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What could be less than to afford him praise,
The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks,
How due! yet all this good proved ill in me,
And wrought but malice; lifted up so high
I 'sdained subjection, and thought one step higher
Would set me highest, and in a moment quit
The debt immense of endless gratitude,
So burdensome still paying, still to owe;
Forgetful what from him I still received,
And understood not, that a grateful mind
By owing owes not, but still pays, at once
Indebted and discharged: what burden then?
O had his powerful destiny ordained
Me some inferior Angel, I had stood
Then happy; no unbounded hope had raised

Yet why not? some other Power

As great might have aspired, and me, though mean,
Drawn to his part; but other Powers as great

-a con

him whom he has obliged, descension that makes itself felt, however, not as condescension, which would recall the obligation more painfully, but only as kindness which seems to arise, without any thought of former benefits, from the overflowing goodness of a benevolent heart. It would be manifestly cruel to repeat continually to any one on whom we had conferred an important favour, 'Remember the favour which I conferred on you;' but since it is not in the direct words only that such a meaning can be conveyed, it is cruel also, by excessive and ill-faced forms of ostentatious civility, to seem constantly to say to him, that we are thus very kind, and that we have never forgotten the generosity which we showed him, at the distance, perhaps, of many years." - BROWN's Lectures, &c.

46-49. What could be less, &c.] "Ingratitude is a vice of such enormity that the most profligate man would be ashamed to acknowledge himself guilty of it. 'Si ingratum dixeris, omnia dixeris,' says the Latin maxim,-if you call a man ungrateful you have called him every thing that is base. You need say nothing more. The ungrateful man is an enemy to the human race;

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for his conduct tends to discourage
beneficence."- -BEATTIE. Speaking of
ingratitude Seneca says:-
"Hoc tu cave
tanquam maximum crimen" - avoid
ingratitude as the worst of crimes.

49. And wrought but malice.] "Malice is ill-will without just cause, and desire to injure without any hope of benefiting from it."-LANDOR.

50. I 'sdained subjection.] "Sdained" is commonly explained as being in imitation of the Italian for "disdained; but Milton sometimes cuts off a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word without any reference to the Italian, as for instance, in lines 7. and 8. of this very Book. The same thing was done by the ancient poets, and the usage is known by grammarians under the name of apheresis, "a figure by which a letter or syllable is cut off from the beginning of a word, as in the common abbreviation 't is for it is.BRANDE. When the letter or syllable is cut out of the middle of the word, the figure is called syncope, as flow'r for flower; and when from the end of a word Apocope, as th' for the. Repeated instances of the two latter figures have already passed under our notice. Generally speaking, all such contractions ought to be avoided as

Fell not, but stand unshaken, from within

Or from without, to all temptation armed.

Hadst thou the same free will and power to stand?

Thou hadst whom hast thou then or what to' accuse,
But Heaven's free love dealt equally to all?

Be then his love accursed, since love or hate,
To me alike, it deals eternal woe.

Nay, cursed be thou; since against his, thy will
Chose freely what it now so justly rues.
Me miserable! which way shall I fly
Infinite wrath, and infinite despair?
Which way I fly is Hell; myself am Hell:
And in the lowest deep, a lower deep,
Still threatening to devour me, opens wide,
To which the Hell I suffer seems a Heaven.
O, then, at last relent: is there no place;
Left for repentance, none for pardon left?
much as possible. Addison has a very
interesting paper on this subject, for
which see Spectator No. 135.

66. Hadst thou the same free will and power to stand?] We already saw (Book iii. 96.) that the doctrine of the freedom of the will, is Milton's key to the riddle of the world. I subjoin another extract from his prose works on the subject. "Considering the perfection wherein man was created, and might have stood, no decree necessitating his free will, but subsequent, though not in time, yet in order, to causes which were in his own power; they might, methinks, be persuaded to absolve both God and us. Whenas the doctrine of Plato and Chrysippus, with their followers, the Academics and the Stoics, who knew not what a consummate and most adorned Pandora was

bestowed upon Adam, to be the nurse and guide of his arbitrary happiness and perseverance,-I mean his native innocence and perfection,-which might have kept him from being our true Epimetheus; and though they taught of virtue and vice to be both the gift of divine destiny, they could yet give reasons not invalid, to justify the councils of God and fate from the insulsity of mortal tongues: that man's own free will self-corrupted, is the

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adequate and sufficient cause of his disobedience besides fate; as Homer also wanted not to express, both in his Iliad and Odyssey." Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce. Compare also the following from Shakspeare :—

"Try what repentance can; What can it not; Yet what can it, when one cannot repent." Hamlet, iii. 3.

