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but the intervening and, also opposes that hypothesis. In ejaculation no copulatives are added: " my Lord! my God!" is the natural language on such occasions. "My Lord, AND my God," has much more the air of being the result of conviction or consideration.
Acts ii 36. πας οἶκος Ισραήλ. If we take these words, as they ought correctly to be taken, they require no article:
"all Israel's descendants."-Would not
xvi. 6. & T Aria. Mr. Wakefield translates “in that part of Asia," and thinks that in the N. T. Asia Minor is meant, whenever the article accompanies the name. How the article can affect the meaning, I am not able to conjecture. The fact, however, is, as Schleusner remarks, that in the N. T. Asia always signifies either Asia Minor, or else only the part of it adjacent to Ephesus, and of which Ephesus was the capital.
The countries with which we find Asia associated in some passages, induce us to withhold our assent from the opinion of Schleusner. It is ranged, Acts ii. g. with Cappadocia and Pontus, provinces very distant from Ephesus; and 1 Peter i. 1. with Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Bythinia: it cannot in either of these places import the whole of Asia Minor, since it appears to be a district, like those associated with it: yet it cannot be taken for the province of which Ephesus was the capital, since that was on the extremity westward: whereas Cappadocia, &c.. were on the extremity eastward; and several provinces intervened. The Asia of this passage is also connected with Galatia, and Bythmia: we infer, therefore, that the article has an especial meaning here and marks a peculiar district.
xvii. 23. àvvws. To the "unknown God." Dr. M.'s long note on this passage evinces an embarrassment on his mind, that we should not be surtaken advantage of by prised to see those who will dislike the general reasoning of his volume.
To set this matter in its true light, we may consider, that God, as the Great Operator throughout nature, is, at the same time, in a sense, well known, and in another sense unknown. "The heavens declare the glory of God," the production of his power on the earth demonstrate his existence, his greatness, goodness, wisdom, &c. so that any man may know God, by attention to his works yet no man can know God thoroughly: his operations are profound secrets, and even the most interesting principles that he has appointed to produce effects which we call nature, are absolutely unknown to the most profound philosophers of this enlightened age itself.
Let us exemplify our meaning by another thought The Goddess Isis was taken as Nature, the Mother of all things. in all her operations; she was only one goddess, yet all gods and goddesses in one; and we have an inscription which includes this apparently contradictory character:
VNA QUE ES OMNIA
ARRIUS BABINUS V. C.
"To thee Goddess Isis, who art ONE, "thou also art ALL."-But the inscrip tion on the temple of Isis at Sais, as reported by Plutarch, is still more to our purpose: "I AM ALL THAT WAS, THAT
IS, AND THAT SHALL BE NO MORTAL HAS EVER LIFTED UP MY VEIL." Could the worshippers of Isis in this temple acknowledge entire ignorance of their that was impossible yet Goddess ? they considered her as unknown; for such is the import of the expression" her "veil never having been lifted up.".
Could an altar have been inscribed "to AN unknown Goddess, Isis?"-since the very mention of her name proves she. was known, and so far known, as to require the article, " to THE Unknown God
dess, Isis. "But, if any person, in any country wholly absorbed in idolatry, and where, as the satirist says, it was much
them, HIM whom they worshipped as "unknown" On the whole, we see no reason for acceding to Dr. M.'s opinion, that" if the altar noticed by St. Panl
easier to find a God than a man, were | Disposer of them yet Unknown, since minded to erect an altar to the Supreme men have sought Him, though uncertain of Spirit, who operated throughout nature, finding Him, notwithstanding his Omniprethis Supreme, being distinguished by no sence: q.d. God is every-where always." appellation, by what means should he ac- Amid this uncertainty of finding God, no complish his intention? If he inscribed wonder men have erred, and represented his implement of worship," to THE unthe Godhead in the human form :-but "known God,"-this phrase we say (on the time during which God remained the principles supported by Dr. M.) in- thus unknown is now over; and he comcludes an allusion to something of which mands repentance and reformation, be the readers, his countrymen, have had cause he hath appointed a judgment, by some information: and had this altar been a partaker of human nature, yet a divine erected by Epimenides the philosopher, person, who, even, has triumphed over on occasion of a pestilence, as has been death itself, as a proof of his apsupposed, it must have thus been dis- pointment. These sentiments are evitinguished to THE unknown God,"- dently grounded on the inscription, and subintelligitur, who sent such an afflic- they accord perfectly with the apostle's tion-on such an occasion, &c. The professed intention of "declaring to article would have fixed an allusion to that circumstance. Whereas, were no allusion to any specific event designed, nor to any particular (idol) deity, but to the Supreme generally; to no God known by his countrymen under any appellation, any distinctive title, or epithet, derived from time, place, office, or supposed peculiar attribute; in short, to a deity of whose nature and perfections, they had no adequate or even tolerable conception: the writer could not have accomplish-known God." ed his purpose better than by the present inscription, as it stands in the Greek. Is it too much to infer, that this was a public inscription, from the following words: "Him, whom Ye worship as UN"KNOWN, Him declare I unto you?" Moreover, that this altar was not hidden, or concealed, may fairly be inferredly from the expressions of Lucian in the Philopatris, that it was customary to swear by the unknown God, at Athens. If we might advance a step farther, and suppose that in the court of the Areopa gus, which St. Paul was now addressing, oaths were, or had been administered, in the name of the "unknown God," the propriety of the subject of address chosen by St. Paul would appear with un-recognise her is impossible; even ber common strength.
