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whenever a moor or barren heath is manured or turned up with the spade or plough, instead of producing next season its former coarse grass or heath, the white clover uniformly appears in their place, although previously it was at least not visible to the eye.

7. T. fragiferum, Strawberry T., so called from fraga (Lat.), strawberries, and fero (Lat.), to bear; the heads, when in seed, much resembling those fruits. Smith 3.308. Lind. 81. Bab. 78. E B. 1050. 2 ed. 1040.

Loc. Wet pastures, on peat or clay; rare. August.

P. July,

LEA. 1. Hartham Common, Hertford. Hoddesdon N. Marsh. By the pond in the lane to Brickendon, and on Brickendon Green. Near Mattock's Farm, Ware 3. Offley Green, 4. Sandon, and thence to Buntingford. Road from Buntingford to Cottered. 5. Between Stortford and Great Hadham. By the road from F. Pelham to L. Hormead. 6. Cheshunt,

COLNE. 7. Colney Heath.


11. Hitchin Common; and by the roadside near the Union Workhouse! I.B. Ickleford Green, near Hitchin.

8. T. subterraneum, subterraneous T., so named from the remarkable property possessed by the calyces of the abortive flowers of burying themselves in the sand, and thus anchoring, as it were, and detaining the seeds of the fertile flowers. Smith gives the following description of this curious process:-" Flowers three or four on each stalk, at first erect, but before the fruit is perfected each stalk is bent to the earth, throwing out from its extremity, between the flowers, several thick white fibres, starry at their tips, which partly fix themselves in the ground, turning upwards to embrace the fruit."-E. Fl., p 300.

Loc. Dry sandy ground, rare. A. May, June.


6. Near Coffley's by the road to Goff's Oak.

10. Sand-pit-lane! St. Alban's. C.H. & I.C. Bernard Heath. I.c.

9. T. procumbens, procumbent, or Hop T., the dense many-flowered heads resembling hops when in fruit. Smith 3.309. Lind. 81. Bab. 79. E.B. 945. 2 ed. 1041,

Loc. Dry pastures, balks, and gravel pits; frequent in all the districts. A. June, August.

10. T. minus, lesser Hop T. Smith 3.310. Lind. 81. Bab. 79. E.B. 1256. 2 ed. 1042.

Loc. Sandy and gravelly soil; common in all the districts. A. June, August.

11. T. filiforme, slender T., so called from the threadlike flower stalks; filum, signifying a thread, and forma, form. Bab. 79. E.B. 1257.

Loc. Heathy places, and dry sandy pastures, not uncommon A. June, July.

LEA. 1. Hertford Heath. Ware Park, &c. 2. High Heath, Codicote. 4. West Mill. 6. Martin's Green. 9. Wigginton Common.

COLNE. 7. Colney Heath.

10. Bernard Heath, St. Alban's. OUSE. 12. Royston.

LOTUS. Bird's-foot Trefoil.

LINN. CL. xvii. ORD. ïii.

NAME. There were several plants which the Ancients called Lotus; one of them seems to have been of this order, and is mentioned in Homer as the common food of horses.

“ Λωτον ερεπτομενοι ελεοθρεπτον τε σελινον.”
"Feeding on lotus, and marsh-fed Selinum."

Another was the Lote tree of the S. of Europe (Zizyphus Lotos) which is supposed to be the Lotos of Homer's "Lotophagi" (Odyss. ix. 84.) The Egyptian Lotus was, as before stated, Nymphæa Lotus; the Italian Lotus is Diospyros Lotus; and that of Hippocrates, Celtis australis. 1. L. corniculatus, horned, common B. Smith 3.312. Lind. 81. Bab. 79. E.B. 2090. 2 ed. 1043.


Loc. Pastures, dry banks, &c. Common in all the A variety, B. villosus, in which the pubescence is long and spreading, instead of adpressed, grows in Præ Wood, near St. Alban's; c.H. P. July, August.

2. L. major, greater B. Smith 3.313. Lind. 82. Bab. 80. E.B. 2091. 2 ed. 1044.

Loc. Wet bushy places, common. We have no record of this plant in Wheathamstead or Royston Districts,

though there can be little doubt it grows in the former. P. July, August.

3. L. tenuis, slender narrow-leaved B. Lind. 82. E.B. Supp. 2615. There is much doubt whether this has any claim to be a distinct species. Babington mentions it as var. d. tenuis, of corniculatus. We leave this point, however, for others to settle, and give the stations as recorded by us. Loc. Pastures and borders of fields, on clay; generally with or near Trifolium medium, and Genista tinctoria. P. June, August.

LEA. 1. By Mangrove Lane, Hertford; and on the E. side of Brickendonbury. In the Orchis Field, near the footpath to Bayford. Plentiful on the E. side of Ball's

Wood. 6. Near Chalk Lodge, Cheshunt Common. COLNE. 7. Between Colney Heath and N. Mimms Park.

OUSE. 11. Half a mile E. of Pirton Church!; and abundant about Highdown; I.B. By the footpath from Weston to Baldock.


LINN. CL. xvii. ORD. iii.

NAME. Probably from the seeds of some species taking a conical form by mutual pressure in the pod, and thus resembling aσrpayaλo (astragaloi), dice.

