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These royalties, and not refuse to reign,
Refusing to accept as great a share

Of hazard as of honour, due alike

To him who reigns, and so much to him due
Of hazard more, as he above the rest

High honoured sits? Go, therefore, mighty Powers,
Terror of Heaven, though fallen! intend at home,
While here shall be our home, what best may ease
The present misery, and render Hell

More tolerable; if there be cure or charm
To respite or deceive, or slack the pain,
Of this ill mansion: intermit no watch
Against a wakeful foe, while I abroad,

Through all the coasts of dark destruction, seek
Deliverance for us all. This enterprise

None shall partake with me." Thus saying rose
The Monarch, and prevented all reply;
Prudent, lest, from his resolution raised,
Others among the chief might offer now
(Certain to be refused) what erst they feared;
And, so refused, might in opinion stand

Unless great acts superior merit prove.
And vindicate the bounteous powers above?
"Tis ours, the dignity they give to grace;
The first in valour, as the first in place;
That when, with wondering eyes, our martial


charm, carmen,

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a song"), and it yet lingers among ourselves. Of all forms of existing idolatry it is the most in

Behold our deeds transcending our commands, sulting to God and the most degrading

Such, they may cry, deserve the sovereign state

Whom those that envy dare not imitate."

457. Intend at home.] i.e. remain at home, and turn your thoughts towards finding out what" may ease the present misery." Intendere animum is a common Latin phrase, signifying to "turn one's mind or direct one's attention," so as to find out a practical method of doing something. Milton adopts the idiom without expressing it fully.

460. If there be cure or charm.] Milton purposely uses the word "charm' to show that the arch-fiend is himself the slave of the same drivelling superstition, as he has since enchanted and enchained many of the human race with. Belief in charms or spells forms of words, spoken or written, supposed to be endowed with magical virtue- has prevailed at all times and among all nations. It was strong among the ancient Romans (whence the word

to man. Milton again appears to follow Horace, who says:

"Sunt verba et voces, quibus hunc lenire dolorem

Possis, et magnam morbi deponere partem;"

probably referring to the belief in the efficacy of magical words in alleviating pain and disease. All learning, sacred and profane, and all sciences, false and true, contribute to dignify and adorn the conceptions of our matchless poet. What was said by Denham of Cowley may be said with much greater justice of Milton,

"To him no author was unknown,

Yet what he writ was all his own." 471. Might in opinion stand his rivals.] Might be considered by the general body as bold and adventurous as himself. "Rivals, in the primary sense of the word, are those who dwell on the banks of the same stream. But since, as all experience shows, there is no such fruitful source of contention as a water-right, it would continually

Of thunder heard remote. Towards him they bend,
With awful reverence prone; and as a God
Extol him equal to the Highest in Heaven.

But they

His rivals, winning cheap the high repute
Which he through hazard huge must earn.
Dreaded not more th' adventure than his voice
Forbidding; and at once with him they rose.
Their rising all at once was as the sound


Nor failed they to express how much they praised,
That for the general safety he despised


His own: for neither do the Spirits damned
Lose all their virtue; lest bad men should boast
Their specious deeds on earth, which glory excites,
Or close ambition, varnished o'er with zeal.

happen that these occupants of the op-
posite banks would be at strife with
one another in regard of the periods
during which they severally had a right
to the use of the stream, turning it off
into their own fields before the time, or
leaving open the sluices beyond the
time, or in other ways interfering, or
being counted to interfere, with the
rights of their opposite neighbours.
And thus rivals, which at first applied
only to those dwellers on opposite banks
of a river, came afterwards to be used
of any who were on any grounds in
more or less unfriendly competition
with one another."-TRENCH.


surely in this the worthy doctor exhibits an unnecessary sensitiveness. Let the abstract truth of the case be as it may, human beings could have felt no interest in such a character, and even Milton could not have made the subject poetical. Besides, the leader of the wicked spirits may be worse than the mass of his followers; and it is of them that Milton asserts that "they have not lost all their virtue." Hazlitt, in many respects, was not a match for Arnold, but as a literary critic he is infinitely superior; and his remarks on this subject seem to me both profound and beautiful. "The deformity of Satan is only in the depravity of his will; he has no bodily deformity to excite our loathing or disgust. The horns and tail are not there, poor emblems of the unbending, unconquered spirit, of the writhing agonies within. Milton was too magnanimous and open an antagonist to support his argument by the bye-tricks of a hump and cloven foot; to bring into the fair field of controversy the good old Catholic prejudices, of which Tasso and Dante have availed themselves, and which the mystic GerIman critics would restore. He relied on the justice of his cause, and did not scruple to give the devil his due.". HAZLITT's Lectures on the English Poets.

