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JUBILEE. A solemn season recurring every
quarter of a century in the Church of Rome, marked chiefly by the indulgences granted by the pope to all of his commanion.
JURE DIVINO. "By Divine right." An expression frequently found in controversial writings.
KEYS, POWER OF THE. The authority held by the priesthood of administering the discipline of the church and granting or withholding its privileges.
KYRIE ELEISON. 'Lord have mercy on us." The name given to the minor Litany which is recited after the Introits. The only Eastern Liturgy which enjoins its recital on the priest is that of St. James.
LANTERN. The middle tower of a cruciform church when it is open over the cross.
LAURA. A name given to a collection of cells in a wilderness inhabited by monks, each of whom provided for his own wants. Formerly the monasteries in Ireland were called Lauras.
LECTURN. The reading desk placed in the choir of churches. It was generally made of wood, but sometimes of brass, the shape being an eagle with extended wings.
LENT. A movable fast coming in the spring of the year, and lasting from Ash Wednesday to Easter Sunday. It commemorates the fasting of the Saviour for forty days and also his passion, death and resurrection. Lent is observed in the Catholic and some Protestant churches, and Good Friday is, in England and other countries observed by a general suspension of business. In the Greek church the fast of Lent is rigorously observed and there are several repetitions throughout the year.
LITURGIA. Formerly the name most frequently applied to the mass and now in use through the East.
LOGOS. The Word. One of the titles of our
Lord. As men make known their sentiments to each other by speech, so God reveals His designs by His Son, the Word.
LYCHNOSCOPE. A narrow window near the ground, generally found at one end of the chancel, but sometimes in other parts of the church. There have been various opinions as to their use, but now they are supposed to have been confes
MANIPLE. A small strip of precious cloth, of the same substance as the Stole and chasuble, on which are embroidered
three crosses, one in the middle and one at each end. It is worn on the left wrist and is about two feet long and four inches wide, and when on, hangs equally on both sides. The Greeks wear two, one on each arm, and they are usually called Epimanikia, signifying something worn on the hand.
MASS, MISSA or MISSIO, dismissal. The origin of the word mass is disputed, but the general opinion of Roman Catholic writers is in favor of the above. They relate to the ancient custom of a two fold dismissal-the Catechumens before the Mass and the faithful at the end. The entire service was known by the plurals missæ or missiones.
MASS, BRIDAL OR NUPTIAL. In the Missal is found a Latin "Missa pro Sponso Et. Sponsa," i. c., Mass for the Bridegroom and Bride.
MASS, CONVENTUAL. The mass which the rectors and canons attached to a cathedral are required to celebrate each day after the hour of Tierce, which is about nine o'clock.
MASS, DRY. So called when the consecration and consumption of the elements are omitted. Not now in use.
MASS, PRIVATE. The mass when quietly celebrated in some oratory or chapel,
not accessible to all.
MASS, SHOES WORN AT. While bishops are not limited as to color, for the lower order of the clergy black is always precribed.
MASS, SIMPLE HIGH, OR MISSA CANTATA. The mass where there is neither deacon or sub-deacon ministering.
MASS, SOLEMN HIGH. So called when mass is solemnized with deacon and subdeacon and a full corps of inferior ministers. It is sometimes called grand, because of its ritualistic display. Also high, on account of the greater part of it being chanted in a high tone of voice.
MASS, SOLITARY. Mass said by a priest alone, without the attendance of the people or
even a server.
MASS, VOTIVE. Mass said by a priest, either to satisfy his own wishes or some member of his congregation.
The ancient name for those prayers offered about day-break.
MISERERE. 1st. The psalm usually selected for
penitential acts, being the 51st psalm. 2d. The seat of a stall made to turn up or down, so that it might be used for a seat or in long standing for a support. They are generally carved, and sometimes very handsomely.
Book of the
MISSAL. Lat. LIBER MISSALES.
The large appurtenance in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed at Benediction; sometimes carried in solemn procession. It has a large stem, the upper part resembling the rays of the sun. In its centre there is a circular aperture in which the lunette with the Blessed Sacrament enclosed is placed during the exposition. The material is the same as that of other vessels. None but the clergy are allowed to touch the sacred vessels.
The mass of mysteries.
The mass, so called by St. Dyonysius from its being a participation of the sacred mysteries.
NAVE. The central portion of a church extending from the choir to the principal
NIPTER. Lat. PEDILUVIUM. The ceremony of washing the feet. It is performed by Greek Christians on Good Friday, in imitation of our Lord.
PARVISE. The room over a church porch. It is used as a private room by some officer of the church, and sometimes as a temporary lodging for a priest.
PATEN. A small saucer-like dish, used to
cover the mouth of the chalice, and made of the same material, on which is placed the large bread for consecration.
PATER NOSTER. "Our Father." The Lord's prayer, having this preface: "Being admonished by salutary precepts, and taught by divine institution, we presume to say."
PAX, PEACE. An elaborately ornamented metal tablet used in the mediaval church to receive the kiss of peace by priests and people.
PAX VOBISCUM. "Peace be with you." A form of greeting used in the offices of the ancient Christian church.
PORCH. A part of the church where formerly marriage and baptismal services were partly performed and then completed i the church.
POSTILS. The ancient name for sermons or
PRIORY. A house occupied by an order of
PROTHESIS. Also called CREDENCE. It is that
secrated on the altar.
PULPIT. An elevated desk, generally placed in the nave of the church, from which the preacher addresses his congregation. Formerly sermons were delivered from the steps of the altar.
