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Thickets; very rare.

Sh. May.

1. There were more than a dozen bushes of this species at intervals along the hedge of a ploughed field between Port-hill and Bengeo-street. They attracted our attention by retaining their leaves some time after the rest of the hedge was bare; which circumstance may lead to its detection elsewhere. The fruit ripens but sparingly. The ground has since been sold in small lots for building, and the hedge mostly destroyed. Two or three plants still remain.-1844.


LINN. Cl. v. Ord. iii.

NAME. An old word used by Pliny and others to signify the elder-tree, derived from sambuca, a musical instrument, usually made of this tree.

Ebulus, a word

1. S. Ebulus, dwarf E. or Danewort. used by Pliny to denote some plant with red berries. Our ancestors evinced a hatred of their enemies, the Danes, in supposing this nauseous, fœtid, and noxious plant to have sprung from their blood; hence it was formerly called Dane-wort. Smith 2.108. Lind. 132. Bab. 151. E.B. 475. 2 ed. 444.

Loc. Hedges, and waste, especially chalky, ground; very rare. P. August.

LEA. 3. In a hedge by the footpath from Aston to Shephall in the bottom, plentifully. 4. By the high road about half-a-mile S. of Barkway! G.S.! 6. A weed in our garden at Cheshunt. Mr. Paul. (We have little doubt this is Egopodium Podograria, often called "dwarf Elder” by gardeners.-ED.)

COLNE. 7. Abundantly about six miles from Barnet, at a place called Ratley or Ratcliffe, on the left hand by the roadside. M. & G.

OUSE. 11. Near Bush Wood, Weston, in the hedge of a field on the E. side of the lane leading to Wellbury-farm.

2. S. nigra, common or black-berried E. In Scotland, Bountry. Smith 2.109. Lind. 132. Bab. 151. E.B. 476. 2 ed. 445.

Loc. Hedges, common in all the districts, especially on chalk. T. June.

VIBURNUM. Guelder-Rose.

LINN. CL. V. ORD. iii.

NAME. A word of doubtful origin, used by Virgil.
Quantum lenta solent inter Viburna Cupressi.-ECL. 1.

Perhaps "quòd vias ornat," because it" adorns the ways" Eng. The Way-faring Tree; a name synonymous with The Traveller's Joy, Clematis vitalba.

1. V. Lantána, Mealy G.R. Way-faring-tree. Lantana was the old name of Viburnum, now applied to the species. The young shoots, and under surface of the leaves are thickly clothed with stellated tufts of down, communicating a mealy appearance, and hence the English name Meal-tree, or Mealy G.R. The uncertain origin of the other name (Wayfaring tree) has given occasion to the following pretty lines by W. Howitt:

"Way-faring tree-what ancient claim
Hast thou to that right pleasant name?
Was it that some faint pilgrim came
Unhopedly to thee

In the brown desert's weary way,

'Midst thirst and toil's consuming sway,
And there as 'neath thy shade he lay,
Bless'd the Way-faring Tree?

Or is it that thou lov'st to show
Thy coronals of fragrant snow
Like life's spontaneous joys that flow
In paths by thousands beat?
Whate'er it be I love it well,
A name methinks that surely fell
From poet in some evening dell,
Wandering with fancies sweet.

Viburnum tinus, a native of the S. of Europe, is the pretty Laurustinus of our gardens. Smith 2.107. Lind. 132. Bab. 151. E.B. 331. 2 ed. 442.

Loc. Hedges and copses, chiefly on the chalk. T. May. LEA. 1. Mangrove-lane, Hertford; by the Ware and London roads, etc.; copse by the North-road opposite Bull's-mill; Easney Park-wood; Stanstead Thrift; under the Bayfordbury pale near the Ophrys station; hedge near Essendonbury-farm; lane between the R. Lea and Essendon West-end; banks of the Maran, a little below Lockleys. 2. Wheathampstead. 3. Welwyn. 4. Buntingford. 5. Stortford. Sawbridgeworth. G.W.

COLNE. 8. Aldenham. 9. Tring. lane, St. Stephen's. c.H. St. Alban's.

10. King-Harry

11. Hitchin!; I.B.

OUSE. Common in this district. 12. Royston; J.A.! Near Odsey. (Miss Barnard) H.F.

2. V. Opulus, common G.R. Water Elder. Opulus is a word used by Varro and others. The marginal flowers of each cyme in this plant are barren, and consist of a large, irregular, five-lobed petal, without organs of fructification; those of the centre are smaller, regular, and furnished with stamens and pistils. The Guelder Rose or Snow-ball of the gardens is a variety of this, in which the figure of the cyme is altered, owing to the central flowers being abortive and dilating their petals like those of the circumference. Cowper describes the pleasing effect produced by the flowers of this tree when mingled with others:

"The scentless rose and tall,

And throwing up into the darkest gloom
Of neighbouring cypress, or more sable yew,
Her silver globes, light as the foaming surf
That the wind severs from the broken wave."