If we attend closely to the apostle's reasoning in his discourse, we shall find an uniform coincidence with this view of the subject. He dilates on the nature of God, the Maker of the world, the Lord of heaven, the Supreme, above all services of man, the universal Benefactor, in respect to life, and breath, and all natural donations: the Maker of all men, and
had been dedicated to the One True, "though unknown God, the inscription "would have been either TN. AF* ΝΩΣΤΩ. ΘΕΩ:, οι ΘΕΩ. ̓ΑΓ· "NOETO." The Dr. adds, "since "it is neither of these, I accede to Mr. Wakefield's translation" to an un
1 Cor. xi. 8.-12. Dr. M. would have understood this passage more clearly, had he rendered vip (a man,) the male ser, and Thy yuvaina (the woman) the female sex.
In desperate cases a conjecture apparent beside the mark may be tolerated: is it impossible that isola, if compounded of and vơi, might import formless, shapeless, depriving the person who wore it, of all resemblance to the hu man figure? If so, it very aptly describes the wrappers, mufflers, or long envelopes, worn by the eastern women whenever they quit their own houses. It dis guises the wearer so effectually, that to
husband may pass her in perfect ignorance
objects with great reason to this rendering since ektroma in the LXX. is used to denote a child dead in the womb, such James 1.11. The sun arisen with a an one, if it might be said to be born, burning heat. Dr. M. should have adcertainly could not be said to see any-verted to the history of Jonah and his gourd. We are told expressly, that when the sun did arise. God prepared a vehement east wind," the suffocating win i, xaúowv. The sun a nied his piercing rays, to increase the sufferings of the disappointed prophet.
and åμáv being strong and well known. asseverations of the truth.
thing after it was born. We are not, however, wholly satisfied with the Dr.'s notion, that the last offspring of multiparous animals is smaller and weaker than those born before it, as applied in illustration of this term. We wish our We wish our author had inquired whether this word might not be used by St. Paul to denote what we commonly call a posthumous
On the famous text 1 John v. 7. Dr. M states very strong reasons both for and against its authenticity; and concludes child: a child born after his father's death. by observing, " on the whole, I am led to ' And it may be remarked, that the other suspect, that though so much labour apostles were appointed to their office and critical acuteness have been bes(born, in St. Paul's language) during the "towed on these celebrated verses, more life of Christ on earth: whereas St. Paul "is yet to be done, before the mystery was so appointed, by Christ after his in which they are involved can be death. Or, certainly, all the apostles, "wholly developed.” We invite the even including Matthias and Barnabas, learned Dr. and others, to consider the were converted during our Lord's life and hypothesis of two editions, started by our ministry; (and conversion is often expres. correspondent FIDELIS. [Patiorama, Vol. sed by birth) but St. Paul was one, and THE II. pp. 205, 531.] The remarks of our only one, converted by our Lord in per-author on the grammatical concatenation of son after his decease: he was, therefore, the passage, are exactly such as might be whether this word express it or not, a expected from an insertion in consequence posthumous birth, and being the only one, of revision by the original author. might allude to this circumstance by using the article. Moreover, when the husband dies during the pregnancy of his wife, it is evident that the child born after his death, is THE posthumous child of his father." Matteopa, nich mi ports loss, bear the sense of a parent lost?
