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1 78 2.


ANNUAL REGISTER 1780. Retrospective || Memoirs of the late Lord HAWKE 7.

AMERICA. Letter to Lord Stirling, giving

an account of an expedition in Canada 27.

Troops fent to the fouthern colonies 28.

Maj. Craig leaves Wilmington ib. Pro-

clamation by Gen. Leslie ib. Counter

proclamations are iffued by the American

generals ib. Accounts of the taking of St

Eustatius 29. Convoy arrives at Barbadoes

31. State of French fleet at Martinico 32.

Adm. Hood arrives in the West Indies
from America ib.

view of affairs in 1779. State of the bel-
ligerent powers in Germany 1. Pacific
views of the Emprefs-Queen, feconded by
Ruffia and France 3. Treaty of peace
concluded 4. Differences between Ruffia
and the Porte ib. New convention con-
cluded 7.
PARLIAMENT. Mr Fox's motion for an
inquiry into the conduct of the First Lord
of the Admiralty 9. Speeches of Capt. J.
Luttrell and Lord Mulgrave 11. Papers
moved for 12. Inquiry poftponed ih. en-
tered upon ib. Speeches, of Mr Fox 11.
Lord Mulgrave 16. Lord Howe 19. Mr
Webb 20. Division ib.
Subtance of ADMIRALTY-PAPERS laid
before the House of Commons 20.

ANECDOTE, from a Philadelphia newspaper

Fabricius on the AMERICAN WAR. Let

ter V. 32.

Fictitious penitential LETTER to M. Ar-

naud 34. Answer 35.

POETRY. Prologue and Epilogue to the
Miniature Picture 44. Ode to the Sun


Domestic so.-54.


LISTS. Marriages, Births, &c. 54. 56.

TABLES. Linen, Aberdeen Infirmary, &c.



New Books. Falconer on the influence
of climate 36. Religion 40. Hiftory,
Law, Politics ib. Medicine 41. Mifcel
laneous 44. Plays and Poetry ib.


Retrospective view of affairs in 1779.
HE little effect produced by
the contention of the greatest
leaders, and of the greatest
armies in the world, during
the campaign of 1778, in Bohemia, if
not entirely fufficient to produce an actual
defire of peace on both fides, could not,
however, fail to induce a kind of languor
and wearifomeness, and in fome confi-
derable degree to wear away that quick
telifh, and keen appetite for war, which
great and untried force and talents, acting
under the fanguine hopes of yet unfoiled

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We have heretofore fhewn, that this

was not fo much a war of choice, as of
prudence, forefight, and political necef-
fity, on the fide of the King of Pruffia,
He made no claims; he had no imme
diate object of enlarging his dominions in
view; nor if he had, was the present state
of public affairs in any degree favourable
to fuch a defign. Neither his time of
life, his great experience in war, nor the
full knowledge he had of the power and
ability of his adverfary, were at all cal-
culated to excite a fpirit of enterprise. On
the contrary, the defire of fettling, im-
proving, and confolidating with his an-
cient people and dominions, the new
fubjects and acquifitions he had gained

on the fide of Poland, together with that still stronger wish, of tranfmitting a peace able poffeffion, and undiminished force, to his fucceffor, were objects which tended powerfully to difpofe him to the prefervation, fo far as it could be properly and wifely done, of the public tranquillity.

ly baffled all the efforts made by the King of Pruffia for gaining his favourite point of a general action, and defeated his views of obtaining any sure hold in the country, tended more remotely to that effect. Such a view of the circumstances of the campaign, could afford no great encouragement to an obftinate perfeverance in the conteft. A defenfive war, however ably conducted, or however abounding with negative fuccefs, could by no means, whether in point of honour or effect, antwer the purposes for which it was undertaken; and the profpects of changing its nature were confined indeed. However numerous or cogent the caufes and motives we have afligned, or others of a fimilar nature, might have been on either fide, for the difcontinuance of an unprofitable war, they would have been found unable to fubdue the ftrong paffions by which they were opposed, if another, of greater power than the whole taken together, had not, happily for Germany, and perhaps for no small part of the rest of Europe, supervened in restoring the public tranquillity. The late illuftrious Maria Theresa, along with her other eminent virtues and great qualities, poffeffed at all times, however counteracted by the operation of a high and powerful ambition, a mind ftrongly impreffed wit an awful fenfe of religion. This difpofition, which naturally increafed with years, was farther ftrengthened by the melancholy arifing from the early lofs of a husband whom the tenderly loved; and was latterly finally confirmed, by the happy fettlement of her numerous offspring, which freeing the mind from care and folicitude, tended equally to wean it from the affairs of the world.

But no motives, however cogent, could juftify to him, in a political view, the admitting of any confiderable addition of ftrength and dominion to the power of the house of Auftria; more especially, when this addition was to establish a precedent of innovation and difmemberment, which might in time be equally extended to all the other ftates that compofe the Germanic body. Upon the whole, it would almoft feem, as if fortune, who had fo often wonderfully befriended that hero, and whofe apparent defertions of him in cafes of great danger, (which were no lefs confpicuous than her favours), always tended ultimately to the increase of his fame, was now anxious to affix a new stamp to the renown of her old fåvourite; and of clofing his great military actions by a war, in which he was to appear, rather as the generous protector of the rights and liberties of the Germanic body at large, than as acting at all under the influence of any partial policy.

