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mendous action of the poem for a knowledge of heathen gods would be a poor exchange indeed. So it will not be necessary

for the pupil to seek too far for knowledge of Baälim, Ashtaroth, etc. Keep to the action in the poem.

One thing, however, should be carefully noted:-That Moloch, Belial, Mammon, etc., are personifications of the sins because of which the angels fell. Each of the principal fallen angels is a personification of one of the chief sins, as Hate, Sloth, Avarice, etc. It will be very interesting for the student to seek through the speech of each to identify him with one of the so-called "Seven Deadly Sins," for which see Encyc. Brit., VIII., 592-593, and Spenser's Faery Queen, B. I., Canto 4. These references should be carefully examined.

The places mentioned in the text appear on the maps in this book. See Table of Contents or Index for map directions. — Ed.

392. Moloch. See his speech B. II., 51-105. What one of the Deadly Sins does he typify? (For Seven Deadly Sins, see Encyc. Brit., VIII., 592-593). Find, on Map of Palestine, p. xxxv, territory in which Moloch, under his various names, was worshiped.

392-405. For places mentioned in these lines, see Map of Palestine, p. xxxv.

402-403. Temple . . . on opprobrious hill. Southern part of the Mount of Olives, supposed site of the temple built by Solomon for the worship of the gods of his heathen wives. 1 Kings xi. 7; 2 Kings xxiii. 13. See Map of Jerusalem, p. xxxv.

6. Chemos. Trace out on Map of Palestine, territory in

which Chemos, under his various names, was worshiped. Read note on B. I., 392–502.

406-418. See Map of Palestine, p. xxxv, for these places.

411. Asphaltic pool. Dead Sea. See Map of Palestine,

p. XXXV.

422. Baälim and Ashtaroth. explained in lines 419-423 of B. I.

438. Astoreth.

These words are sufficiently

Passage sufficiently explains itself. Seven Deadly Sins, Encyc. Brit., VIII., 592–593.

444. Uxorious king. See note on B. I., 402-403.

446. Thammuz.

Encyc. Brit., I., 163.

Personification of what?

455. Ezekiel saw. Ezekiel viii. 14.

457-463. Next came one . . . 1 Samuel v. 1-5.

460-466. Grunsel edge. Groundsill edge.

464. See Map of Palestine, p. xxxv.

468-469. See Map of Palestine, p. xxxv.


See Adonis,

470-476. Ahaz. 2 Chronicles xxviii. 22-25; 2 Kings 16.

471. Leper. 2 Kings v.

478. Osiris, Isis, Orus.

See encyclopædia.

482-484. Nor did . . Exodus xii. 35, and xxxii. 4.

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484-489. Rebel king. . . 1 Kings xii.

490. Belial.

Find from Belial's speech, B. II., 109-228, what sin he personifies. See Seven Deadly Sins, Encyc. Brit.,

VIII., 592-593.

490-502. Notice that Belial has no special temple. Why? What does he personify?

507-518. Titan. For places, see Map of Classical References, p. xxxvii. For personages, see dictionary, encyclopædia, classical dictionary, or any handbook of mythology.

514. Delphian cliff. Mt. Parnassus in Greece. See Map of Classical References, p. xxxvii.

517. Adria. Adriatic Sea. See Map of Classical References, p. xxxvii.

518. Celtic. Here, a noun. Western Europe, which, in ancient times was inhabited by the Celts.

543. Have you read, in this book, the chapter entitled "The Cosmography of the Universe as Found in Paradise Lost"?

546. Orient. Sunrise. What are sunrise colors? Imagine banners with this appearance. Compare this description of Satanic banners with the description of the American flag in Drake's famous poem. See Himes's note on B. I., 522-669, Himes's Paradise Lost, Harpers, 1898.

550. Dorian mood. แ "Grave; as the Lydian was soft, and the Phrygian sprightly.” — Sprague. See lines 5–6, stanza 5, Dryden's Alexander's Feast.


575. Small infantry. . . . See "Pygmies" in any classica) dictionary, or Greek mythology, under "Labors of Hercules."

For an excellent note on "Pygmies," see Encyc. Brit., XX., 120. But do not lose sight of the comparison.

577. Phlegra. In Thrace, north of Ægean Sea. Referring to Giants' War, Greek mythology.

580. Uther's son. King Arthur. See Tennyson's Idyls of the King.

582-587. References to famous knightly feats at arms for purpose of comparison. The geographical references amount to nothing to the average student. For his comparison, he should recall any famous tale of knightly valor that he may have read. 583. Charlemain. Milton errs here. It was Roland, not Charlemain (Charlemagne), who fell in this battle.

592. Her. Peculiar use. See Psalm cxxxvii. 5.

622-662. Study this speech for its crafty skill. Outline it. Make a comparison with Antony's speech over Cæsar.

678. Mammon. What does he personify?

694. Babel. Genesis xi. 1–9.

Memphian kings. Reference to building of pyramids. See classical dictionary.

700-709. Image this.

704. Scummed the bullion dross. Removed impurities from the surface of molten metal, or "skimmed" the bullion's (pure metal's) dross.

720. See classical dictionary or encyclopædia.

738-746. Observe the music of these lines.

739. Ausonian land.


740. Mulciber. Vulcan. See classical dictionary or encyclopædia.

746. Lemnos. See Map of Classical References, p. xxxvii. 756. Pandemonium. See dictionary, and Chart of Hell, p. xxix. 763-766. Champions bold. Reference to challenges to combat between Crusaders and Saracens.

765. Paynim. Pagan, referring particularly to Mohamme dans. Recall Ivanhoe's challenge in Scott's novel.

780-781. Pygmean . . . Indian mount. The best reference on these lines is to be found in Encyc. Brit., XX., 120, especially the part from Ctesias.

781-788. Faery elves. See Midsummer Night's Dream, Act II., sc. 2.


2. Ormuz. Ormus or Omuz, a rocky island, twelve miles in circumference, at the entrance of the Persian Gulf. Once a great center of the Indian trade westward. Captured by the British in 1622, and thus brought prominently to English notice. See Lippincott's Pron. Gaz.

Ind. Poetical term for India, of which fabulous tales of wealth were current.

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