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Dr. Middleton, on the Greek Article.

[Concluded from page 465.]

WE resume our consideration of several of the incidents discussed by Dr. M. in his Notes on expressions and phrases used in the N. T. That we sometimes differ from him, will not be thought strange, by those acquainted with the subject: but, in general, our remarks will be found to support the Dr.'s leading principles : and occasionally, where he himself had been tempted to submit to circumstances that opposed them.

Lakevi. 12 εν τῇ προσευχῆ τε Θεο There is a difference of opinion among the learned, whether proseucha in this passage, means a place of prayer, or the act of prayer. Dr M prefers the act of prayer: observing, 1 That the proseuche of the Jews were " always situate near "water," which is true; but when the Dr. restricts this to “ some river, or the sea," we doubt the correctness of his restriction. They, were probably, near to running waters, for the purpose of ablution; but a rill in a mountain would answer this purpose. 2. He says: "If an oratory had been meant, it is not likely, that of God would have been added, for << all oratories were of God." This, also, in our opinion, may be doubted; considering that the Gentiles had their proseuch, and that, at this northern extremity of the land of Israel, they had established their customs generally the probability is, that for one Jewish proseucha, out of a town, there would be several Gentile retirements of a like description. This seems to account for the Evangelist's distinguishing addition" of God" i. e. of the true God; and it may be asked, whether, if he had intended prayer only, he would have inserted this addition: since all prayer in the case before us, must be understood as being addressed to the true God, without such explanation. The passages referred to by Dr. M. have not the explanatory words" of God," and we believe no instance of the phrase in that signification can be given, Rom. x. 1. is different.

We have already remarked, on Math. v1. that the phrase "TB mountain," import a mountain well known. This mountain cert.inly was in Galilee; and the next town where we find our Lord is VOL. V. [Lit. Pan. Jan. 1809.]

Capernaum. (vii. 1.) We look therefore to the north west of that town for this mountain, as our Lord's auditory in the adjacent plain, contained people" from "the sea-coast of Tyre and Sidon." Something further attaches to this, if it were the scene of the Transfiguration: a conjecture not opposed by the expres sion of the Evangelist, ix. 29; He "went up into THE mountain to pro "sexcha-ize,"-and while he was pro"seucha-izing," i. e. performing those devotions which he purposed, whether prayer,. or psalmody, or other that were proper for such a place," he was transfigured." On the whole, we do not think Dr. M.'s arguments conclusive in favour of his opinion.

Lukexii. 54. Thν repény. A few MSS. Dr. (among which are A B.-T. Owen (ap Bowyer) approves the omission; has its meaning We read in 1 Kings, xvii. but in this, as in other instances, the article 44. that the appearance of a certain cloud rising out of the sea was regarded as a prog nostic of rain. Now the sea lay westward of Palestine; and, therefore, the cloud, which rose out of the sea, might also be said If, then, we put to rise from the west. these circumstances together, there is good of was a well known phenomenon, which reason to suppose, that the cloud here spoken would naturally and properly be adverted to as has noticed a similar appearance attending Ἡ νεφέλη Mr. Bruce, in his Travels, the inundation of the Nile. Newcome, in his Revision of the Common Version, has adopted this explanation, and yet he translates" a cloud." I cannot help thinking, that a revision would be extremely imperfect, or indeed would be nearly useless, if it were to overlook minute circumstances, such as that before us. It is in niceties of this sort prinCipally, that our English translation admits been questioned; and its style, notwithstandimprovement: its general fidelity has never ing the captious objections of Dr. Symonds, is incomparably superior to any thing, which might be expected from the finical and perverted taste of our own age. It is simple; it is harmonious; it is energetic; and, which is of no smail importance, use has made it familiar, and time has rendered it sacred. Without the least disposition to decry the labours of the writer, to whom I have alluded, I may express the hope, that whenever our version shall be revised by authority, the points last attended to will be those which respect a pretended inelegance of language. A single instance of the suppression of a local custom or popular opinion, which can 2 A

be shewn to have existed among the Jews in the age of the apostles, appears to me to be of infinitely higher importance; because, by concealing from the notice of the reader, circunstances, which are beyond the reach of fabrication, we withhold from him perhaps the strongest evidence of the authenticity of the Scriptures, and consequently of the credibility of our religion,

In these sentiments we heartily acquiesce; and have therefore preferred attention to localities, to mere verbal criticism, in the present article. Dr. M. might have found an observation in Harmer on the subject of this cloud. His opinion is well founded.

