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water they had contained was quite dissipated. Mons. Peysonell supposed sponges to have been formed by certain worms, which inhabited the labyrinthean windings of the sponge; and believed, that whatever life was found in these substances, existed in these worms, and not in the substance of the sponge, which he was convinced, was an inanimate body. This point was, however, determined by Mr. Ellis, who in a letter to Dr. Solander, relates the observations which he had made; by which he ascertained, that these worms, which he found in the sponge in great numbers, were a very small kind of nereis, or sea scolopendra; and that they were not the fabricators of the sponge, but had pierced their way into its soft substance, and made it only their place of retreat and security. Upon examining, in sea water, a variety of the crumb of bread sponge, the tops of which were full of tubular cavities or papillæ, he could plainly observe these little tubes to receive and pass the water to and fro; so that he inferred, that the sponge is an animal sui generis, whose mouths are so many holes or ends of branched tubes, opening on its surface; with these, he supposes, it receives its nourishment, and discharges, like the polypes, its excrements.
Mr. Ellis also discovered, that the texture is very different in different species of sponge : some being composed wholly of interwoven reticulated fibres, whilst others are composed of little masses of straight fibres of different sizes, from the most minute spicule to strong elastic shining spines, like small needles of one-third of an inch long; besides these, he : observes, there is an intermediate sort, between the reticulated and the finer fasciculated kinds, which seem to partake of both
Respecting the inferior termination of the trunk of this animal our knowledge is so exceedingly limited, as not to have furnished us with sufficient materials to have allowed its mention in the preceding character of this animal.
Our readers will readily suppose that a composition comprising so many thou sands of feeble joints, most of them but slightly connected with their supports, of an inch in substantial diameter, must and those supports not above a tenth part needs be liable to fracture and dislocation from causes of daily occurrence, and only moderate activity. What then may we sioned by such a convulsion as the deluge? suppose would be the destruction occa
preserved to give us an insight into their -and that we find any specimen sufficientstructure is much more wonderful, than their rarity. Not more than two or three recent specimens allied in nature to this Zoophyte are known to the curious.
found in the same quarries are very great; The quantities of this kind of animal and the varieties of structure are so considerable as to justify the idea of many different species. The cap encrinites is found throughout a circuit of several miles in extent; and what Mr. P. observes on that subject, is true of many others.
We at present know little more of it than, cerely regret if the author were to muthat the pertrified remains of its vertebral tilate the communication of his senticolumn, either in detached pieces, or agglu-ments, yet we hope to see the ensuing votinated together in masses of limestone or marble, have long been found in quarries of an immense extent in some of the northern
counties of this island.
Mr. Da Costa remarks, that the whole metallic tract of the county of Derby is, as it were, one continued quarry of this marble; most of the strata of limestone are of this kind, it being the cominon stone which is burt for lime. The upper parts of these strata, he observes, are always filled with amazing quantities of these bodies and other marine remains, which seem to have been lodged there by subsidence; and to have formed a crust over the limestone, This crust is generally of a very great thickness, and when they have passed it, they find the limestone to contain fewer marine remains : and at greater depths it even becomes quite pure and free from them. The marble does not always display the forms of these remains with equal fineness and perfection: Rickledale, Monyash, and Breks, he mentions as affording the most beautiful. At present, none perhaps, exceeds that which is obtained in the neighbourhood of Ashford in the Waters. Da Costa remarked, fifty years since, of the Derbyshire marble, that it is degraded by the common name of limestone; and the country people, ignorant of its value only burn it for lime, although for hardness, beauty, and susceptibility of polish, it may vie with the most esteemed foreign marbles.
lumes completed with as little delay, and
Mr. Mawes, in his Instructive Mineralogy of Derbyshire, observes, that the limestone, the whole of which stratum is composed of marine exuviæ, is of various thickness, from four fathoms to more than two hundred; beneath which, separated from the former by a rey stratum of toadstone, it is ascertained that there is another stratum of limestone, beyond which no mine in Derbyshire has penetrated.
