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no great reason to boast of the superiority of their wit over those of their forefathers. The witlings of our times would not have 'passed current for wise men in former ages; and who does not wish for the talents possessed by some of their leaders -pro bono publico?

will not believe it, till they have forced us into the conviction of it, by blows.

It was our design to have taken a more general view of the probable means of supply on which Britain might depend for distant productions, than we find convenient at present; but perceiving the course of opinion as expressed by authority, we cannot prevail on ourselves wholly to forego the present opportunity of subin-mitting a few words on several articles of prime importance.

But, not intending to maintain our independence of foreign parts, as an universal proposition, we nevertheless conceive, that we shall do no harm to the real terests of our country, by stating circumstances that may diminish the anxiety felt by some, on account of our dependence on countries under the power of our political enemies. We have said, that when they winde up their accounts, our enemies will be losers. There is a sense in which (humanity apart) this country may become a great gainer by the consequences of the present commotions, although their object is professedly to effect her ruin.

The bounty of heaven has bestowed on Britain, a fertile soil, and this is now improved by an Agriculture, never carried on with more spirit; we mean, which never gathered a greater quantity of produce from the same extent of soil. To the same bounty we are indebted for an inexhaustible supply of coal, which enables us to keep our machinery going, in spite of the wishes of our enemies to effect its stoppage. These are natural advantages our internal intercourse, whether by roads, or by canals, is another happiness perfectly independent of the likes and dislikes of any foreign power whatever. Perhaps the greatest advantage of all, or that which crowns the whole, is, the encircling ocean, by the interven tion of which we are enabled to make whatever improvements we please in our public concerns; without any foreign ambassador's presuming to hint on the part of his master, that we are advancing in comfort, and accommodation, too rapidly for his political interest. And if we inquire, whether those articles, for which we have hitherto resorted to foreign ports, may not be obtained from some one or other of the colonies we have planted we may perhaps find, that Britannia, with her family, is independent of all the nations of the earth. This is indeed, a truth, which foreign nations do not wish us to believe, and our natural disposition is so good-natured, that we

If we examine accurately the extensive list of our imports, with reference to the inquiry, which of them Britain really cannot do without, we shall find the formidable scroll shrink into a mere scrap: the mountain dwindles into a molehill. The chief indispensables from foreign nations, are-flax, hemp, iron, timber, tar, and tallow. We may add, hides, cotton, dye-woods; also, tea, wine, and brandy.


FLAX is the parent of the great staple article of the North of Ireland,-linen; and the seed necessary for the propagation of this plant, has hitherto been supplied from abroad: originally from Holland but lately from America. The reason of this we understand is, because the flax intended to be used in manufacture, is pulled before it has completely ripened its seed; at which time it is supposed to be more tender, and capable of being wrought into a finer cloth. Two remarks arise from this: the first is, that if the Irish let a greater part of their crop mature its seed this year, they need require no supply of seed for the year ensuing. or afterwards. And secondly, that the wearing of linen a little coarser than usual, is the worst that need happen. Even against this, palliatives may be resorted to. Flax seed may be obtained from Sicily, from Greece, and from Canada. The quantity imported from the Baltic last year was about 150,000 hogsheads: but a great part of this, though sufficiently good for crushing into oil, is not perfect; and therefore cannot be trusted to for sowing. What Sicily and Greece furnish (Egypt might be included, were it friendly) may be procured at any time of the year; what Canada is intent on sending, may arrive in the middle of May, or the beginning of June: so that it is uncertain whether it will be in time for the sowing season, We learn, from the result of a

public meeting, held at Armagh, Dec. 27, isos, that there was no absolute want of flax seed, at that moment, though apprehensions were entertained. Nevertheless, the majority of the meeting was clearly against any public remonstrance on the subject and after discussion, agreed to wait the event.

