Page images

No. XVI. (Translation.)-Letter from Mr. | cerely regrets that this desire of his Majesty is disSecretary Canning to Count Nicolas de Roman-appointed. zoff, dated Foreign Office, 7th December, 1808, acknowledging the receipt of his letter. No. XVII.-Official Note, dated Foreign Office, 9th December, 1808.

The undersigned, his Majesty's principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, has laid before the King his master the Note transmitted to him by his excellency the Count Nicholas de Romanzoff, Minister for Foreign Affairs of his Majesty the Emperor of all the Russias, dated on the 16th (28.h) of November.

The King learns, with astonishment and re-gret, the expectation which appears to have been entertained, that his Majesty should consent to commence a negociation for general peace by the previous abandonment of the cause of the Spanish nation and of the legitimate monarchy of Spain, in deference to an usurpation which has no parallel in the history of the world.

His Majesty had hoped that the participation of the Emperor of Russia in the overtures made to his Majesty would have afforded a security to his Majesty against the proposal of a condition so unjust in its effect, and so fatal in its example,

Nor can his Majesty conceive by what obligation of duty or of interest, or by what principal of Russian policy his Imperial Majesty can have found himself compelled to acknowledge the right assumed by France, to depose and imprison friendly sovereigns, and forcibly to transfer to herself the allegiance of loyal and independent nations.

If these be indeed the principles to which the Emperor of Russia has inviloably attached himself; to which his Imperial Majesty has pledged the character and resources of his empire; which he has united himself with France to establish by war, and to maintain in peace, deeply does his Majesty lament a determination by which the sufferings of Europe must be aggravated and prolonged: but not to his Majesty is to be attributed

the continuance of the calamities of war, by the disappointment of all hope of such a peace as would be compatible with justice and with honour. The undersigned, &c.


No. XVIII.-Letter from Mr. Secretary Canning to M. de Champagny, dated Foreign Office, 7th December, 1808, acknowledging the receipt of his letter.

No. XIX.-Official Note, dated Foreign Office, 9th December, 1808.

The undersigned, his Majesty's principal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, has laid before the King his master the Note transmitted to him by his excellency M. de Champagny, dated the 28th November.

But his Majesty is determined not to abandon the cause of the Spanish nation, and of the legitiFrance to exclude from the negociation the Cenmate monarchy of Spain; and the pretension of tral and Supreme Government, acting in the name of his Catholic Majesty Ferdinand the Seventh, is one, which his Majesty could not admit, without acquiescing in an usurpation which has no parallel in the history of the world.

The undersigned, &c.


No. XX.-(Translation.)-Letter from Count Nicolas de Romanzoff to Mr. Secretary Canning, dated Paris, 1st (13th) December, 1808; received December 17th, promising to forward Mr. Canning's Note to the Emperor of Russia.

No. XXI.-(Translation.)-Letter from M. de Champagny to Mr. Secretary Canning, dated Paris, 13th December, 1808; received December 17th, promising to forward Mr. Canning's Note to Buonaparte.

The PANORAMA would deviate from that sedateness of character by which it has been distinguished, were it to enter at large into what might be said on the subject of this correspondence by the British nation. Our public officers, who have, no doubt, additional information, which they do not communicate to the world, have spoken their sentiments on the subject; and to echo what they have said, is not consistent with our independence of opinion. We do most heartily repeat our wishes, that the Spaniards may have prepared for a LONG resistance; and that their affairs may be entrusted to hands incapable of TREACHERY. We may add, that at length the man whom our best intelligence had pointed out, as most qualified to head the Spanish nation, and to guide the state in troublesome times, occupies a station of command. We mean the Duke de l'Infantado. Of this nobleman it has been said, in our hearing, by those who knew him personally;

He can if he will!--and being the next "in rank after the Duke of Medina Coeli, "who is universally regarded as incapable, "to him the Spanish nation may look for

a head and leader." The forced resort of this nobleman to Bayonne, was consiHe is especially commanded by his Majesty to dered by our informant as a serious evil : abstain from noticing any of those topics and expressions insulting to his Majesty, to his allies, but, we suspect, that it was not in the and to the Spanish nation, with which the Of issue injurious to the Spanish cause. ficial Note transmitted by M. de ChampagnyWaiting the result of the whole, for only abounds.