The snow-ball was an accidental variety raised from seed and has been perpetuated by cuttings.

Lind. 132. Bab. 151. E.B. 332. 2 ed. 443.

Smith 2.107.

Loc. Woods and damp shady places; frequent in all the districts. T. June, July.


Plants agreeing with Loranthus in many important characters.

Hail, silvery, modest Mistletoe,

Wreath'd round Winter's brow of snow,

Clinging so chastely, tenderly;

Hail Holly, darkly, richly green,

Whose crimson berries blush between

Thy prickly foliage, modestly.

Ye winter-flowers, bloom sweet and fair,
Though Nature's garden else be bare.

Ye vernal glistening emblems meet

To twine a Christmas coronet.



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The name of Latin authors, derived from ioxw

(ischo), the same as exw (echo), to hold.

1. V. album, common white M. Johnson says the word mistletoe is of Saxon or Danish origin; might it not be derived from mistus (Lat.), mingled or joined to; in allusion to its growth on other plants. In Cornwall and Devon they call Cuscuta, mistletoe; the true being rare or wanting. Smith 4.236. Lind. 133. Bab. 150. E.B. 1470. 2 ed. 1386.

Loc. Parasitical on various trees, chiefly on the hawthorn; not very common. P. March, April.

LEA. 1. Stanstead. T.F. Balls-park! L.M. on the lime (Tilia). On Crataegus Oxycantha in Bayfordbury, Brickendonbury, Panshanger, and Bedwell parks. On Tilia in Ware and Marden Hill parks. On Tilia in Woolmers avenue; on Pyrus malus, at Watton Woodhall; in an orchard at Broad Oak End; and by the lane to Brickendon. On the maple (Acer campestre) in Sacombe-park; on Salix alba by the R. Lea, Bayfordbury; on Populus tremula at Ludwicke Hyde-farm. 2. Old apple trees at Woolmer-green, near Welwyn; and at the Gun-farm 1 m. N. of Woolmer-green. W.I.B. 3. On Crataegus Ox. in Knebworth-park. W.1.B. 5. Sawbridgeworth. G.w. 6. On lime trees at Bone (Bohun) gate, East Barnet. (Th. Knowlton). Dillwyn in Hortus Collinsonianus.

COLNE. 7. On lime trees at Cannons. Th. Knowlton in Hort. Collins. 8. In Moor-park. w.P. 9. Ashridgepark. E.W. 10. St. Alban's. C.H. On nuts and filberts at Market-street. Knowlton in Hort. Coll.

OUSE. 11. Hitchin. I.B.


Plants agreeing with Rubia in important characters. This order is the same as the STELLATE of some botanists.

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1. S. arvensis, blue S. or corn-field Madder. 1.196. Lind. 130. Bab. 152. E.B. 891. 2 ed. 200.


Loc. Fields on chalk and gravel; frequent in all the districts. A. May, July.

ASPERULA. Woodruff.

LINN. CL. iv. ORD. i.

NAME. A diminutive of asper (Lat) rough; whence the English name Wood-roof or ruff.

1. A. cynanchica, Quinsy W. Squinancy Wort. It had the name cynanchica, because it was used as a remedy for the disease called Squinancy or Quinsy (Zuvayxn) and was thence in English termed Squinancy-wort. The termination "wort," is of Saxon origin, and was applied as a general name for an herb; whence it still continues in many as Liverwort, Spleenwort, and the above, Squinancywort. Smith 1.198. Lind. 130. Bab. 153. E.B. 33. 2 ed. 202.

Loc. Chalky banks; rare in the S., but more or less common in the N. of the county. P. June, July.

LEA. 1. Chalk-pit behind Hertford Union workhouse. 2. Near Zouches farm, S.E. of Dunstable.

COLNE. 9. Chalky banks in the lanes S.W. of Tring; Holloway Down; Aldbury. 10. Kensworth. Near Flamstead. I.C. Near Beechwood (Miss Sebright) W.I.B. OUSE. 11. Hitchin. I.B. Roadside between Weston and Baldock. 12. Barkway, by the road to Chishall. Near Odsey (Miss Barnard) H.F.

Smith 1.197. Lind. 130.

2. A. odorata, sweet W. Bab. 153. E.B. 755. 2 ed. 201. Loc. Woods on a loamy soil;

frequent. P. May,

June. LEA. 1. Scarce in the immediate vicinity of Hertford; Quicks-hill-wood, Hertford-heath; Bayford-wood; copse by the roadside opposite Roxford; Hatfield Woodhall and Sherrard's Park-woods; woods at Bramfield and Tewin; wood between Popes and Hatfield-park. 2. Wheathampstead; Kimpton; Ayott; Harmer-green-woods. 3. Stevenage; Ninnings-wood; woods W. of Knebworth. 6. Wormley and Broxbourne woods; wood near Beaumont-green.

COLNE. 7. N. Mimms woods in the park, etc.

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