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on the bosom of the water, or actually sink beneath its surface, till revived by the return of day, when,


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LINN. Cl. xiii. ORD. i.

NAME. From neufar, an Arabic word.

1. N. lutea, Yellow Water Lily. Smith 3.16. Lind. Bab. 11. E.B. 159. 2 ed. 766.

Loc. Slow streams; rarely in upland ponds; not very common in the county. P. July.

LEA. 1. Frequent in the Lea from Hertford to Waltham; pond by Elbow-lane (HERMAN-STREET) a little S. of Hertford Heath; in the Lea between Hatfield-park and Woolmers. 2. Wheathamstead. 4. Buntingford. 5. Stortford. Sawbridgeworth; G.W. 6. Cheshunt.

COLNE. 7. R. Colne, between Apsbury and Colneystreet. 8. Rickmansworth. Harefield River (Colne), near the Mill; BLACKSTONE. 10. St. Alban's; c.H.

The flowers of this plant have a vinous or brandy-like smell, which with the bottle-shape of its capsules, have obtained for it the provincial name of "Brandy Bottle."



From the Poppy I have ta'en
Mortal's balm and mortal's bane,
Juice, that creeping through the heart,
Deadens ev'ry sense of smart ;

Doomed to heal or doomed to kill,

Fraught with good or fraught with ill.




LINN. Cl. xiii. ORD. i.

From papa, pap; or more probably from pasco,

pavi (Lat.), because eaten by the Romans.

"Lilia verbenasque premens, vescumque papaver."-VIRGIL.

1. P. hybridum, hybrid Corn P. Smith 3.9. Lind. 16. Bab. 12. E.B. 43. 2 ed. 753.

Loc. Open corn fields on a chalky soil; rare. A. June, July.


OUSE. 11. Near Hitchin Union Workhouse! ; and in several fields S. and E. of Highdown; I.B.! 12. Between Clothall and Baldock; between Caldecote and Ashwell; near Arbury Banks, Ashwell; near Highley-hill, Ashwell; at Bygrave; between Baldock and Wallington; between Barkway and Royston.

2. P. Argémone, Argemone-like; long, rough-head P. The name Argemone was given by the Greeks to a plant which was supposed to cure Apyeμa (Argema), Cataract of the eye. Smith 3.10. Lind. 16. Bab. 12. E.B. 643. 2 ed. 752.

Loc. Corn fields, chiefly on a dry gravelly soil; frequent throughout the county. A. June, July.

LEA. 1. About Hertford; Essendon; &c.; plentiful on Gallow's-plain, and on the gravelly soil to the N.W. of Hertford. 2. At Kimpton. 3. Stevenage. 5. Much Hadham; Sawbridgeworth; G.w. 6. Cheshunt.

COLNE. 7. N. Mimms; R.G.c. near Smallford Church. 10. Corn fields, near St. Alban's, occasionally; 1.c. OUSE. 11. Hitchin; I.B. 12. Kelshall, frequent; H.F.

3. P. dubium, doubtful Corn P., or long smooth-headed P.; a species between Argémone and Rhoas. Smith 3.10. Lind. 17. Bab. 12. E.B. 644. 2 ed. 754. Loc. Old walls and gravelly banks; also occasionally in corn fields; frequent. A. June, July.

LEA. 1. Old walls at Hertford; fields to the N.W. of Hertford; Mead-lane; Bengeo Fir Grove, &c.; banks by Mangrove-lane; about Stanstead Almshouses; at Essendon; in Sandy-lane; near Cole Green ; under Dawley's Wood, Tewin. 2. About Kimpton. 3. Stevenage; Bennington Brook. 4. Puckeridge; Westmill; Throcking. 5. Stortford; Sawbridgeworth; G.w. 6. Cheshunt.

COLNE. 7. N. Mimms; R.G.C. 9. towing-path at G. Berkhamstead. 10. Corn fields at St. Alban's, occasionally; 1.c. old walls at St. Alban's; roadside near St. Michael's.

OUSE. 11. Hitchin; I.B. 12. Royston; J.a.!

4. P. Rhoas, Pomegranate, or Common Poppy. Round smooth-headed P., named from Pola (Rhoia), or Poa (Rhoa)

(Gr.), a pomegranate, which it resembles in its scarlet flowers. Smith 3.11. Lind. 17. Bab. 12. E.B. 645. 2 ed. 755. Loc. Fields, abundant, especially on light and chalky soils. A. June, July.

General in all the districts. P. Rhoas is by far the most abundant of our poppies, and few persons who are not botanists are aware that we have any other. A specimen with white flowers was gathered at Ashwell by a lady (Mrs. Morice) some years since.