His Majesty was desirous to have treated for a peace which might have arranged the respective interests of all the powers engaged in the war on principles of equal justice; and his Majesty sin

a partial view of existing circumstances is within our power at present, we add our voice to that of our countrymen, in de claring, explicitly, that SPAIN MUST BE

SUPPORTED! The man who may deliver that country may start up when we do not expect him.-Spain is very likely to prove the grave of the Frenchmen who are transported thither by the violence of ambition. In a word, Buonaparte has got into Spain; but, he has not yet got out of it.

We cannot say that any great disappointment has succeeded the termination of the correspondence with Paris, because no very ardent hopes were excited by it, from the first; and when it was known that Buonaparte had quitted Paris before he could be informed of the result, every ray of hope was extinct. What, then, is the duty of Britain in such a conjuncture? To PREPARE FOR THE VERY WORST THAT CAN HAPPEN. To anticipate in preparation the time when Buonaparte may be master of Spain; but not of the Spanish resources, ships, &c. to suppose he has put in motion his meditated descent upon Ireland; and that he means there to meet and annihilate our power.-Now, what should we wish we had done in such circumstances?-Taught all our active population the use of arms;-roused the patriotic sentiments which glow in the bosom of Britons; and have contributed all that is possible to the completion of unanimity

among us.

We certainly should attribute the greatest importance to the last of these particulars but we well know that Britons see things in lights so different, that what appears bright to one appears obscure to another. To conciliate all opinions exceeds our hopes: nothing short of the sight of a French army on British ground will effect that wonder. But, that our population may be taught the use of arms, has been our repeated suggestion and even remonstrance. Our advice will prevail in timeIn the meanwhile, the proposals made by government to attain this end, by degrees, deserve attention, and we have thought it our duty to procure a copy of Lord Castlereagh's intended regulations on this subject, which we present to our readers without further comment.

Heads of a Bill to allow a certain Proportion of the Militia of Great Britain, to enlist voluntarily into the Regular Forces.

Whereas it is necessary that the most effectual measures should be taken for augmenting his Majesty's regular forces; and it is therefore expedient to allow so many of the

[ocr errors]

militia of Great Britain as will leave serving, including corporals, three-fifths of the num ber of the establishment in rank and file of each regiment of militia, to enlist into his Majesty's regular forces, under certain provi sions and restrictions; and to enable his Majesty to accept the services of the men so voluntarily enlisting: Be it enacted, that His Majesty may appoint regiments of the regular forces in which militia men may enlist.

Commanding officer to ascertain the numbers willing to enlist, up to the number allowed.-His Majesty may appoint officers to approve or reject the men.Men enlisted marines: but men so enlisted may refuse that into the regulars, may be transferred to the service.-Commanding officer of every regi ment, out of which the proportion limited shall not enlist, shall draw out his men, and read his Majesty's order, and explain the terms of enrolment, and shall cause the names of the men who shall then voluntarily declare their intention of enlisting to be written down; excess shall be reduced by ballot to the number authorised to enlist.-If the num ber who shall enlist shall not be the due proportion, a further enlistment may take place. -For appointing further periods for enlisting the full proportion.-As soon as the number enlisted is ascertained, they shall be discharg ed, and if approved, attested; and shall (as soon as conveniently may be) be transferred to some officer of such regiment of his Majesty's regular forces, as his Majesty may have appointed to receive them.-Lord lieutenant to transmit to the Privy Council the number of shall be entitled to enlist until he shall have men discharged.-No person in confinement suffered the sentence of a court martial.-No private militia man shall be entitled to his discharge, or to enlist under this act, who shall have been in confinement, or who shall have been sentenced to any punishment by any court martial, for any offence committed within the space of

calendar months before the time of his so offering to enlist, unless he shall obtain the consent of the com manding officer of the regiment of militia in which he shall be serving at the time.-Adju tants, clerk, or regimental clerk, or drummer, or musician in the band of the regiment of militia, or armourer, or artillery man, or ma tross, shall not enlist without the consent of the commanding officer. Allowing_commanding officers to discharge upon sufficient cause. Persons discharged refusing to enlist, or not approved of, they shall continue to belong to the regiment from which discharged.