Midas; or, a Serious Inquiry concerning Taste and Genius; including a Proposal for the certain Advancement of the Elegant Arts, &c. By Anthony Fisgrave, LL.D. crown 8vo. pp. 224. Price 73. Murray, London 1808.
We certainly have read this volume, and can safely commend the execution of it so far as concerns the paper and print; there are passages in it, too, that we understand, and the tenor of which we approve. But, considered as a whole it is injudicious, for the author gives his readers too much trouble to find out a meaning; and after they have so done, they are not certain that the author's meaning is the same as that which they have discovered. Whether this book may not contain mysterious allusions to certain parts of the conduct of a certain body of artists, on certain occasions, we are at a loss to determine. It may be very severe on Messrs. Pallette, Pencil and Co.; nay, we apprehend that the patrons of art, not excluding the sacred character of Majesty itself, are glanced at in it: but, the author to secure himself from prosecution for a libel, and to puzzle the attor rey-general who would never be able to make out his inuendoes, has also puzzled his readers. Had Dr. Fisgrave taken advice of Justice Shallow, who sagaciously observes, there are but two ways either to reveal a thing, or to conceal it,' it might have proved to his advantage; while the public would have concluded that
We believe that we have communicated to our readers as accurate a notion, though a general one, of the nature and contents of these volumes, as our limits admit. The learning and diligence display ed in them, are truly honourable to their author, For the nature of the subject, and its difficulties, he is not responsible: that he has endeavoured to lessen those difficulties, will be gratefully accepted by succeeding naturalists. We repeat our regret that the expense of the coloured plates annexed, which are truly laudable, with other considerations, should place these dissertations beyond the reach of the major part of students. We should sin
The author had a meaning, and no doubt, The reader had the sense to find it out. But that the author may not suffer under the dulness of our lamp-exhausted faculties, we shall permit him to give an analysis of his book in his own words..
My work, (says Dr. F.) commences with some observations on the opinions maintained by divers learned persons on the continent, that genius being a plant of peculiar delicacy would not thrive on every soil; and consequently art of the best flavour and quality, like good cheese, was the produce only of certain farms or particular districts. To such opinions nevertheless I express my objections; and intimate a firm belief that, under judicious treatment, genius will flourish in every well governed and prosperous state; even in this our native island, in despite of the fogs and philosophers with which foreigners say it is infested.
I next advert to the favourable disposition | which begins to manifest itself for the encouragement of British art, and declare my readiness to become a volunteer in so honourable a service; wherein I am the more eager to engage, from an apprehension that the means resorted to would be found inadequate, The efficacy of these means are then examined; and patronage, on which the chief reliance is commonly placed, is condemned as an engine particularly destructive to fine talents; and after expatiating at some length on the dangerous practice of pampering or cockering hopeful merit with that false kind of fondness, which is pardonable only when applied by elderly maidens to their lap dogs, I have endeavoured to show that honour, approbation, and the different modhications of praise, correctly and judiciously conferred, is the true pabulum of genius: its natural and congenial aliment.
to say, that the judges' would be rejudged by their compatriots, be their verdict what it might.
As to the old story of the contention of Apollo and Pan, before Midas, we have seen it better applied, and, as we think, more pleasingly told. Nevertheless, we would not choose to listen to the prattling of the reeds entrusted with our Author's secret, or to repeat after them their monotonous declaration', "Midas, Midas, hus asses' ears."