73. Me miserable.] Imitated apparently from Jugurtha's exclamation, "Eheu me miserum! huccine, Micipsa pater, beneficia tua evasere!" In exclamations, the accusative (or objective, as English grammarians call it) of the person or thing wondered at is used, and Milton follows classical usage in this construction.

76. And in the lowest deep.] In this line there is a stretch of language that a "hide-bound pedant" might object to, but which a philosophical critic can not merely pardon, but actually admire.

"If, when the rules not far enough extend,
(Since rules were made but to promote their

Some lucky licence answer to the full
The intent proposed, that licence is a rule.
POPE'S Essay on Criticism.


79. O then at last relent.] relent (connected with lentus, not lenis) is to slacken the swiftness of one's pursuit."-TRENCHI. As to the doc-trine of no place being left for repent

None left but by submission; and that word
Disdain forbids me, and my dread of shame
Among the Spirits beneath, whom I seduced
With other promises and other vaunts
Than to submit, boasting I could subdue
Th' Omnipotent. Ay me! they little know
How dearly I abide that boast so vain,
Under what torments inwardly I groan,
While they adore me on the throne of Hell.
With diadem and sceptre high advanced,
The lower still I fall, only supreme
In misery; such joy ambition finds.
But say I could repent, and could obtain,
By act of grace, my former state; how soon
Would height recall high thoughts, how soon unsay
What feigned submission swore? ease would recant
Vows made in pain, as violent and void.
For never can true reconcilement grow,
Where wounds of deadly hate have pierced so deep;
Which would but lead me to a worse relapse
And heavier fall: so should I purchase dear
Short intermission bought with double smart.
This knows my punisher; therefore as far
From granting he, as I from begging peace:
All hope excluded thus, behold, in stead
Of us, outcast, exiled, his new delight,
Mankind created, and for him this world.
So farewell hope, and with hope farewell fear,
Farewell remorse: all good to me is lost;
Evil be thou my good; by thee at least
Divided empire with Heaven's King I hold,
By thee, and more than half perhaps will reign;
As man ere long, and this new world, shall know."

ance, see the extract from Bishop
Butler (Book III. 198.).

87. How dearly I abide that boast so vain.] i. e. how dearly I pay for the boast which never had any ground to stand on how severely I suffer for it.

97. As violent and void.] i. e. vows or promises imposed by force, and, therefore, not morally binding. Milton here puts into the mouth of Satan a doctrine that has in all ages been accepted by lawyers. It is now treated of by them under the title of duresse.

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"Whatever is done by a man to save either life or limb, is looked upon as the highest necessity or compulsion. Therefore, if a man, through fear of death or mayhem [being maimed], is prevailed upon to execute a deed, or do any other legal act, these, though accompanied with all other requisite solemnities, may be afterwards avoided, if forced upon him, by a well grounded apprehension of losing his life, or even his limbs, in case of non-compliance." -COKE's Institutes. The moral view

Thus while he spake each passion dimmed his face, Thrice changed with pale, ire, envy, and despair; Which marred his borrowed visage, and betrayed Him counterfeit, if any eye beheld:


For heavenly minds from such distempers foul
Are ever clear. Whereof he soon aware,

Each perturbation smoothed with outward calm,
Artificer of fraud; and was the first


That practised falsehood under saintly show,

Deep malice to conceal, couched with revenge:

Yet not enough had practised to deceive

Uriël once warned; whose eye pursued him down


The way he went, and on th' Assyrian mount

Saw himn disfigured, more than could befall
Spirit of happy sort: his gestures fierce

He marked, and mad demeanour, then alone,
As he supposed, all unobserved, unseen.
So on he fares, and to the border comes
Of Eden, where delicious Paradise,

Now nearer, crowns with her enclosure green,
As with a rural mound, the champain head
Of a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides
With thicket overgrown, grotesque and wild,
Access denied; and overhead upgrew
Insuperable height of loftiest shade,

Cedar, and pine, and fir, and branching palm,

of the question is not quite so simple; but for some observations on it, the student may consult CICERO, De Officiis, book iii.; PALEY'S Moral and Political Philosophy," book iii. chap. v.; and SMITH's Theory of Moral Sentiments, Part vii., section iv.