Officers not authorised to enlist, or per suade to enlist any militia men, other than such as shall have been duly discharged.— His Majesty may issue orders to lord lieutenant and commanding officers, for executing act.— No person shall be drafted from the regiment

in which he enlisted unless wholly and abso-
lutely discharged from all service whatever in
the regiment in which he shall originally have
enlisted. On production of certificates under
the hand of any justice of the peace of any
county in Great Britain, or of any magistrate
of any borough, town or place therein, men
to be discharged.-For transmission of returns
of militia men, who shall have enlisted under
this act.-Act not to extend to London.
Extending provisions of act to all stewartries,
ridings, divisions, cities, and places in Great
Britain, and to all battalions, corps, and
companies, as fully and amply as if they
were severally and respectively repeated in
every such provision, direction and clause.-
This act may be altered, amended, or repealed,
by any act or acts to be made in this present
session of Parliament.
Abstract of the Number of Men, who volun-
teered from the Militia into the Regular
Army, under the Acts of 47th Geo. III.
From the Adjutant-
chap. 55 and 57.

General's Officc, 25th January, 1809.

From the English militia.-Into the Royal Artillery, for limited service, 77; for unlimited service, 70. Into regiments of the line, for limited service, 12,552; for unlimited service, 1,504. Into the Royal Marines, for limited service, 401; for unlimited service, 658. Total, 15,262.

From the Scotch militia.-Into the Artillery, for limited service, 77; for unlimited service, 75. Into Regiments of the Line, for limited service, 3,233; for unlimited service, 323. Into the marines, for limited service, 56; for unlimited service, 126. Total, 3,890.

From the Irish militia.-Into the Regiments of the Line, for limited service, 4,163; for unlimited service, 3,955. Into the marines, for unlimited service, 235. Total, artillery, 299; Line, 25,730; Marines, 1,476. General total, 27,505; deficient, 883. State of the Militia in Great-Britain, according to a General Return made up in the Adjutant-General's Office, June, 1808. Effective strength of the Militia in Great Britain, August, 1807, previous to the operation of the acts of the 47th Geo. III. chap. 57: serjeants, 2,993; corporals, 2,636; drummers, 1,589; privates, 50,943; total, 58,161. Number of men added to the militia by the ballot, under the act of the 47th Geo. III. chap. 71, 34,659; returned from desertion, 466; substitutes for men discharged, 267. Encrease between 1st August 1807 and 1st June 1808, 35,392; total, 93,553. Number of men volunteered from the militia, under the act of the 47 Geo. III. chap. 57, 18,763; discharged, 4,397; dead, 1,291; 1st deserted, 1,267. Decrease between August 1807 and 1st June 1808, 25,718.

Effective strength on 1st June 1808: serjeants, 3,414; corporals, 3,183; drummers, 1,636; privates, 59,602; total, 67,835.

It appears also, that 1,576 men have joined the militia since June 1, 1808: add the number reported to have joined previous to the 1st June, 34,659, gives a total of 36,235 men.-In the number 1,576, are included a certain number of men who have joined as substitutes for men discharged. State of the Recruiting, under the Act of the 47th of the King, chap. 56, for increasing the Militia of Ireland, from Returns and Reports received at the War-Office. Number to be raised

9,905 Reported to have been levied......... 9,169

[blocks in formation]

Dec. 12, 1808.
Adjutant-General's Office,
Jan. 25th, 1809.

By accounts laid before the House of Commons, by Lord Castlereagh, it appears, that The recruits which have been raised

for the regular army, since Au-
gust 1, 1807, amount to........
That the effective rank and file of
the militia of England is 53,262
Ireland 21,398

Men. 19,072


And that the effective force,in rank
and file, of the British regular 210,614

Adjutant-General's Office, Jan. 26, 1809.


