who were com40,000 puted to amount to abont twenty-five thou5,000 sand, men, women, and children; and these tribes, according to a treaty formerly made with governor Nicholson, laid claim to the lands, lying south-west of Savannah river. The tribe of Indians seuled at Yamacraw, was inconsiderable. It appeared therefore of the highest consequence to procure the friendship, not of that tribe only, but of the more formidable Creeks. By the assistance of an Indian woman, who had married a trader from Carolina, and who could speak 4,500 the English and Creek languages, Oglethorpe summoned a general meeting of the chiefs, to hold a congress with him at Savannah, in order to procure their consent to the peacea ble settlement of his colony.



Total 142,000 There arrived, in 1729, at Pennsylvania, from Europe, 6,208 persons, for the purpose of settling in that colony. The following were the proportions:

English and Welsh passengers and servants

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This migration of the Irish from their country in much greater numbers than the English or Scotch, is not unworthy attention. We should be glad to know whether any account, to be depended on, has been kept, of the Irish emigrants: they must have amounted to a considerable number in the course of the last cen

which fifty chieftains were present. OgleA congress was accordingly holden, at thorpe represented to them the great power, wisdom, and wealth of the English; and the many advantages, that would accrue to Indians in general from a connection with that nation; and expressed his hope, that,

had pretty well made up their minds of what they intended. Dr. H. gives the article of this treaty at length; which to it, though he does not avow those sen proves that he attaches great importance timents which we have had abundant opportunities of knowing were prevalent, both in the "old country" and in the new.

as they had a plenty of lands, they would freely resign a share of them to his people, who, for their benefit and instruction, had come to settle among them. After he had distributed presents among the Indians, an agreement was made; and Torochichi, in the name of the Creek warriors, made a speech to him. Among other observations, he said, "Here is a little present," and then gave him a buffalo's skin, painted on the Inside with the head and feathers of an eagle, The augmentation of inhabitants in and desired him to accept it, "because the America may be estimated from the foleagle signified speed, and the buffalo, strength.lowing table. In 1790, the number was, The English," he proceeded, "are as swift 3,929,326. In 1800, the number was as the bird, and as strong as the beast; 5,305,482, which was resident in the since, like the first, they fly from the utmost different provinces in the following proparts of the earth over the vast seas, and, like the second, nothing can withstand them. portions: The feathers of the eagle are soft, and sigify love; the buffalo's skin warm, and signifies protection; he hoped therefore, that they would love and protect their little families." Oglethorpe, having concluded this treaty of friendship with the natives, and placed his colony in the best posture of defence, returned to England,, carrying with him Tomochichi, his queen, and several other Indians.

The number of warriors of the principal Indian nations, in the neighbourhood of Carolina and Georgia, is estimated to have been, at this period, upwards, of fourteen thousand.

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New Hampshire


Blacks, Total. Blacks, Total.

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Rhode Island
New York
New Jersey.

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105547 393751 140329 478103 108895 249073

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The peace of 1763 was a very important era in the history of the North American colonies. Whether it was wise in the British statesmen of that day to relieve the colonists from every apprehension of their once dreaded enemies, was questioned at the time; and subsequent events have proved that it was not questioned without cause. We believe the fact to have been, that many private persons connected with America, had more correct intelligence of the disposition of the people there than the British government had, by its official communications. The public officers sent over from Britain to America, were not admitted into that confidential intimacy Virginia and Maryland 589803 14 among the people, which certain individuals of a different description enjoyed: and we know well, that Americans who came over to England, were sufficiently free in their predictions of what would happen, to justify the inference that they

· 1773. Carolinas

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Cape Breton .
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Hudson's Bay

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