Juvenile Dramas, in three Volumes, by the Author of Summer Rambles, &c. Price 14s. Longman and Co. London, 1808. ́
We have no objection to the dramatic form of writing. Dialogue when well conducted has beauties proper to itself. It has also energies; and these may be so directed as to render no inconsiderable service to virtue. The author of these dramas has well understood this advantage. Each of them is calculated to correct some vicious inclination of the youthful mind: the lessons they read are to the purpose, the plots are simple, and the terminations of most of them are sufficiently striking, as well as pleasing. We may even acknowledge that we have derived less gratification from many more laboured dramas intended for men, than from But however wholesome this food, the these intended for juvenile readers. 'Persalutary effect thereof altogether depends on haps the good young folks are a little too the manner in which it is administered. It good, for every-day life, at least ; but this is not patronage, nor honours, nor praise,fault is no disparagement. The author that we are in need of: British genius, like the courage of its heroes, requires no stimu-may have seen more young ladies and genlants, it demands only to be wisely directed tlemen brought up to the enjoyment and to do whatever is possible for man to perform. distinction of carriages and servants, whose I am hence led to consider who are the per-personal services to the indigent have been sops qualified to take the direction of art in exemplary, than we have. Such instances so critical a situation; and happily I here find should be commemorated if real, and if no difficulties: nature having made an ex- too rare, they should so much the rather press arrangement for this purpose. But be held up as objects of emulation.⚫ being convinced that a matter of such consequence should be conducted with all possible decorum and dignity, i deem this to be the proper moment to introduce my proposal for a high and imperial Court of Connoisseurship, or grand national establishment, for the propagation, dissemination, and preservation of good taste; and consequently the improveinent of art: an expedient fully proportioned to the great occasion; natural, efficacious, and practicable.
The first drama is a lesson against thoughtlessness in the laying out of money: the second is against the vanity of attending to fashionable appearance; the third is against dilatoriness and dissipation of time; the fourth is against duplicity, and fibbing; the fifth against peevish discontent and jealousy; the sixth against pride and assumption of merit; the seventh against the affectation of endeavouring to On this proposal we give no opinion: serve every body, thereby serving nobody; the British public is little accustomed to the eighth against attaching too much imrenerate without examination the deci-portance to wealth and state; the ninth sions of such institutions; and we venture against envy and disobedience.
Dr. Middleton, on the Greek Article.
[Concluded from page 465.]
WE resume our consideration of several of the incidents discussed by Dr. M. in his Notes on expressions and phrases used in the N. T. That we sometimes differ from him, will not be thought strange, by those acquainted with the subject: but, in general, our remarks will be found to support the Dr.'s leading principles: and occasionally, where he himself had been tempted to submit to circumstances that opposed them.
i, tum e vi. 12 εν τη προσευχῆ τε Θε There is a difference of opinion among the learned, whether proscucha in this passage, means a place of prayer, or the act of prayer. Dr M prefers the act of prayer: observing, 1 That the proseuche of the Jews were always situate near "water," which is true; but when the Dr. restricts this to "some river, or the sea," we doubt the correctness of his restriction. They, were probably, near to running waters, for the purpose of ablution; but a rill in a mountain would answer this purpose. 2. He says: "If an oratory "had been meant, it is not likely, that "of God would have been added, for << all oratories were of God." This, also, in our opinion, may be doubted; censidering that the Gentiles had their proseuch, and that, at this northern extremity of the land of Israel, they had established their customs generally: the probability is, that for one Jewish proseucha, out of a town, there would be several Gentile retirements of a like description. This seems to account for the Evangelist's distinguishing addition" of God:" i. e. of the true God; and it may be asked, whether, if he had intended prayer only, he would have inserted this addition: since ali prayer in the case before us, must be understood as being addressed to the true God, without such explanation. The passages referred to by Dr. M. have not the explanatory words " of God," and we believe no instance of the phrase in that signification can be given, Rom. x. 1. is different.
We have already remarked, on Math. v 1. that the phrase "TE mountain," import a mountain well known. This mountain cert.inly was in Galilee; and the next town where we find our Lord is
VOL. V. [Lit. Pan. Jan. 1809.]
Capernaum. (vii. 1.) We look therefore
Lukexii. 54. The vepέany. A few MSS.