rather than, as a name derived from his father.-We suspect that he was of the party of Judas Gaulonites, who under pretence of maintaining the liberty of the Jewish nation, as the chosen people of God, forbad the payment of tribute to the Romans: and that, this name was given him by his followers as a title of honour. That he had aspired to temporal greatness and popularity, is certain. He was therefore, for the purpose of manifesting the prevailing temper and disposition of the people by the preference they should declare of one of the crimi nals, a fit candidate for their voices, in xix. 2. We do not investigate the ques-kingdom was not of this world. opposition to Jesus of Nazareth, whose tion on the nature of the office held by Zaccheus yet we believe our Excise might furnish illustrations of it: there being several ranks of officers, superior to that which calculates the duty, as supervisors, &c. and several receivers for districts, before the duty reaches the receiver-general. We should probably place Zaccheus as receiver of a district; he must have acquired wealth by his office. But, our chief reason for distinguishing Dr. M.'s note is, to confirm his notion on the omission of the article, in Acts, xxiii. 5. It would be good English to


affirm: "I knew not that he was
Mayor," that office changing hands
every year: therefore-as St. Paul was
but recently arrived in Jerusalem ;-as
the high-priesthood was at this time al-
most annual;-as Ananias wore no dis-
tinguishing insignia, (being, perhaps,
only high priest elect) there is no impro-
bability that St. Paul was really uninform-
ed of his dignity. One of the most in-
teresting articles in Michaelis, is that in
which he accounts for this ignorance of
the apostle's.

xxiii. 18. Tov Bapaßßäv. We have been accustomed to infer from the testimony of Origen and others, such as some MSS, the Armenian, and Syriac versions, that Barrabbas was certainly called Jesus. For there appears to be much greater apparent reason why this name should be taken from this robber in many MSS than why it should be added in one MS. But, we wish it were considered on what grounds this title was given to this person; and whether it may not be understood as importing THE Son of Greatness," or of Strength,

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This idea, if admissible, gives the rea son for the article here. How far Bar

rabbas may correspond to Azazel, as importing extraordinary strength; and how far the two goats (in the institution of the scape-goat) might be assimilated, to the two Jesus's, one of whom was drawn

for Jehovah," to be sacrificed; the other was let go at large, we leave to the meditation of those who delight in types.

in which he insists that "a Son of Man," John v. 27. Dr. M. has a long note, is synonimous with "THE Son of Man.” We beg leave to observe, that it would be undoubtedly correct, to say "the Father

hath given him (the Son) authority to.. "execute judgment, because he (the Son) "is a partaker of human nature; "-pure spirit not being properly adapted to flesh, since it cannot be understood by passing judgment on mortals clad in such persons; it can neither be visible whereas a Son of Man" like thems to them, nor audible by them, &c.— selves, in union with Divine Wisdom, may judge them, without any such in congruity. This sense, seems to suit the passage and is distinct from that against. which the Dr. has directed his arguments.

Verse 35. ὁ λυχνος ο. καιόμενος, σε Α burning and shining light"-may be objectionable: would there be any impropriety in rendering "THE light! THE ardent!"-expressing by two titles, both light and heat in this prophet, John the Baptist, and his discourses.

xx. 28. Not only does the remark of the Evangelist that Thomas spoke to Christ the words "my Lord, and my God," militate against the notion of their being an ejaculation addressed to heaven,

but the intervening and, also opposes that hypothesis. In ejaculation no copulatives are added: my Lord! my God!" is the natural language on such occasions. "My Lord, AND my God," has much more the air of being the result of conviction or consideration.

Acts ii 36. πας οίκος Ισραήλ. If we take these words, as they ought correctly to be taken, they require no article: "all Israel's descendants."-Would not the article after was have attached the notion of a dwelling house to eixos + xii. 15. ὁ ἄγγελος αὐτῇ ἐσιν. ❝ it is "his angel."-We apprehend there would be no impropriety in taking the word angel in several places of the N. T. for the separate human spirit; and we should quote this passage in support of that idea. Dr. M.'s reading composed from those of MSS. is very expressive of astonishment and exclamation: his "separate spirit it is! his! "-the speakers concluding that Peter had been executed in prison.

xvi. 6. & T 'Aoia. Mr. Wakefield ἐν τῇ Ασια. translates"in that part of Asia," and thinks that in the N. T. Asia Minor is ineant, whenever the article accompanies the name. How the article can affect the meaning, I am not able to conjecture. The fact, how ever, is, as Schleusner remarks, that in the N. T. Asia always signifies either Asia Minor, or else only the part of it adjacent to Ephesus, and of which Ephesus was the capital.