HEMP is likely to be supplied in abundance in a short time from Ireland, as well as from Canada, where thousands of acres are now allotted to its cultivation. We have elsewhere [compare Panorama, Vol. III. p. 905.] given an account of the nature and properties of the sunn, or EastIndian hemp and it is thought that our dependance on Russia for this article has nearly, if not completely, reached its termination. The very high price, which hemp bears at this moment, operates as a powerful inducement to our national agriculturists. There is no question on the capability of our country to supply any quantities of the very best kind of hemp. The following is part of a public report. "The culture of hemp is rapidly extending in Canada, and there is much reason to hope, that in a few years we shall, through this medium, be rendered independent of the foreign markets.-Several hundred tons were grown during the last year in the neighbourhood of Montreal, Camden, Howard on the Thames, and other parts of Upper Canada; and we hear with great pleasure, that upwards of twenty looms and rope walks were established during that period. The ordinary produce of clean and dressed hemp of the first quality is from 6 to 7 cwt. per acre." The operation of converting British IRON into steel, has been so greatly improved, under the encouragement derived from patents, some of which are of late date, that we have little, very little call for foreign iron. A few of the best articles indeed, in the making of which habit has confirmed the workmen in the use of foreign bar iron, still continue to demand that kind by which they obtained their reputation. We cannot blame this attention; but, we learn from the testimony of practical men, that the ordinary ironmongery never exhibited such good iron as of late; and that for general purposes a decided preference is given to British. Another step in the career of improvement may produce British bar iron superior to the Russian. One word more on this subject: We remember the


Armed Neutrality, and the heart-burnings it caused. That was the first occasion on which our enlightened iron-masters endea voured to improve their commodity effec tually the trade in Russian iron has been diminishing ever since it is likely that during the present non-intercourse with that country,our improvements may be perfected, and then-when Russia may be disposed again to supply us, the commodity may be in demand, anywhere but in Britain.

TIMBER is unquestionably an Article of great importance: and one which our own island does not produce in sufficient quantity to meet the demand. In fact, the demand arises from so many different quarters, each increasing, that we scarcely can discern any termination of it. A vast mass of foreign timber is employed in building; and while the outskirts of the metropolis are spreading in all directions, the houses being built mostly with foreign timber, the demand is not likely to diminish. We understand, that in the New Town Edinburgh, and its adjacencies, including miles of streets, not a timber employed is of home growth. For this article, then, we must turn our attention abroad. Canada has supplied nearly 50,000 loads of timber in the last year: we may presume it is equal in quality to what we were accustomed to receive from America. Immense quantities may be obtained from Brazil. Perhaps to seek it still further distant, might not be warrantable, the expence of freight considered.

Happily, immense plantations have been made in Britain within a few years, lately passed; so that we may look forward to a more plentiful supply of this article, of our own production.

The following statement shews that we have not been inattentive in our distant possessions to the introduction of woods of the finer kinds.

"The cultivation of MAHOGANY in India has been attended with great success. Two plants (the first known in India) were sent out by the Court of Directors to the Botanic Garden at Calcutta; from these two, upwards of a thousand plants have been reared, and they succeed so well, as to promise in a few years to be a valuable acquisition to the country.-The two original trees were last year nearly four feet in circumference, and several of the others two or three feet."

TAR is made from the roots of trees, as the timber bears too high a price, and is

capable of application to superior purposes. Hitherto, it has not been regarded among us, because it could be obtained cheaper from foreign countries. But there is no reason in nature why tar should not be procured from the roots of trees in Britain. There are in North Britain many thousands of acres, that have yielded firs, the stumps and roots of which might furnish tar. Tar has long been rising in price; and it will continue to rise, because it had already become scarce, even in Norway, so great has been the consumption of the woods. Moreover the trees around the inhabited parts being cut down, the boors have further to travel to their labours; of course, the carriage of the tar, when made, augments the price. It is remarkable, that tar has even been imported into Bergen itself, from. Archangel; as may be seen by the list of imports into the former city: a speculation that would have astonished former ages!-We ought to add, that the same countries to which we look for timber, Canada and Brazil, may be supposed also to furnish other productions of the woods, pitch, tar, and turpentine, when the market for them in Britain shall have become steady. These considerations are independent of any resource to be found in the coal tar, which possesses some valuable properties.

Our consumption of TALLOW has long exceeded our supply: the most immediate substitute at the present moment is oil; and vast quantities of oil have been burnt during the present winter, in parts of our island, where formerly they knew not how to light a lamp. This may not be any great injury in the end. At present the high price of tallow is felt in domestic arrangements, and more severely in manufactories, and other establishments, where great quantities are consumed. It is understood that our own tallow requires foreign to be mixed with it, to lower its hardness, to a proper consistence. Brazil, and South America will certainly supply tallow, in process of time. Hides, which are furnished from the same places as tallow, have long been brought in great quantities to the London markets; and there can be no doubt, but after the traders abroad get into the habit of it, they may easily send us supplies of this article adequate to our consumption.

COTTON and RICE have lately been imported from Sierra Leone; and this part of Africa, if properly encouraged,

will greatiy exceed the Gold Coast in the value of its productions.