We be allowed to congratulate the inhabitants of this little island on such a demonstrative proof of their power, and of the effect of measures taken to secure their independence and dignity, as a peo ple. It may be true, for aught we know, that France, with its subjugated sovereignties, has double this number of men in arms: but those are more than counter. balanced by the immense number of British seamen and marines: with various bodies of our volunteers, and local militia. THESE, TOO,


[ocr errors]



* We allude here only to our own times, Egypt, Maida, and, lastly, Corunna.-See London Gazette, p. 1025, of this number.

west. They are attached to one speci-
fic country in the east; and every attempt
to refer their origin to any other part of
Asia (to India, or to China, for instance)
would be utterly repugnant to their gene

A Companion to the Holy Bible; the Sub-
ject SACRED GEOGRAPHY; being a Geo-
graphical and Historical Account of Places
mentioned in Holy Scripture,-augment-ral character and peculiarities.
ed by Geographical Excursions, in which
the Geography of Scripture is confirmed
by Evidence entirely new in its Applica-
tion, &c. By the Editor of Calmet's Dic-
tionary of the Holy Bible: with Maps
and Plates. 2to. in Six Parts, 5s. each.
Taylor, London, 1808.

Ir must be confessed, that of all books entitled to general consideration, the Bible has in many instances fared the worst. Attention to the spirituality of its contents has swallowed up almost every other sentiment, as the rod of Aaron swallowed up the rods of his opponents. There have been some in the Christian world, who decried the advantages of human knowledge in interpreting the sacred books; and depended for a more than common facility in understanding them, not on external assistance, but on internal communications. If these communications had enabled them to state matters of fact accurately, much benefit might have been derived from them; for the work before us regrets that the best geographers of our days, with all the advantages they possess, and all the diligence they have exerted, cannot so much as tell the true form or situation of the southern extremity of the Dead Sea, or agree on the existence and dimensions of the gulf of Eloth. It is, nevertheless, true, that the Dead Sea is at this day an undeniable witness to the truth of Holy Scripture. Had Scripture been totally silent on a subject of natural history and geography so remarkable, or had it attributed qualities contrary to those which accurate examinations, by the chemical tests of modern science, discover, unbe lief might have availed itself of such a violation of truth, with propriety, as it certainly would have caught at the plea with eagerness. Happily, Providence has preserved abundant evidence of the correctness of the Scriptures; nor can any doubt be started, as to their derivation from that region which they claim as their origin. The eastern ideas they present, demonstrate, beyond controversy, that they are not forgeries manufactured in the

Those who have travelled into Syria and Palestine have mentioned, usually without design, a thousand particulars which coincide with others presented in Scripture. They have contributed to il lustrate words, phrases, and incidents, that without such assistance might have remained in the deepest obscurity, and might have puzzled, from generation to generation, our countrymen who endea vour to read their Bibles with an understanding heart, as well as with a willing mind.

This volume is the close of an effort which has been many years in a course of publication, to illustrate Scripture by means of the testimony of travellers who have visited the Holy Land. The first division of this undertaking was, an attempt to elucidate the customs and manners, the dresses and domestic arrangements, &c. of the east, in the form of short discussions called FRAGMENTS, annexed to CALMET'S Dictionary of the Holy Bible. The second division treated principally of the Natural History of Scripture; the third and last is the Sacred Geography before us.

The writer has availed himself of Dr. Well's Manual of Sacred Geography, which preserves the order of the books.

The second division of this work consists of original dissertations on various subjects connected with sacred geography; such as-the most probable settlements of the nations after the flood: the migration of Abraham: the builders of the Pyramids of Egypt: the city of Egypt: the travels of Israel in the desert: the deportation of the Israelites: the probable extent of scripture geography: the early spread of Christianity, &c. But, the most considerable division, in point of labour, is a geographical index to Scripture, in which we observe with pleasure, that many of the appellations of places are traced to significations much more probable than those heretofore current among expositors; and that much additional information has been obtained from modern sources, foreign and English.