The countries with which we find Asia associated in some passages, induce us to withhold our assent from the opinion of Schleusner. It is ranged, Acts ii. 9. with Cappadocia and Pontus, provinces very distant from Ephesus; and 1 Peter i. 1. with Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, and Bythinia: it cannot in either of these places import the whole of Asia Minor, since it appears to be a district, like those associated with it: yet it cannot be taken for the province of which Ephesus was the capital, since that was on the extremity westward: whereas Cappadocia, &c. were on the extremity eastward; and several provinces intervened. The Asia of this passage is also connected with Galatia, and Bythmia: we infer, therefore, that the article has an especial meaning here and marks a peculiar district.

xvii. 23. àvvwSE. To the "unknown God." Dr. M.'s long note on this passage evinces an embarrassment on his mind, that we should not be surprised to see taken advantage of by those who will dislike the general reasoning of his volume.

To set this matter in its true light, we may consider, that God, as the Great Operator throughout nature, is, at the same time, in a sense, well known, and in another sense unknown. "The heavens declare the glory of God," the productions of his power on the earth demonstrate his existence, his greatness, goodness, wisdom, &c. so that any man may know God, by attention to his works: yet no rations are profound secrets, and even man can know God thoroughly: his opeappointed to produce effects which we the most interesting principles that he has cal nature, are absolutely unknown to the most profound philosophers of this enlightened age itself.

Let us exemplify our meaning by anoken as Nature, the Mother of all things. ther thought The Goddess Isis was tain all her operations; she was only one goddess, yet all gods and goddesses in one; and we have an inscription which includes this apparently contradictory character:




"To thee Goddess Isis, who art ONE, "thou also art ALL."-But the inscrip tion on the temple of Isis at Sais, as reported by Plutarch, is still more to our purpose: "I AM ALL THAT WAS, THAT

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IS, AND THAT SHALL BE NO MORTAL HAS EVER LIFTED UP MY VEIL." Could the worshippers of Isis in this temple acknowledge entire ignorance of their Goddess? that was impossible yet they considered her as unknown; for such is the import of the expression" her "veil never having been lifted up.".

Could an altar have been inscribed to AN unknown Goddess, Isis?”—since the very mention of her name proves she. was known, and so far known, as to require the article," to THE unknown God

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dess, Isis. "But, if any person, in any country wholly absorbed in idolatry, and where, as the satirist says, it was much

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Disposer of them: yet Unknown, since men have sought Him, though uncertain of finding Him, notwithstanding his Omnipresence: q.d. God is every-where always." Amid this uncertainty of finding God, no wonder men have erred, and represented the Godhead in the human form :-but the time during which God remained thus unknown is now over; and he commands repentance and reformation, because he hath appointed a judgment, by a partaker of human nature, yet a divine person, who, even, has triumphed over death itself, as a proof of his ap

easier to find a God than a man, were
minded to erect an altar to the Supreme
Spirit, who operated throughout nature,
this Supreme, being distinguished by no
appellation, by what means should he ac-
complish his intention? If he inscribed
his implement of worship, to THE un-
"known God," this phrase we say (on
the principles supported by Dr. M.) in-
cludes an allusion to something of which
the readers, his countrymen, have had
some information: and had this altar been
erected by Epimenides the philosopher,
on occasion of a pestilence, as has been
supposed, it must have thus been dis-pointment.
tinguished to THE unknown God,"
subintelligitur, who sent such an afflic-
tion-on such an occasion, &c. The
article would have fixed an allusion to that
circumstance. Whereas, were no allusion
to any specific event designed, nor to any
particular (idol) deity, but to the Su-
preme generally; to no God known by
his countrymen under any appellation,
any distinctive title, or epithet, derived
from time, place, office, or supposed pecu-
liar attribute; in short, to a deity of whose
nature and perfections, they had no
adequate or even tolerable conception :
the writer could not have accomplish-
ed his purpose better than by the pre-
sent inscription, as it stands in the Greek.

Is it too much to infer, that this was a public inscription, from the following words: "Him, whom YE worship as UNKNOWN, Him declare I unto you?" Moreover, that this altar was not hid

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These sentiments are evi

dently grounded on the inscription, and they accord perfectly with the apostle's professed intention of "declaring to


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them, BIM whom they worshipped as "unknown" On the whole, we see no reason for acceding to Dr. M.'s opinion, that" if the altar noticed by St. Panl "had been dedicated to the One True, though unknown God, the inscription would have been either TN. 'AFΝΩΣΤΩ, ΘΕΩΙ, οι ΘΕΩΙ ̓ΑΓ. "NOETO." The Dr. adds, “since "it is neither of these, I accede to Mr. "Wakefield's translation" to an un "known God."

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1. Cor. xi. 8.-12. Dr. M. would have

understood this passage more clearly, had he rendered amp (a man,) the male ser, and the yuvaina (the woman) the female sex.