We conclude, by observing that, on the whole, we have been so progressively excluded from the Continent, and so gradually deprived of the benefits derived from foreign productions, that, we have had time to turn our attention to substitutes from other parts of the world; or to accustom ourselves to dispense entirely with the use of them. Had ALL our imports been withheld from us in an instant, and our commerce suspended at a stroke, as that of America has been, by an embargo, we do not presume to think that the consequences might not have been serious. But we hope, that after having weathered the storm so far, and being staunch and tight, as yet, we shall continue to perform our voyage, and shall in due time bring the good ship, the Commerce of Britain, safely, if not triumphantly into the desired haven.

ABSTRACT OF COTTON. Imported into LONDON, From 1808. East-Indies.... Bags 14,362 West-Indies... ... 14,977 America .5,627 Brazils and Portugal 15,703 Turkey ..2,962








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Anthropologia: or Dissertations on the
Form and Colour of Man; with incidental
Remarks. By T. Jarrold, M.D. Member
of the Literary and Philosophical Society,
Manchester. 4to. pp. 261. Price £1 10
London: Cadell and Davies, 1808.

το γαρ και γενος εσμεν,
"For we HIS offspring are;" was the
sublime language of Aratus, the Cicilian
poet; and of Cleanthes, in his "hymn to
Jupiter," deriving man from the divinity,
himself. The expression has been con-
secrated by St. Paul, who adopted it when
pleading before the tribunal of the Areo-
pagites, and boldly avowed, that the deity
"had made of one blood all nations of
men, wherever dispersed on all the face
of the earth." It is true, that the same
Sovereign Power has distributed the va-
rious branches of the immense family of
man, according to his pleasure:-the
times and tides fore-allotted to each, in its
order; the boundaries of the different
habitations, which each was destined to
occupy. Does it follow, because these
branches have widely diverged from each
other, that any of them is forgotten by
that Parent from whom all derived their
being? or that he has left himself without
witness, a witness capable of appealing
with the most direct influence to their
hearts and understandings, through their
very senses, and appetites? Most certainly

not: for

Εν αυτώς γαρ ζωμεν, και κινεμεθα, και εσμεν.
In HIM we live, are moved, and exist.
Wherever exists a man, capable of
exercising rational powers (without which
he is no man) there is an evidence-not of
a capricious forsaking of his creatures,
by the Deity; but, of the steady and un-
interrupted support, which Divine goodness
bestows on the sons of Adam.
theless, it seems, that some of the inge-
nious members of this great family, in
the most favoured parts of it, cannot rest
satisfied till they have degraded their own
nature to the level of the brute; or have
raised the nature of the brute to an equa-
lity with their own. So natural are the
principles of discontent, cavil, disorder,
destruction of the scale of existence, to
the heart of man! We would not be
understood as discouraging the speculations
of the well-informed, nor as cramping

the exertions of reflection and thought. On the contrary, we admire them, when well directed; and, when the purpose intended to be answered by them is honourable, we never, knowingly, deprive them of that commendation; though we acknowledge a something not absolutely unallied to the feelings of indignation or of contempt, when we are reduced to the necessity of asking the cui bono?---what is the advantage of such tracts on such subjects and the answer is a mere blank. If the brutes were our superiors in virtue, the result of understanding and knowledge called into activity, we might be tempted to desire promotion to a more correct resemblance of them; if they were more happy than humanity might be, that envy of which they were the subjects, could scarcely be denied the character of tolerable if not of laudable.

But, the usual cause of discontent is, a narrow and confined acquaintance with things. Man has not the speed of some animals, as of the horse, though Achilles was swifter of foot than a wild roe;he has not the strength of the bull, whatever credulity attributes to the exploits of Milo of Crotona; he has no claws for defence, retractile, as those of the lion; he has no venom like the serpent, which insures the instant death of his antagonist. But he has speed enough for every desirable and honest purpose: he has strength enough, if it be well engaged and if he be destitute of the means of spreading slaughter and mortality around him, that very destitution is in perfect coincidence with his original character as the benevolent superior of the creation.

Man, moreover, possesses as great a proportion of each separate quality, as is consistent with the welfare of the whole in combination. To augment the proportion of either, would be detrimental to the general mass.

Nevertheless, his essential distinction is a something superadded to whatever excellence, the animals around him can display. If any wish to draw a line that shall effectually distinguish man from brnte, let them examine his mental faculties without prejudice; and select their a condi ct, instances without partiality;


which, we are sorry to say, is rare.
deny not that brutes have memory, for
instance, and that a certain degree of
sentiment is combined with the attachment

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