482. For neither do the spirits damned lose all their virtue.] The poet is supported by reasoning from analogy on this point. In the parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus we see that a human being, bad enough to be shut out from heaven, is not devoid of some amiable traits. When his own fate was represented by "father Abraham" as fixed, Dives did not selfishly wish that his brethren might come into the same place of torment, but rather thought how he might save them. Dr. Arnold is quite indignant with Milton for allowing any good quality to Satan. "The representation of the devil," he thinks, "should be purely and entirely evil, without a tinge of good." He seems even sorry that the hoofs, horns, 485. Close ambition.] For the and tail are done away with. But exact force of the epithet close as ap

Thus they their doubtful consultations dark
Ended, rejoicing in their matchless chief:
As when from mountain tops the dusky clouds
Ascending, while the north wind sleeps, o'erspread
Heaven's cheerful face, the lowering element
Scowls o'er the darkened landskip snow or shower;
If chance the radiant sun with farewell sweet
Extend his evening beam, the fields revive,
The birds their notes renew, and bleating herds
Attest their joy, that hill and valley rings.
O shame to men! Devil with Devil damned
Firm concord holds; men only disagree
Of creatures rational, though under hope

Of heavenly grace; and, God proclaiming peace,
Yet live in hatred, enmity, and strife,
Among themselves, and levy cruel wars,
Wasting the earth, each other to destroy!
As if (which might induce us to accord)
Man had not hellish foes enow besides,
That day and night for his destruction wait.

The Stygian council thus dissolved, and forth
In order came the grand infernal peers:
Midst came their mighty Paramount, and seemed
Alone th' Antagonist of Heaven, nor less
Than Hell's dread emperor, with pomp supreme,
And God-like imitated state; him round

plied to the noun ambition, see an extract from Isaac Taylor already given, Book I. 1. 262.

491. Scowls o'er the darkened landskip.] "Scowl" is generally an intransitive verb, signifying to look frowningly, but it is employed here as a transitive verb, and governs snow in the objective case. Thomson-in a passage of his Spring not at all unlike this one of Milton uses the verb look in much

the same way:—

"Man superior walks Amid the glad creation, musing praise, And looking lively gratitude."

See CONNON'S Eng. Gram. § 213. 503-505. As if, &c.] "It does grieve me to find good men quarrelling with their friends, when there are more than enough of enemies in the world for every Christian to strive against."-ARNOLD.

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Enough is an adjective singular, and denotes quantity, as "bread enough;" enow denotes number, as "books enow." Such is the dictum of Dr. Crombie that most excellent grammarian; but it may be doubted if the usage of the present day acknowledges it. I do not think that any really good living writer would say "I have books enow," but "I have enough of books," where enough is obviously a noun. The quotation from Arnold, besides illustrating the idea in the text, seems to throw light on this point.

508. Midst came their mighty Paused as an adjective signifying "raised "Paramount" is generally ramount.] to supreme authority;" but it is here used as a noun, and is synonymous with chief.

A globe of fiery Seraphim enclosed
With bright emblazonry, and horrent arms.
Then, of their session ended, they bid cry,
With trumpets' regal sound, the great result.
Towards the four winds four speedy Cherubim
Put to their mouths the sounding alchemy,
By heralds' voice explained; the hollow abyss
Heard far and wide, and all the host of Hell
With deafening shout returned them loud acclaim.
Thence more at ease their minds, and somewhat raised
By false presumptuous hope, the rangéd Powers
Disband, and, wandering, each his several way
Pursues, as inclination or sad choice

Leads him, perplexed where he may likeliest find
Truce to his restless thoughts, and entertain
The irksome hours, till his great Chief return.
Part on the plain, or in the air sublime,

512. A globe of fiery Seraphim.] One of the classical sources of the word globus (see FACCIOLATI) is a crowd or dense mass of people, and it seems to be so used here. Richardson's note is as follows:-" As they were spirits, being aloft in the air, or on firm ground was alike to them. Globe here may be therefore properly understood, and the Seraphim may be conceived above, below, on each side, around their mighty Paramount; but as the ancients have called the circle of soldiers round the suggestum [platform], from whence the emperor harangued them, a globe, Milton might probably intend that idea only."