5. P. somniferum, † somniferous or Opium P. Our plant is the variety (?) B. nigrum, with purple flowers and black Smith 3.11. Lind. 17. Bab. 13. E.B. 2145. 2 ed.




In sandy ground and light soils. A. July. LEA. 1. In an old chalk pit in the bottom between Tewin Water Park and Dawley's Wood, far from any house. 3. Plentiful in a rabbit warren between Bennington High Wood and the road from Watton to Walkern.


7. Near the house in N. Mimms Park; R.G.C.

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NAME. From xexidov (Chelidon) (Gr.), a swallow; flowering about the arrival of that bird.

1. C. majus,* Greater or Common C. Smith 3.4. Lind. 18. Bab. 13. E.B. 1581 2 ed. 747.

Loc. Hedge banks, generally near houses; frequent. P. May, August.

LEA. 1. Frequent about Hertford; Hertingfordbury; Essendon; Hatfield; Bengeo; Amwell; Stanstead. 2. Between Wheathamstead and Luton; near Kimpton; Welwyn; Harmer Green; between Welwyn and Digswell. 3. Near Broadwater. 4. Barkway. 5. Much Hadham; Sawbridgeworth; G.W. 6. Near Wormley Church; at Cheshunt.

COLNE. 7. Near Colney Street; at the front of Brookman's house. Near Shenley; R.G.C. 8. Near Rickmansworth.. 9. Tring. 10. Lane by St. Peter's Almshouses, St. Alban's; c.H. By the Gas Works, St. Alban's; near Little Mill, Redbourn.

OUSE. 11. Hitchin! I.B.


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Kopudaris (Korydalis), the ancient Greek name for Fumitory. From korudalos, a lark, on account of the spurred flower resembling the foot of that bird.

1. C. lutea,* yellow C. Smith 3.253. Lind. 19. Bab. 14. E.B. 588. 2 ed. 984.

Loc. Old walls, rare. P. May, August.

LEA. 1. At Ware, on a garden wall by the footpath to Rush Green; on the garden wall at Bayford Place.

COLNE. 10. Walls about St. Alban's Abbey; old walls in St. Michael's and St. Peter's Streets. C.H. Dagnal Lane! 1.c.

OUSE. 11. Hitchin, on Mr. Sharples' garden wall! I.B.


2. C. solida, solid, bulbous-rooted C. Smith 3.253. Lind. 19. Bab. E.B. 1471. 2 ed. 983.

Loc. Groves; rare. P. April, May.

LEA. 6. In a plantation at Applebury Street, plentiful and spreading into the adjoining fields. W.S.



FUMÁRIA. Fumitory.

LINN. Cl. xvii. ORD. i.

NAME. The fumaria of Latin authors; so called from the smell of some species resembling smoke (fumus). French, fumeterre, whence the English Fumitory.

1. F. officinalis, officinal or common F. Smith, 3.255. Lind. 19. Bab. 14. E.B. 589. 2. ed. 986.

Loc. Fields and waste ground; common.


General in all the districts.

A. May,


2. F. capreolata, tendrilled, or ramping F. 3.256. Lind. 19. Bab. 14. E.B. 943. 2 ed. 987. The name capreolata means furnished with capreoli (Lat.), tendrils; which word is a diminutive of caprea, and signifies first a roe or deer; secondly, a branch that putteth forth tendrils; and is used in this sense by Varro. Loc. Cultivated ground, chiefly on chalk; rare. June, Sept.


LEA. Î. In a chalky field near Easney Park Wood, on the footpath to Ware.

COLNE. 10. Hedge near the Camp; hedge by Gorhambury Road, near St. Michael's Church, St. Alban's; C.H. Kensworth Hill, near Dunstable; between Dunstable and Caddington; near Zouches Farm.

OUSE. 11. By the road from Baldock to Weston. 12. Pretty general by the ICKNIELD WAY, between Royston and Baldock.

3. F. micrantha, small flowered. This plant was sent to us in June, 1845, by our esteemed correspondent Mr. W. Dawson, and described as found by him in company with F. officinalis and Vaillantii in the neighbourhood of Hitchin. He says "I gathered the latter (Vaillanti) in four different fields, extending southerly and interruptedly in a line from Oughton Head River near its source, to a field near Bolton Farm. The extreme localities are about half a mile apart.”

4. F. Vaillantii, Vaillant's; so called after Vaillant, a French botanist and traveller. Bab. 15. Loc. Fields on a chalky soil; rare.



A. June. Sept.

OUSE. 1. Hitchin; I.B. & W.D. (see F. micrantha). Kelshall; H.F.!

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