2 Cor. 1. 20. We give the Dr.'s note on this passage, partly, as an instance of the improved sense of a passage, by attention to the articles and partly to justify our friendly censure of this worthy writer, (which some have deemed harsh) for not having given us English versions often enough,
Verse 20. öraι yàp stavyeniai Os, iv αὐτῷ τὸ ναί καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ τὸ ἁμήν The authors of our Eng. Version, from not attending to the articles, have here, I think, obscured the perspicuity of the original: they have rendered for all the promises of God, in him are Yea and in him' Amen : and the other English translators, Macknight, Wakefield, and Newcome, have taken the words in the same order. I would render" for how many so ever be the promises of God, in him (Christ) is the Yea and in him the Amen;" meaning, whatever God hath promised, he will through Christ assuredly fulfil, vaì
We cannot with convenience prolong these remarks. Our readers will perceive that we consider the importance of the Dr.'s labours as justifying an attention which we cannot pay to every work. We have been highly gratified with the tenor of the volume; and in many instances have admired the steady acumen of the writer. Much, however, is stil wanting, before this department of criticism can be esteemed as complete: and much more before those English expressions shall have been suggested or selected, which, in the opinion of competent judges, will approach the nearest to atair and adequate representation of the original.
Those also, who have noticed the different import of words, in distant parts of the same country, or the acceptation of a term, in one town or district, in a sense peculiar to that place, will discern
additional branch of investigation. We would not willingly say. that good Greek, at Athens, was not good at Corinth, at Ephesus, or at Rome: yet we know, for certain, that good English in London, is not always so esteemed in Edinburgh, or in Dublin.
A History of the Island of St. Helena, from its Discovery by the Portuguese, to the Year 1806; to which is added an Appendix. Dedicated, by Permission, to the Honourable the Court of Directors for Affairs of the United English East-India Company. By T. H. Brooke, Secretary to the Government of St. Helena. Price 8s. pp. 409. Black, Parry, and Kingsbury, London, 1808.
are no less striking; and we peruse with infinite satisfaction, the account of regulations established by a Governor Roberts, or the steady policy pursued in later times, by a Brooke, or a Patton.
The observation is trite, that the corruption of the best things is the worst of corruption. The instances of depravity, in the character of the chaplains to this island, narrated by our author, while they contribute to account for the perturb ed condition of the people, are admonitory instances in proof of the importance attached to the sacred character, and of the consequence connected with preserving it pure and respectable.
Such are the inferences of the moralist:
those of the politician are anticipated by our author, when he reasons on the propriety of retaining the island of St. Helena, even if the Cape of Good Hope should remain under the dominion of this well worth while to prevent our enemies country. There can be no doubt that it is from establishing themselves in a post, which commands the track of our most valuable vessels, and would afford them an opportunity of committing depreda tions, to an amount not easily estimated.
1s not an island, in the midst of the ocean, a State complete in itself, secure from the intrusions of ambitious neighbours, unaffected by their jealousies, and beyond the reach of their enmities? In such a situation, if any where, we might expect to find the Utopian scheme of Sir Thomas More established in perfection. We might suppose, that here the milder virtues of humanity, if they be really the more powerful ingredients in the composition of our nature, must have the most favourable opportunity for displaying themselves in full vigour, and manifesting that predominating influence, which some have attributed to them. The island of St. Helena, distant 400 leagues from the Of late, commercial enterprize, also, nearest land; possessing a salubrious at- has acquired an interest in this island; mosphere, hill and dale in pleasing vanot that its products are of much conseriety, capable of affording whatever is necessary to the support of life, most of quence in speculation, but that its conthose fruits that are the luxuries of tropi-pecially to our South Sea Whalers, has venience, as a port of refreshment, escal climates,-this island, surely must be a Paradise! Alas! there is still a something deficient; its inhabitants are mere mortals; and the infirmities and imperfections of the mortal race, counteract all the delights, and embitter all the enjoyments presented by the hand of Nature. Moral qualities are of greater consequence to the comfort and happiness of our species, than all the bounties which entertain the senses, than the most voluptuous assemblage intended to gratify the capricious desires and imagi
nary wants of man.
Such is the moral which clearly
results from the contents of the volume before us. Misconduct of the officers, misbehaviour of the settlers, mutinies among the garrison; discontents, murmiurings, and sufferings, compose the greater part of the early history of this esfablishment. Nevertheless, the benefits attending the benevolent wisdom of an individual when vested with authority,
been sensibly felt, and may possibly prove, under certain circumstances, to be of very great importance.
We receive, therefore, Mr. Brooke's History with pleasure; especially as, from this gentleman's official situation, we are induced to attribute the highest authority to his communications. Nevertheless, we think his volume defective by the absence of a map of the island; and had his readers would have accepted it as a he added a view of the principal town, gratification.
