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Wechel, the father and the son, both natives | He remarks, that, about three years before, of Paris. The Hebrew and Greek books, he had presented to Mr. Philip Sidney in printed by the former, were admired for their person, a small volume of a Greek manucorrectness, the number of the errata of the script written with his own hand, containing press in a folio book not exceeding two. An- moral maxims and directions for the conduct drew Wechel, the son, was at Paris in 1572, of life: "That work," says he, "comprised on that day of blood, which will for ever dis- the lessons of worldly prudence this which grace the French calendar; and owed his I now offer to your acceptance, comprehends safety to Hubert Languet, who lodged in his the lessons of heavenly wisdom. The one house. He afterward removed to Frankfort, regarded only the condition of man in his where by his integrity, his learning and pro- present frail scene of existence; the other fessional skill, he acquired great reputation. opens a prospect to immortality and bliss in a It was usual for scholars to lodge in the future state. I had then the pleasure of conhouses of eminent printers. Robert Stephens versing with you. Now you are in a remote had frequently ten learned men in his house, country: between us, all of them foreigners, whose occasional employment it was to correct his impressions. Hubert Languet, while he resided at Antwerp, was the guest of Christopher Plantinus.
Dr. Zouch says that,
Learned foreigners were ambitious to recommend their writings to the favour of Sir Philip Sidney. It would be scarcely possible to enumerate all those eminent persons, who composed this bright assemblage of scholars. The names of those few, who are here selected, are known to every lover of science. And it redounds not a little to the honour of this country, that a private English gentleman, whose life did not much exceed the period of thirty years, should be celebrated throughout all Europe, as the general patron of letters.
We cannot resist the temptation of giving our readers a passage relating to Henry Stephens.
On the revival of literature, when science, driven from Constantinople, took refuge in the courts of Europe, the typographic art was cultivated with the most laudable and unremitting assiduity. Robert Stephens and Henry Stephens his son, arrived at an uncommon proficiency in it. From their press issued elegant and correct editions of the most valuable writings of antiquity. Indeed no thing can surpass the neatness and beauty of their Hebrew, Greek, and Roman characters. The Latin Thesaurus of the father, and the Greek Thesaurus of the son, volumes more to be valued than the treasures of kings, have eternized their names.
Henry Stephens edited the new Testament in Greek, printed at his own press in 1576.
When the university of Cambridge visited queen Elizabeth, at Audley End, no present could be more grateful to her, tban that which she received from them a new Testament in Greek of Robert Stephens, his first printing, in folio, "bound in redde velvet, and limped with gold, the armes of England sett upon each side of the book." Nichol's Progresses, Sc.
-obstacles are numerous interpos'd,
Vale-dark'ning mountains, and the dashing sea." He first saw him at Heidelburg, again at Strasburg, and a long time after at Vienna, In all these places his affection for him continually increased. The more he knew him, and the oftener he conversed with him, the more ardently and cordially did he esteem and love him. This," he remarks," was not extraordinary. Your accomplishments seemed to improve every day. May they continue to do so, until you attain such a degree of worth, as to augment the glory of your native country!*"
He has observed in this addition that divi
sion of each chapter into verses, which had been begun and completed by his father with no very great degree of attention, or rather in a most careless and desultory manner, as he was travelling on horse-back from Paris to Lyons.t
The text is printed with accuracy and neatness; and the several references on the margin, with the Latin interpretation of obscure words and phrases, greatly enhance its value. The preface, containing a dissertation on the style of the sacred writings, is composed with singular modesty, and discovers no small share of classic erudition and critical discernment. It is remarkable that the types used in the impression of this book exhibit an exact resemblance of the Greek hand-writing of the editor. In 1581 Henry Stephens printed the
"Nec mirum sane meum illum in te amorem ita crevisse, quum tuæ, quæ eum excitaverunt, ingenii dotes non parutn crevisse videruntur. Atque utinam crescere non desinant, donec talis tantusque evaseris, ut tuæ etiam Angliæ celebritas incrementum a te accipiat."
+ Lutetia Lugdunum petens hanc, de quâ agitur, capitis cujusque catacopen confecit, et quidem magnam ejus inter equitandum partem."-Henricus Stephanus de patre
Henry Stephens was persecuted with relentless rage by the enemies of the reformed 2 P 4
eight books of Herodian, with the elegant Latin version of Angelus Pol tianus. To them were added two books of the historian
Zozimus. the Greek text of which was then printed for the first time. This volume he inscribed to Mr. Sidney, his address to him beginning with these lines:
"Quid Sidneus agit! monitus multumque, monendus.