On the other fide, the paft compaign had afforded a full conviction to the Emperor (a prince prepared for war beyond almoft any other, by the fine ftate of his armies, and the refources of his own indefatigable and refolute fpirit) of the immenfe difficulty of making any fucceffful impreffion upon fuch an adversary as the King of Pruffia. With fo vaft a force, and affifted by such confurnmate commanders, he could only act upon the defenfive; and could not preveut his own dominions from being rendered the thea tre, and being confequently fubjected to all the calamities of war, It was true indeed, and no small matter of boast in fuch a conteft, that he had fuffered nei ther defeat nor difgrace; that the enemy had been obliged to abandon Bohemia, notwithstanding their utmost endeavours to establish a secure footing there during the winter; and likewife, that the loffes on both fides were pretty equally balanced. But then it was obvious, that the season was the immediate cause which compelled the enemy to retreat from Bohemia; however, the good difpofitions made by the Emperor, which equal

The event of the late struggle with the King of Pruffia, notwithstanding the im menfe affiftance the then received, and which the could not hope now to receive, must have added great force to these motives. She could not wish to end her life in the midft of fuch a war. It was accordingly much against the inclination of that great Princess, that the present war was undertaken; and fhe is faid to have fubmitted with the greateft reluc tance, to the opinion of her council, and the defire of the Emperor, on that point. For although that Prince could only derive his means of action through the power of his mother; yet it would have been a matter of exceeding difficulty to her, di rectly to thwart the opinion and inclina


Ury 1786: Retrospective view


tions of a fon, who was in the highest grand and capital objects, the neceflity

of keeping her force whole, her attention undivided, and of reftoring peace upon the continent, were all equally obvious, and were all mutually dependent. No wifdom could foresee, or venture to prefcribe, what unexpected connections and alliances might spring up, and what new collifions of interefts might take place, under a further progrefs of the war. France could not recollect the ruin out fhuddering at the thoughts of Gerbrought upon her in the late war, withmany. It is not then to be wondered, that she was equally fincere and zealous in her endeavours to restore tranquillity on the continent.

degree deservedly dear to her, who was to be her fole and immediate fucceffor, and who scarcely stood higher in her affction than in her efteem. It was probably this reluctance to the war, on the fide of the Empress-Queen, which pro dced those various appearances of flucruation in the councils, or of irrefolution and indecifion in the conduct, of the court of Vienna, of which we have formerly taken notice. [vol. 42.]

The ineffectiveness of the campaign, the equal fortune of the war, and the ceflation of action occasioned by the winter, ferved, all together, to produce a fate of temper and difpofition, which was far more favourable to the pacific views and wishes of the Emprefs, than that which had hitherto prevailed. She perceived, and feized the opportunity; and immediately applying her powerful influence to remove the obstacles which food in the way of an accommodation on the one fide, had foon the fatisfaction of difcovering that her views were well feconded, by the temperate difpofition A which prevailed on the other.

It is, however, to be observed, that the mediation of the court of Versailles, and the powerful interpofition of the court of Peterburg, contributed effentially to further the work of peace. bound, by the treaty of 1756, to affift France was the court of Vienna with a confiderable body of forces, in case of a war in Germany; and the had been called upon early in the prefent conteft to fulfil that engagement. The court of Versailles was likewife difpofed to wish well to the houfe of Auftria from private motives; as well as to cultivate and cement the new friendship and alliance from public. But France being likewise a guarantee of the treaty of Weftphalia, her old engagements militated totally with her new in the prefent inftance; the being thereby bound to refift all fuch infractions and invafions of the rights of the Germanic body, as thofe which the was now called tipon by the court of Vienna to fupport. She must therefore, in any fituation in which he was not difpofed to become an abfolute party in the conteft, with to be relieved from this dilemma. war with England, and her views with But her refpect to America, operated more forcibly upon her conduct on this occafion than any German treaties or connections. la the contemplation and purfuit of thefe

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beginning fhewn and expreffed the ftrongThe court of Petersburg had from the eft difapprobation of the conduct, and paid no favourable attention to the claims, of that of Vienna; and had ear ly avowed a full intention of effectually fupporting the rights of the Germanic body; at the fame time that preparations were actually made for the march of a large body of Ruffian troops. dium of her minifter Prince Repnin, had powerful interpofition, through the meHer no fmall effect in facilitating the negotiations for peace.

Under fuch circumftances, and the ofto be entertained of the event. Whefices of fuch mediators, little doubt was ther it proceeded from a view of giving weight to their claims in the expected treaty, or from any jealousy in point of arms or honour, which might have lain behind from the preceding compaign, however it was, the Austrians attacked with extraordinary vigour, and with no fmall degree of fuccefs, feveral of the Pruffian posts on the fide of Silefia and the county of Glatz, foon after the commencement of the year. The liveliness of thefe infults did not induce the King to any eagerness of retaliation. Points of honour of that nature weighed but little with him. He forefaw that an ac commodation would take place; and he knew that no advantages which could now be gained would teil in the account upon that fettlement; whilft a number of brave men would be idly loft without all fides was, however, published on the object or equivalent. An armistice on 10th of March 1779, before the feafon could have admitted the doing of any thing effential, if fuch had even been the intention. The

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