In desperate cases a conjecture apparent den, or concealed, may fairly be inferredly beside the mark may be tolerated: is it impossible that xola, if comfrom the expressions of Lucian in the Philopatris, that it was customary to pounded of and gơi, might import swear by the unknown God, at Athens. formless, shapeless, depriving the person If we might advance a step farther, and who wore it, of all resemblance to the husuppose that in the court of the Arcopa- man figure? If so, it very aptly describes gus, which St. Paul was now addressing, the wrappers, mufflers, or long envelopes, oaths were, or had been administered, in worn by the eastern women whenever the name of the "unknown God," the they quit their own houses. It dis propriety of the subject of address cho- guises the wearer so effectually, that to sen by St. Paul would appear with un un-recognise her is impossible; even ber

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husband may pass her in perfect ignorance that she is his wife: and, in short, it banishes all idea of human proportion or comeliness. This might be a Corinthian term for this most unwieldy garment: and might express this species of veil, then in use; as it is at present. But this is no more than a guess in the dark.

κν. 8. τῷ ἐκτρῷ ματι. A cand born out of due time. Eng. Vers. Dr. M.

and aur being strong and well known. asseverations of the truth.

James 1. 11. The sun arisen with aburning heat. Dr. M. should have adverted to the history of Jonah and his gourd. We are told expressly, that when the sun did arise, God prepared a vehement east wind,"-the suffocatiny wii, xaúowv. The sum aded his piercing rays, to increase the sufferings of the disappointed prophet.

On the famous text 1 John v. 7. Dr. M states very strong reasons both for and against its authenticity; and concludes by observing, " on the whole, I am led to '

objects with great reason to this rendering since ektroma in the LXX. is used to denote a child dead in the womb, such an one, if it might be said to be born, certainly could not be said to see anything after it was born. We are not, however, wholly satisfied with the Dr.'s notion, that the last offspring of multiparous animals is smaller and weaker than those born before it, as applied in illustration of this term. We wish our author had inquired whether this word might not be used by St. Paul to denote what we commonly call a posthumous child: a child born after his father's death And it may be remarked, that the other apostles were appointed to their office (born, in St. Paul's language) during the life of Christ on earth: whereas St. Paul was so appointed, by Christ after his death. Or, certainly, all the apostles, even including Matthias and Barnabas, learned Dr. and others, to consider the were converted during our Lord's life and hypothesis of two editions, started by our ministry; (and conversion is often expressed by birth) but St. Paul was one, and THE correspondent FIDELIS. [Panorama, Vol. only one, converted by our Lord in per-author on the grammatical concatenation of II. pp. 205, 531.] The remarks of our son after his decease: he was, therefore, the passage, are exactly such as might be whether this word express it or not, a posthumous birth, and being the only one, of revision by the original author. expected from an insertion in consequence might allude to this circumstance by using the article. Moreover, when the hus

suspect, that though so much labour "and critical acuteness have been bes"towed on these celebrated verses, more "is yet to be done, before the mystery

wholly developed."

in which they are involved can be We invite the

We cannot with convenience prolong band dies during the pregnancy of his these remarks. Our readers will perceive wife, it is evident that the child born that we consider the importance of the after his death, is THE posthumous child Dr.'s labours as justifying an attention of his faner. Max towμa, nich m which we cannot pay to every work. We ports loss, bear the sense of a parent lost? have been highly gratified with the tenor of the volume; and in many instances 2 Cor. 1. 20. We give the Dr.'s note have admired the steady acumen of the on this passage, partly, as an instance of writer. Much, however, is stil wanting, the improved sense of a passage, by at- before this department of criticism can tention to the articles: and partly to jus-be esteemed as complete: and much more tify our friendly censure of this worthy writer, (which some have deemed harsh) for not having given us English versions often enough,

Verse 20. oras yàp έtayyeríaı Oeš, v αὐτῷ τὸ ναί καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ τὸ ἁμήν. The authors of our Eng. Version, from not attending to the articles, have here, I think, obscured the perspicuity of the original: they have rendered for all the promises of God, in hin are Yea and in him Amen :" and the other English translators, Macknight, Wakefield, and Newcome, have taken the words in the same order. I would render for how many so ever be the promises of God, in him (Christ) is the Yea and in him the Amen;" meaning, whatever God hath promised, he will through Christ assuredly fulfil, val

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before those English expressions shall have been suggested o: selected, which, in the opinion of competent judges, will approach the nearest to a fair and adequate representation of the original.

Those also, who have noticed the dif ferent import of words, in distant parts of the same country, or the acceptation of a term, in one town or district, in a sense peculiar to that place, will discern


additional branch of investigation. We would not willingly say, that good Greek, at Athens, was not good at Corinth, at Ephesus, or at Rome: yet we know, for certain, that good English in London, is not always so esteemed in Edinburgh, or in Dublin,

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