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513. And horrent arms.] "Horrent means literally what stands on end and bristles; hence, what is terrible and dangerous. Newton explains the word as meaning "set up, like the bristles of a wild boar," and quotes some instances of Virgil's so using it.

517. The sounding alchemy, &c.] "Alchemy is the name of that art which is the sublimer part of chemistry, the transmutation of metals. Milton names no particular metal, but leaves the imagination at large-any metal possible to be produced by that mysterious art. It is a metanomy [me




tonymy now], the efficient for the effect: vastly poetical!"-RICHARD


518-520. The hollow abyss, &c.] Compare Shakspeare"And when you saw his chariot but appear, Have you not made a universal shout, That Tibur trembled underneath her banks To hear the replication of your sounds Made in her concave shores?

528. Part on the plain, &c.] There is a very considerable resemblance between the amusements of the fallen angels and certain gymnastic and other exercises that Milton recommends in his Tractate on Education: "Therefore about an hour and a half, ere they eat at noon, should be allowed them for exercise, and due rest afterwards; but the time for this may be enlarged at pleasure, according as their rising in the morning shall be early. The exercise which I commend, first, is the exact use of their weapon, to guard, and to strike safely with edge or point; this will keep them healthy, nimble, strong, and well in breath; is also the likeliest means to make them grow large and tall, and to inspire them with a gallant and fearless courage, which, being tempered with seasonable lectures and precepts to them of true fortitude and patience, will turn into a native and heroic valour, and make

Upon the wing or in swift race contend,
As at th' Olympian games or Pythian fields;
Part curb their fiery steeds, or shun the goal
With rapid wheels, or fronted brigades form.
As when, to warn proud cities, war appears
Waged in the troubled sky, and armies rush
To battle in the clouds, before each van

Prick forth the airy knights, and couch their spears
Till thickest legions close; with feats of arms
From either end of Heaven the welkin burns.
Others, with vast Typhoan rage, more fell,
Rend up both rocks and hills, and ride the air
In whirlwind; Hell scarce holds the wild uproar.
As when Alcides, from Echalia crowned




is an old Saxon word, meaning "the sky." We have several instances of it in Chaucer and Spenser:

them hate the cowardice of doing 538. The welkin burns.] Welkin wrong. They must be also practised in all the locks and gripes of wrestling, wherein Englishmen were wont to excel, as need may often be in fight, to tug, to grapple, and to close. And this perhaps will be enough wherein to prove and heat their single strength."

530-533. As at the Olympian games.] This passage is rather closely imitated from HORACE, Odes, i. 1.—

"Sunt, quos curriculo pulverem Olympicum
Collegisse juvat, metaque fervidis
Evitata rotis, palmaque nobilis
Terrarum dominos evehit ad deos."

Professor Anthon's note abridgedon the passage, will sufficiently illustrate the text. "The Grecian games were as follows:1. The Olympic; celebrated at Olympia in Elis, on the banks of the Alpheus, after an interval of four years, from the 11th to the 15th of July. They were celebrated in honour of Jupiter. The crown was of wild olive. 2. The Pythian, in honour of Apollo, celebrated near Delphi, at first every nine, but subsequently every five, years. The crown was of laurel." Observe especially that the words shun the goal with rapid wheels" are from the same passage.

535. Before each van.] In front of each van (of the contending armies) the airy knights spur forward and couch their spears, i.e. fix them in their rests so as to be prepared for attack.

"For every man, and woman, doth his might
This day in mirth and revel to dispend,
Til on the welkin shone the sterres bright."

"The pleasaunt spring appeareth;
The grasse nowe ginnes to be refresht,
The swallowe peepes out of her nest,
And clowdie welkin cleareth.". -SPENSER.

539. With vast Typhaan rage.] With gigantic rage, Typhoeus being one of the giants that fought against heaven. See Book I. 1. 199.

542. As when Alcides.] Hercules, the grandson of Alcæus, was one of the most celebrated heroes of antiquity. Having killed the King of Echalia, in Greece, and led away his beautiful daughter Iole as a captive, he raised an altar to Jupiter, and sent off for a splendid robe to wear when he should offer a sacrifice. Deïanira, in a fit of jealousy, before sending the robe, tinged it with a certain poisonous preparation. Hercules soon found that the robe was consuming his flesh, and adhered so closely to his skin that it could not be separated. In the agony of the moment, he seized Lichas, the bearer of the robe, by the foot, and hurled him from the top of Mount Eta into the sea. name is given to a chain of mountains in Thessaly, the eastern extremity of which, in conjunction with the sea, formed the celebrated pass of Ther


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