Ut partas tueatur opes, et perdere vitet
He seems to have entertained the same fears which formerly alarmed Languet, lest the amusements and avocations of the English court should alienate him from study, and withdraw him from those literary pursuits, which once engaged his whole time.
We regret exceedingly that our limits will not allow us to give any more speci. mens of this most instructive, entertaining, and interesting work. We had noted many passages for quotation, but we have pot room for them. We omit all that relates to the Arcadia, &c. and we refer to the Memoirs for the account of his wound, bis grievous sufferings, and his lamented death." He died," saith one of his dearest friends, "not languishing in idleness, riot, and excess, not as overcome with nice pleasures and fond vanities; but of manly wounds received in the service of his prince, in defence of persons oppressed, in maintenance of the only true catholic and christian religion, among the noble, valiant, and wise, in the open field, in martial manner, the honour. ablest death that could be desired, and best beseeming a Christian Knight*, whereby he hath worthily won to himself immortal fame among the godly, and left
religion, on account of his famous apology for Herodotus. The end of this learned and ingenious man was truly deplorable. After many disappointments and most vexatious oppressions, he was reduced to great poverty, and died in an hospital at Paris.
Of the celebrated printers who bore the name of Stephens, there were eleven, besides two females, the sisters of Paul Stephens, who also excelled in the typographic art.
Henrici tres, Roberti totidem, Francisi doo, Carolus, Paulus. et Antonius; Paulique sorores Florentia et Dionysia.-Fabricii Bibliotheca Latina, Vol. iii.
Our galant countryınan (a living hero,) who beat Buonaparte and is myrmidons at St. Jean d'Acre, speaks of himself, in one of his dispatches, as a christian knight; perhaps this passage made an impression on the mind of Sir William Sidney Smith.-Reviewer.
Anecdotes of Painters who have resided or been born in England; with Gritical Remarks on their Productions; by Edward Edwards, deceased, late Teacher of Perspective, and Associate, in the Royal Academy; intended as a Continuation to the Anecdotes of Painting, by the late Horace, Earl of Orford. 4to. Price £1. 1s. pp. 328. T. Payne, London, 1808
THERE are very few persons who trouble themselves to compose memoranda of events which are passing around them. They receive, from time to time, iaformation on a variety of subjects: what they have heard they repeat to their friends or neighbours, and these again, each in his own style and manner relates the story with additions. These additions are so
ed; and whether produced by the different powers of elocution of the narrators, or by the desire of supplying slips of memory, to which all are subject, they give different colourings to the same facts, and diminish correctness, although they sometimes augment interest. Such is the natural course of oral tradition. Whereas, whoever commits his information to writing, secures an account, faithful in proportion to the integrity of those from whom he received it; capable of being revised and improved in point of accuracy, or verified by correction, when opportu nity offers; capable also of being at any time consulted, for the determination of a question, or the satisfaction of the owner. We have often regretted that a life so public as that of the late Alderman Boydell, for instance, should have left no historical trace behind it, from which enquirers in future years should be able to inspect the state of the arts in this kingdom, at the time when that gentleman
admixtures in which truth is debas
of the art, from the period at which Mr. Walpole's "Anecdotes of Painting" terminates. The last volume of that work, was published in 1780, but being written ten years before, can be considered as including no lower than 1770 at the utmost. Since that publication, however, only such notices as have been preserved in the Magazines of the day, have contained any information on the state of the arts, or the decease of artists. The chief merit of Mr. Walpole's work is derived from the papers of George Vertue, the engraver, which Mr. W. purchased from the widow." He was by no means adapted in his own person," says Mr. E.,
began his career; and to accompany
We attempted, some time ago, to discharge as much of this duty, as might be expected from our opportunities; but, we find ourselves called on by the volume before us, to resume the consideration of past events, and to recur, once more, to the stores of observation and memory. It is with pleasure we receive a work written by a witness of the facts he relates. Mr. Edwards was in a situation to acquire the history of many of the parties whom he mentions, from their own conversation; and on such articles as he speedily committed to writing, we believe he may be confided in without, hesitation. There are others, on which he has not made sufficient allowances for the facetious eccentricities of the parties, or the hilarities of the convivial board.
We, nevertheless, commend the inten tion of the work it is not all we wish; but it is almost all we may expect. To what quarter shall we look, for a labour more correct or more complete? What artist now living, or what patron of art, is competent to supply those deficiencies which must be acknowledged in Mr. E.'s volume? There remain but two or three, and we have no reason to believe that they, if they have the materials and the power, have the disposition.