1. A. hypoglottis, Tongue under Tongue, or purple M. So called from iTо (hypo), under, and yλwτra (glotta), a tongue, in reference to the shape of the pods, which bear some resemblance to a tongue. Smith 3.294. Lind. 78. Bab. 81. E.B. 274. 2 ed. 1023.

Loc. Open, chalky pastures; rare. of the County. P. June, July.


Confined to the N.

11. On Lilley Hoo; I.B. 12. Royston! and Sandon Heath; H.F. Ashwell Quarries! Mrs. Morice!

2. A. glycyphyllus, sweet M. or Liquorice Vetch, so called from yλukus (glukus) sweet, and puλλov (phullon) a leaf, the leaf having a pleasant taste in the mouth, but changing to bitter. Smith 3.294. Lind. 78. Bab. 81.

E.B. 203. 2 ed. 1022.

Loc. Thickets on a chalky or gravelly soil; the former, at present only found in the North. OUSE. 11. In three closes at Pirton! I.B. Head, S.W. of Hitchin; J.R.

ORNÍTHOPUS. Bird's-foot.

LINN. CL. xvii. ORD. iii.

rare;_ like P. June. Near Well

NAME. So called from the cluster of beaded pods resembling Tous (pous,) the foot, opritos (ornithos), of a bird. 1. O. perpusillus, very small B.; pusillus, of itself, means small; which with per prefixed, becomes a superlative. Smith 3.290. Lind. 87. Bab. 86. E.B. 369. 2 ed. 1019. Loc. Gravel pits and dry sandy pastures; rare. May, July.


LEA. 1. In the plantation near Gallows' Plain, Hertford. Hertford Heath. Goose Green. Bull's Green. Gravel pit behind Burford House, Hoddesdon. 2. Between Bull's Green and Datchworth. High Heath, Codicote. Roadside between Welwyn and Mardley Heath. 3. Gravel pit by the road from Wempstead to Bennington. 5. Patmore Heath. 6. Near Coffley's. Leggatts, Northaw. Gravel pit between the Rye House and Hoddesdon.

COLNE. 7. Milward's Park. Colney Heath. 8. Charley Wood Common, Rickmansworth. 10. Sand-pit Lane, St. Alban's; C.H. Bernard Heath.

HIPPOCRÉPIS. Horse-Shoe Vetch.

LINN. CL. xvii. ORD. iii.

NAME. From the legume resembling KPIs (crepis) the shoe of a horse innos (hippos).

1. H. comosa, tufted H. Smith 3.291. Lind. 88. Bab. 87. E.B. 31. 2 ed. 1020.

Loc. Chalk pits, chalky pastures, and dry chalky banks; locally plentiful, but not general. P. May, Aug. LEA. 1. Chalk pit behind the Hertford Union House. In the steep pasture between Chadwell and the Ware road. 3. Between Watton and Walkerne; and between Walkerne and Weston.

COLNE. 9. About Aldbury Nowers Wood, near Tring OUSE. 11. Abundant on the chalk hills near Hitchin; I.B. About RAVENSBURGH CASTLE, Hexton. 2. Sandon and Royston Heaths; H.F.


ONOBRÝCHIS. Saint-foin.

LINN. CL. xvii. ORD. iii.

NAME. Ovoẞpuxos (onobrychos) is the Greek name of some plant, apparently from its being grateful to the ass. From ovos (onos) an ass, and ßpuxw (brucho) to gnaw.

1. O. sativa, cultivated S., Cock's-head. Smith 3.292. (Hedysarum O.) Lind. 88. Bab. 87. E.B. 96. 2 ed. 1021. Loc. Chalk pits, bushy places, and borders of fields on a chalky soil; frequent throughout the county, though we have no record of it yet in No. 8 (Rickmansworth).

VICIA. Vetch.

LINN. CL. xvii. ORD. iii.

NAME. An old Latin word of uncertain origin. The derivation from vincire, to bind, (on account of its tendrils), is plausible, but not very admissible, as that verb never drops the n in its conjugation.

1. V. sylvatica, Wood V. Smith 3.279. Lind. 84. Bab. 82. E.B. 79. 2 ed. 1008.

Loc. Woods and thickets; rare. Apparently confined to our most elevated hills. P. July, August.


COLNE. 9. Near Tring (Mr. Dickson) Clutt.

OUSE. 11. Wain!, Hitch, and Trunks Wood; I.B.

2. V. Cracca, Tufted Wood V. Cracca is a word used by Pliny to denote a species of Vetch. Smith 3.280. Lind. 84. Bab. 83. E.B. 1168. 2 ed. 1009.

Loc. In moist bushy places, open to the sun; frequent in all the districts. P. June, August.

3. V. sativa, cultivated V. Smith 3.281. Lind. 84. Bab. 84. E.B. 334. 2 ed. 1010.

Loc. Borders of fields, bushy places, &c.; frequent, but probably not indigenous, having long been sown as an early fodder for cattle. A. May, June.

LEA. 1. Hertford. Essendon.

4. Buntingford. 6. Cheshunt.

3. N.E. of Watton.

COLNE. 7. N. Mimms. 9. Tring. Great Berkhamstead; E.W.! 10. St. Alban's; C.H.

OUSE. 11. Hitchin; I.B.

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