I cannot help thinking, that a revision would be extremely imperfect, or indeed would be nearly useless, if it were to overlook minute circumstances, such as that before us. It is in niceties of this sort principally, that our English translation admits improvement: its general fidelity has never been questioned; and its style, notwithstanding the captious objections of Dr. Symonds, is incomparably superior to any thing, which might be expected from the finical and perverted taste of our own age. It is simple; it is harmonious; it is energetic; and, which is of no smail importance, use has made it familiar, and time has rendered it sacred. Without the least disposition to decry the labours of the writer, to whom I have alluded, I
may express the hope, that whenever our version shall be revised by authority, the points last attended to will be those which respect a pretended inelegance of language. A single instance of the suppression of a local custom or popular opinion, which can
be shewn to have existed among the Jews in the age of the apostles, appears to me to be of infinitely higher importance; because, by concealing from the notice of the reader, circunstances, which are beyond the reach of fabrication, we withhold from him perhaps the strongest evidence of the authenticity of the Scriptures, and consequently of the credibility of our religion,
rather than as a name derived from his father.-We suspect that he was of the party of Judas Gaulonites, who under pretence of maintaining the liberty of the Jewish nation, as the chosen people of God, forbad the payment of tribute to the Romans: and that, this name was given him by his followers as a title of honour. That he had aspired to temporal greatness and popularity, is certain. He was therefore, for the purpose of manifesting the prevailing temper and disposition of the people by the preference they should declare of one of the crimi nals, a fit candidate for their voices, in opposition to Jesus of Nazareth, whose ques-kingdom was not of this world.
In these sentiments we heartily acquiesce; and have therefore preferred attention to localities, to mere verbal critiDr. M. cism, in the present article. might have found an observation in Harmer on the subject of this cloud. His opinion is well founded.
xix. 2. We do not investigate the tion on the nature of the office held by Zaccheus yet we believe our Excise might furnish illustrations of it: there being several ranks of officers, superior to that which calculates the duty, as supervisors, &c. and several receivers for districts, before the duty reaches the receiver-general. We should probably place Zaccheus as receiver of a district; he must have acquired wealth by his office. But, our chief reason for distinguishing Dr. M.'s note is, to confirm his notion on the omission of the article, in Acts, xxiii. 5. It would be good English to
"Lord affirm: "I knew not that he was Mayor," that office changing hands every year therefore-as St. Paul was but recently arrived in Jerusalem ;—as the high-priesthood was at this time almost annual;-as Ananias wore no distinguishing insignia, (being, perhaps, only high priest elect) there is no improbability that St. Paul was really uninformed of his dignity. One of the most interesting articles in Michaelis, is that in which he accounts for this ignorance of the apostle's.
xxiii. 18. Tov Bapaßßäv. We have been accustomed to infer from the testimony of Origen and others, such as some MSS, the Armenian, and Syriac versions, that Barrabbas was certainly called Jesus. For there appears to be much greater apparent reason why this name should be taken from this robber in many MSS. than why it should be added in one MS. But, we wish it were considered on what grounds this title was given to this person; and whether it may not be understood as importing "THE Son of Greatness," or of Strength,
This idea, if admissible, gives the rea-, son for the article here. How far Bar
rabbas may correspond to Azazel, as importing extraordinary strength; and how far the two goats (in the institution of the scape-goat) might be assimilated to the two Jesus's, one of whom was drawn "for Jehovah," to be sacrificed; the other was let go at large, we leave to the meditation of those who delight in types.
John v. 27. Dr. M. has a long note, in which he insists that "a Son of Man," is synonimous with "THE Son of Man." We beg leave to observe, that it would be undoubtedly correct, to say " the Father "hath given him (the Son) authority to. "execute judgment, because he (the Son) "is a partaker of human nature; "-pure spirit not being properly adapted to passing judgment on mortals clad in flesh, since it cannot be understood by such persons; it can neither be visible to them, nor audible by them, &c.— whereas a Son of Man" like them
selves, in union with Divine Wisdom, may judge them, without any such incongruity. This sense, seems to suit the passage and is distinct from that against which the Dr. has directed his arguments.
Verse 35. ὁ λυχνος ό καιόμενος. “ Α burning and shining light"-may be objectionable: would there be any im. propriety in rendering "THE light! THE ardent!"-expressing by two titles, both light and heat in this prophet, John the Baptist, and his discourses.
xx. 28. Not only does the remark of the Evangelis that Thomas spoke to Christ the words "my Lord, and my God," militate against the notion of their being an ejaculation addressed to heaven,