This volume opens with an account of the life of Mr. Edwards. The principal facts may be seen in Panorama, Vol. II. p. 627.
The preface informs us that Mr. E.'s intention was, to continue the history
to have acquired the original information, owing to a certain degree of fastidiousness in his manners, united with something of the consequence of rank, which disqualified him from making those familiar enquiries that would have been necessary for the attainment of the requisite knowledge." An Introduction follows the preface; and is itself followed by a chronological list of Painters, (the author intended Architects, Sculptors, &c. for a second volume) beginning with Marcus Tuscher, and Blakey, and ending with Barry.
It cannot be expected that we should enter minutely into the lives of the number of artists comprised in this interval. We must content ourselves with a few extracts either amusing or instructive, and with such observations as present themselves readily to our recollection.
Blakey is properly distinguished, as having had a part in designing the first set of prints, of which the subjects were taken from English history. The attempt did honour to the spirit of the Knaptons, booksellers, who about 1750, contributed greatly to promote a general attention to the arts of decoration. It ought to be known, that they intended also to beneft the art of engraving in their undertaking of the Illustrious Heads." They at first employed Vertue, and other native artists. But so low were the arts, and so rare were capable artists, that scarcely any beside that engraver could be found. He could neither supply the quantity demanded, nor could he labour at the price allowed: the portraits were, therefore, sent over to Houbraken, in Holland, who delivered them at £30 per plate. After a time, a duty of 75 per
cent ad valorem, was added, at the instances of Mr. Vertue. Nevertheless, thus loaded, they passed regularly through the Custom House; the Knaptons having no choice, after their undertaking was in a course of publication.
To return to Blakey, who was, we believe, an Irishman, we may add, that his daughter is still living in London.
Another instance of the low state of the arts, we shall give in Mr. E.'s own words, extracted from the article BROOKing.
The following anecdote is given upon the anthority of the late Mr. D. Serres, to whom he was well known.
Many of the artists of that time, worked for the shops, and Brooking, like the rest, painted much for a person who lived in Castlestreet, Leicester-square, not far from the Mews, who coloured prints, and dealt in pictures, which he exposed at his shop win
A gentleman, who sometimes passed the shop, being struck with the merits of some sea pieces, which were by the hand of this artist, desired to know his name; but his inquiries were not answered agreeably to his wishes; he was only told, that if he pleased they could procure any that he might require from the same painter.
Brooking was accustomed to write his Dame upon his pictures, which mark was as constantly obliterated by the shopkeeper, before he placed them in his window; it how ever happened that the artist carried home a piece, on which his name was inscribed, while the master was not at home; and the wife, who received it, placed it in the window, without effacing the signature. Luck ily the gentleman passed by before this picture was removed, and discovered the name of the painter whose works he so justly admired. He immediately advertised for the artist to meet him, at a certain wholesale linen-draper's in the city. To this invitation Brooking at first paid no regard; but seeing it repeated, with assurances of benefit to the person to whom it was addressed, he prudently attended, and had an interview with the gentleman, who from that time became his friend and patron unfortunately the artist did not live long enough to gratify the wishes of his benefactor, or to receive any great benefit from his patronage.
This is but one example of a thousand, of that thraldom in which artists were then held. There was so little intercourse between professors and patrons of art, that painters, whatever might be their merit, were regarded as being the property of the vendor of their works: they received
such prices, as he chose to pay them, and he sold their performances at the highest rate he could obtain. This was the natural consequence, in fact, of the system then prevailing, of decorating apartments with copies of pictures. It signified nothing to the purchaser, who were the authors of the multitude of copies presented for his choice: he bought for size and subject; not for merit, or for the renown of a master.
It is true, that cielings, and other costly decorations of the like kind, were fashionable, meanwhile, in the houses of the great; but the execution of these was chiefly confided to foreign artists. The time such compositions occupied, and the expences they incurred, prevented them from being useful as a source of emulative employment, or as a school of art to British genius.