The island of St. Helena (says our author) is situated in 15° 55′ south latitude, and 5o 49' west longitude from Greenwich. It lies within the limit of the south-east trade wind, and is distant 400 leagues from the coast of Africa, the nearest continent. The extreme length of the island is 10% miles, its breadth 6, its circumference about 28 miles, and its surface, in acres, 30,300.
The island, when observed at sea, presents to the eye the appearance of an abrupt and rugged rock,, divested of tree, shrub, or herbage. A nearer approach brings in view the central cininences, distinguished by a softer outline, clothed with verdure, and towering to the clouds. Advancing still nearer, the scene again changes, and the green summits are shut from sight by the intervening craggy and stupendous cliffs, that seem to overhang the sea. Their great elevation excites in the mind of a stranger an idea of being too near the land; whilst the seaman, acquainted with the coast, proceeds safely to the anchorage which may be within a cable's length of the shore and in his progress, the exterior aspect of the island, and the disposition of its batteries and military works, impress an opinion of defensive strength. On rounding Munden's Point the eye is suddenly relieved by a view of the town, seated in a narrow valley between two lofty mountains; and the interspersion of trees among the white houses, has an effect picturesque and pleasing in a high degree. This valley, known by the name of James's Valley, is on the N. W. and Jeeward side of the island, in which situation there is good anchorage from 8 to 25 fathoms; and fresh water is conveyed in leaden pipes to the wharf, from a spring at two miles distance, which affords a plentiful supply.
In James's Town, the thermometer, in the shade, seldom rises above 80 degrees; but the reflected heat from the sides of the valley, when there is little wind, and the sky is clear, resembles that of India. In the country the temperature is much more moderate and uniform.
Thunder, lightning, or storms, rarely disturb the serenity of this mild atmosphere, in which so small a portion of electric fluid is supposed to exist, that it was imagined a machine for collecting it would be useless: but experiment has exposed the error of this supposition.
From these causes the luxuriance of vegetation increases in proportion to distance and height from the sea; and upon the very. summits of the interior bills oxen are to be seen up to their knees in grass; and the process of digestion being forwarded by the repose which the animal enjoys from the general diffusion of springs in those situations, the upper lands are, on every account, regarded as the prime pastures of the island.
Fruits, particularly vines, figs, oranges, and lemons, ripen best in the vallies near the sea; which are also well adapted to the growth of plantains and bananoes; all these fruits requiring a great degree of heat, and
the enriched soil and shelter of the vallies.
Cherries have been
From a garden more interior, but finely watered and sheltered, of no greater extent than three acres of ground, 24,000 dozen apples, of a large size, were gathered in one season, besides peaches, guavas, grapes, and figs, in abundance. tried, but without success. Gooseberry and currant bushes turn to evergreens, and do not bear fruit. The island, however, is not to be considered as possessing a general fertility. The greater part of it is a barren, reluctant waste.
By the registered returns of the year 1805, the population of the island is stated at 504 329 were free; making a total of 2064, exwhite inhabitants, 1560 blacks, of whom clusive of the garrison and civil establishment of the company. Five thousand one hun dred and eight acres are in the hands of individuals, besides goat-ranges, which are the outskirts of the island, affording the chief supply of fresh meat both to the inhabitants and the hospital.
Lands, in general, are supposed to yield a nett profit of between 7 and 8 per cent. The price of labour is high; a carpenter can not be hired under six or seven shillings a day. A mason's wages vary from four to five shillings; and those of a labourer from two shillings to half-a-crown, or to a black man, engaged by the year, from ten to twenty pounds. In this case clothing is likewise to be provided, as well as maintenance, and medical attendance in the event of sickness.
The clouds, floating at a certain height in the atmosphere, yield humidity to the higher parts of the island without discharging any moisture of the low lauds; where, after a long continuance of drought, the roots of grass, &c. perish. The earth, in conse- The anchorage in the road is safe and shelquence, loses its adhesion, and when a tered; and though the vessels riding there heavy fall of rain occurs, it is washed from sometimes drive to sea, this is owing rather the declivities, which are thus divested of to the steep declivity of the bank, than to the means of vegetation, and either deepen the force or impression of the wind. The into gullies, or stand in the form of pro- surf is occasionally high and dangerous; but hinences, where the texture is sufficiently the ocean beyond it is never ruffled by those hard to resist the effects of the rain; which hurricanes which in other climates occasion seems to be the natural history of all the so much distress. The approach from the barren ridges that in fantastic figures termi-south-east is smooth and commodious; and nate abruptly at the sea, and form the exterior of the island.
on departing for Europe, the ship glides away before a gentle and a steady breeze.