If the general principles adopted by

the author be correct, we have long favoured errors of no small magnitude and inconvenience, in determining the original country of the Abrahamic family. It has always been supposed, that on the other side of the Euphrates, was far enough eastward to place the native land of that eminent patriarch; but this work carries our ideas far beyond the Euphrates, and supposes the Jihoon was the river, from the further banks of which the father of the faithful migrated.

reference to Biblical inquiries. We know that Cardinal Noris, Hardouin, and others, have illustrated particular events by the testimony of medals; and Vaillant, &c. has composed the history of kingdoms and states from similar documents : yet the application of the principles of the writer before us, is far more extensive than any that has come under our notice; and the least that can be said of it, is that it opens a very extensive field for researches, to Biblical, well as to general students. It concerns nations and tribes of men, as well as cities, and colonies.

The number of plates attached to this volume is forty-four: the maps are distinguished in a very ingenious manner, and will be thought valuable and useful. The other plates are mostly filled with medallic memorials, such as those we have been describing. From among the

Indeed, a desire to connect Judea with India seems to run through the whole of the geographical discussions. If this hypothesis be correct, the intercourse between the east and west must have been in early times much more facile than we have ever supposed. It is true, that our want of information on the subject of the caravans which in all ages have traversed in Asia, is no evidence that such mi-explanations of these we select one, which grations might not have taken place; but is not only recommended by its novelty, the difficulties of so long a journey for but by its effect in reconciling the assernumerous flocks and herds, appear to us tion of a Christian evangelist with that of to extremely have been great, if not insu- a Christian father, hitherto abandoned as perable. The writer does not diminish this irreconcileable, in a manner perfectly difficulty by affirming, that ALL the honourable to the characters of both. It western nations were originally from the is under the article ANTIOCH. head of the Indus (the ancient India.) In By far the most interesting medal to us, as proof of this, he supposes that they pre-Christians, is No. 13, where we read" of served memorials of their original country, the Antiocheans under Saturninus: "-this in their religious institutions, and objects Saturninus was governor of Syria, at the of worship. Their coins too, he thinks, time of our Saviour's birth; as is admitted by contain allusions to this fact; and several the learned, on the authority of Josephus; medallic types, which have hitherto baf and Tertullian, Contr. Marc. lib. iv. cap. fled the learned, he explains by the help 19, goes so far as to say that the enrolment or taxing, Luke ii. 1. was made by him. of this principle. It is certain, that suudry of the Grecian images and idols correspond in figure to those still extant in Hindoostan; and the evidence collected in this work contributes unexpected support to the hypothesis of the late learned Jacob Bryant.

This is not the first time that India has been considered as the original seat of mankind. Sir Walter Raleigh, in his History of the World, derived all nations from the same country; and since his time, others have been of the same opinion. But, we believe that this is the first instance, in which the proposition has been supported by arguments of the same kind (for what d'Ancarville and others have done in the history of art, is hardly applicable to the present subject), and the species of evidence directed to bear on it, is in great measure new, in

Hence has arisen a very great difficulty, how to reconcile this fact with the character

[ocr errors]

given to Cyrenius, by the evangelist, who describes him as governor of Syria," at the time of the taxing or enrolment. Nobody has hitherto suggested that both were governors of Syria, in the same sense, with equal power, and at the same time: but some have proposed, instead of « Cyrenius," to read "Saturninus," in the text of Luke, Tertullian, in conjunction with that of Joso strongly have they felt this testimony of sephus for an enrolment by this same Cyrenius, at a later period.

Ou our medal appear the letters OrOAO, which, I presume, are the first letters of OrоAO, Volumnideed, Josephus, Ant. lib. xxi. cap. 9, 10, us, the colleague of Saturninus: and inspeaking of these persons, stiles them Presi dents, or Governors, in the plural; though Saturninus was properly President, and Vo

« PreviousContinue »