Mr. E. pays a proper compliment to the memory of George Lambert, the landscape painter: he might have said more on the merit of his works. We notice him, however, principally, because, on occasion of the late destruction by fire of the theatre in Covent Garden, the loss of the Beaf Steak Club, was particularly mentioned, and some parts of its history were given to the public, but not its origin, which our author thus relates:
In this hasty
Mr. Lambert was for many years principal scene painter to the Theatre at Covent-Gar den. Being a person of great respectability in character and profession, he was often visited, while at work in the Theatre, by persons of the first consideration, both in rank and talents. As it frequently happened that he was too much hurried to leave his engagements for his regular dinner, he contented himself with a beef steak broiled upon the fire in the painting-room. meal he was sometimes joined by his visitors, who were pleased to participate in the humble repast of the artist. The savour of the dish, and the conviviality of the accidental meeting, inspired the party with a resolution to estabish a club, which was accordingly done, under the title of the Beef Steak Club; and the party assembled in the painting-room. The members were afterwards accommodated with a room in the for many years; but after the theatre was last play-house, where the meetings were held rebuilt, the place of assembly was changed to the Shakespeae Tavern, where the Club is still held, and the portrait of Mr. Lambert, painted by Hudson, makes part of the deco
He might have added,
rations of the room in which the party meet. Mr. Lambert was the first President of that Mr. Cotes was the artist, who by the Royal Incorporated Society of Artists occupying all the best places in the exhiof Great Britain. He survived the sig-bition room, gave never-pardoned offence nature of the charter only four days: among his brethren, and contributed to but his name appears in the minute books, the confusions that ensued among the society. as President, long before.
The rudiments of elegant taste appear to be strongly implanted in the female mind: they there find a favourable soil; and shoot with the greatest vigour. We might therefore, wonder that so few female artists rise to eminence; but when we reflect, that domestic engagements are the honour of the sex, and the duties of wife and mother leave little interval for that continued attention to a profession which is indispensable to the acquisition of skill, our wonder ceases. Some few single ladies have distinguished themselves by their merit as artists: Mr. E. mentions but one married lady, Mrs. Grace: he gives but a meagre account of her. We shall add a few particulars.
Under the article BAKER we have the following sketch of the versatility of fashion. The influence of fashion, over the conreniences and comforts of life, has in no article been more arbitrary and capricious than in the decorations of the coaches and chariots of our nobility and gentry. Since the days of Queen Elizabeth, those vehicles have been improved to a degree of comfort and elegance, which the greatest admirers of antiquity will not wish to see reduced to their primitive simplicity; but while the improvements have been regular and progressive, their ornamental decorations have been various and changeable. At the commencement of the last century, the pannels of coaches were painted with historical subjects, which were often but little suited to the character or pro
fession of the owners. To this circumstance
Mrs. Grace's maiden name was Hodg- the poet Gay alludes in his little poem of kis: she never enjoyed the advantages Trivia, or the Art of Walking the Streets. of regular tuition; but obtained her After this fashion ceased, the pannels were knowledge in the art of painting, prin-painted simply with the arms and supporters cipally by copying the pictures of good displayed upon a large mantle, but in a few masters, that were in Somerset House, years, the mantle was laid aside, aud a more then one of the royal palaces, where she fanciful shew of flowers, intermixed with ornaments, and sometimes genii, were the had apartments. Her original pictures, attendants of the family honours, and frewere wholly painted from models; and quently a wreath or bunch of various flowers, therefore partake of that want of free- unincumbered with any other representation dom which usually marks too diffident than the arms in the centre. It was in this imitation. Her chief merit was in por- last mode of decoration that Baker was contrait; in which line she had considerable sidered as pre-eminent, particularly by those employment. Mr. E. observes, that she who laboured in the same vocation; and it must be allowed, that his productions had ceased to exhibit in 1769. This was in consequence, not of her own decease, considerable merit, although they were too but of that of her husband. After his much marked by that sharpness of touch, which is peculiar to all those who have been death she retired with her family to Ho-bred coach-painters. merton; where she resided many years, in the enjoyment of a competency, and attained to old age. We quote Mrs. G. as an instance of what may be effected by diligence; and recommend the example to, ladies whose talents mark them as designed for eminence in the arts.
Mr. E. signalizes Francis Cotes, R. A. as one of those artists, to whom the Royal Academy owes its foundation, as he and three other gentlemen were the only persons who signed the petition presented to his majesty to solicit that
From the late failure of this house, Club has removed back to the Theatre.
We believe, nevertheless, that Baker was so sensible of this coach painter defect, that in some of his pictures he has erred on the contrary extreme and to avoid too great neatness in colouring, he even used dirty colours: declaring, at the same time," he did not paint for the million." Nevertheless, in a painter of million." Nevertheless, in a painter of flowers, neatness, precision, and even beauty of tints, are not without merit.
Under the article OLIVIER, a French painter of history, who exhibited at the *The tricking gamester insolently rides, With loves and graces by his chariot sides. Book 1st, verse 58.