115. Thrice charged with pale.] At first sight the pointing of this line will probably appear strange, but it has not been rashly adopted. I am satisfied that Milton does not mean "pale" to be an adjective qualifying ire, but a noun, and the three succeeding nouns are the three different passions that "dimmed his face with pale." This use of the adjective is not to be recommended, but we have a similar use of the very same word in another part of the Paradise Lost.

'She ended here, a vehement despair

Broke off the rest; so much of death her thoughts



Had entertained, as dyed her cheeks with
But Adam with such counsel," &c.

Book x. 1. 1007.

118. For heavenly minds, &c.] Tantæne animis cœlestibus iræ. VIRGIL.

119-123. Whereof he soon aware.] Compare Shakspeare:

"Read on this book; That show of such an exercise may colour Your loneliness. We are oft to blame in this."Tis too much proved, that, with devotion's visage And pious action, we do sugar o'er The devil himself."Hamlet, act iii. sc. i.

134. As with a rural mound.] Mound differs from mount or mountain as font does from fount or fountain. Mound and fount are artificial while mount and fount are natural objects. There is the same difference between canal and channel, though they both are from the same Latin word "canalis," a pipe.

A sylvan scene; and, as the ranks ascend,
Shade above shade, a woody theatre
Of stateliest view. Yet higher than their tops
The verdurous wall of Paradise upsprung:
Which to our general sire gave prospect large
Into his nether empire neighbouring round.
And higher than that wall a circling row
Of goodliest trees, loaden with fairest fruit,
Blossoms and fruits at once of golden hue,
Appeared with gay enamelled colours mixed;
On which the sun more glad impressed his beams
Than in fair evening cloud or humid bow,

When God hath showered the earth; so lovely seemed
That landscape: and of pure, now purer air

Meets his approach, and to the heart inspires
Vernal delight and joy, able to drive

All sadness but despair; now gentle gales,

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155. Vernal delight and joy.] "In those vernal seasons of the year, when the air is calm and pleasant, it were an injury and sullenness against nature not to go out and see her riches, and partake with her rejoicing with heaven and earth."-Tractate on Education. Again, in his letter to Thomas Young, our Author says, "Having an invitation to your part of the country in the spring, I shall readily accept it, that I may enjoy the deliciousness of the season, as well as that of your conversation." "There are in the changeful aspects of nature, so many analogies to the emotions of living beings, that in animat. ing poetically what exhibits to us these analogies, we scarcely feel, till we reflect, that we are using metaphors; and that the clear and sunny sky, for example, is as little cheerful as that atmosphere of fogs and darkness through which the sun shines through only enough to show us how thick the gloom must be which has resisted all the





penetrating splendours of his beams. When nature is thus once animated by us, it is not wonderful, if we sympathise with the living, that we should, for the moment, sympathise with it too as with some living thing. It is this sympathy with a cheerfulness which we have ourselves created, that constitutes a great part of that "vernal delight and joy," which is so well described as "able to drive all sadness but despair." In a fine morning of that delightful season amid sunshine and fragrance, and the thousand voices of joy that make the air one universal song of rapture, who is there that does not feel as if heaven and earth were truly glad at heart, and who does not sympathise with nature, as if with some living being diffusing happiness, and rejoicing in the happiness which it diffuses ? " BROWN'S Philosophy of

the Human Mind.

156-165. Now gentle gales, &c.] "The numerous groves of frankincense trees which covered the hills and valleys of southern Arabia, constantly distilling their sweet gums, are said to have impregnated the whole atmosphere with their delicious fragrance, which, when the breezes prevailed off the land, was wafted out many leagues from the

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