PURIFICATOR. Also called the Mundatory, is a piece of linen about twenty inches long, and when folded in three, four inches wide. In the centre there is a small cross, and it is kept wrapped in the Amice when not used.
Prx. A small box of gold or silver about the size and shape of a watch. It is used for carrying the Blessed Sacrament to the
SEE. The seat of episcopal dignity and juris-
SEPTUM. The enclosure made by the altar rails for the holy table.
SEPULCHRE. A niche usually at the north side of the altar used in the representations of our Lord's burial, resurrection and tomb, on Good Friday, Easter and before the Reformation. It is sometimes quite plain, at others very elaborate. The general subjects are the Roman soldiers sleeping and the angels.
SHRINE. The place of deposit for relics or other sacred things.
SOLIDEO. Lat. Solus and Deus.
A tight fit.ting white cap worn by the pope instead of the berretta. The pope takes this cap off to no earthly person, but to God only, during the more solemn part of the
STOLE. A band of precious cloth four inches wide and six feet long, worn around the neck and crossed on the breast, being kept in place by the cincture. A deacon is privileged to wear the stole from the time of bis ordination, but only over the left shoulder and fastened at the right side, the priest wearing it around both and crossed, while the hishop wears it pendant on both sides without crossing. In the Greek Church this is generally known as the Epitrachelion and differs from the others in being made in one piece with a seam worked along the middle, and having an opening at the top wide enough to allow the priest's head to pass through.
SYNAXIS. The mass so called by the Fathers as being the means of union with Christ.
TABERNACLE. A small structure resembling
a church placed in the centre of the altar. It is generally made of wood but sometimes of marble and is then lined with wood, and in it is kept the Holy Eucharist under lock and key.
TARGUM. A book of hymns used by the Nestorians. It is derived from the Syriac word turgn.o-interpretation.
TELEION. The mass signifying the perfect atonement made by the sacrifice of the Holy Lamb.
THURIBLE. The vessel in which the incense is burned. This is kept in a small boatshaped vessel and conveyed to the thurible by means of a small spoon.
TIARA. The pope's triple crown. That and the keys are the badges of his dignity: the tiara of his civil rank, and the keys of his jurisdiction.
TONSURE. The clerical method of wearing the hair. Shaving the top of the head, leaving a rim of hair at the base, signifies wearing a crown of thorns.
TRAVERSE. A seat of state covered with a
canopy for the use of the sovereign. It was formerly placed at the upper end of the choir in the royal chapels, and temporarily in cathedrals.
TRIFORIUM. The passage directly over the
arches of the great arcade, but also applied to any passage in the walls of a church.
TUNICLE. A garment worn by the minisister assisting at the Holy Communion. It has been the same as the dalmatic since the fourth century, before which time it had no sleeves.
VEIL. Made generally of silk, and used to cover the chalice.
VERGER. The one who carries the mace before the canons or dean in a cathedral or collegiate church. In some cathedrals the canons have their vergers, and the dean his, but frequently the verger goes before any member of the church.
VESTMENTS, COLORS OF THE. White, the symbol of purity, innocence and glory is
used at the special feasts of our Lord and the Blessed Virgin, and at those of the angels, virgins and confessors. Red, symbolic of fortitude is used at Pentecost and the feasts of the apostles and martyrs and the Lord's Passion. Green, the symbol of hope is used from the octave of the Epiphany to Septuagesima and from the octave of Pentecost to Advent. Violet, the symbol of penitence is used in times of public sorrow, fasting and penance, and in those procesIsions which do not immediately relate to the Blessed Sacrament. Also at the feast of the Holy Innocents, except when it comes on Sunday, when it is changed to red, as is also the color of the octave. Black is used in Masses and Offices of the dead and on Good Friday. In the Greek church there are but two colors, red and white, the latter being the general, while red is used in all masses for the dead and through Lent.
VIRGIN MARY, ANNUNCIATION OF THE BLESSED. A festival appointed by the church for the 25th of March to commemorate the appearance of the angel to Mary with the announcement that she should be the Mother of the Messiah.
WAFERS. The name given to the bread used by the Catholics in the Eucharist, and by the Lutheran Protestants in the Lord's Supper. They are formed to represent a Denarius or penny, the coin for which our Lord was betraved.
WEEK, HOLY. The last week in Lent in which the church commemorates the sufferings and death of our Lord. It is also called Passion Week and the Great Week.
WIEK, STILL. Also called Holy Week, at which time no bells are rung from Thursday until Saturday when they are rung in memory of our Lord's resurrec tion.
WHITSUN-DAY. Also called White Sunday. A festival in the church commemorating the descent of the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost. It occurs ten days after Holy Thursday or Ascension Day.
ZUCCHETTO. A small, closely fitting skull cap, in shape like a saucer. It can be worn by permission from the pope dur ing Mass from the beginning to the Preface, and from the end of communion to the completion of the service. It is of three colors, red, violet, and black. Red is worn by the cardinals, violet by the patriarchs, archbishops and bishops and black by all the other clergy.
GEMARA. A commentary on the Mishna.
KADDISH. A prayer recited in the Synagogue for the souls of departed parents,
KELAI KADESH. HOLY VESSELS. Silver ornaments used in the Synagogue to adorn the scrolls of the law.
KETHUBIM. WRITINGS. Containing the Psalms, Proverbs and the remaining books of the Bible.
KIDDUSH and HABDALLA. Prayers recited in Jewish houses; the first at the beginning, the latter at the close of Sabbaths and festivals. They are recited by the chief of the house, holding a glass of wine in his hand, at the conclusion of which he drinks and passes it around the table.
MESUSA. DOORPOST. A little scroll of parch
ment containing this passage of Scripture: "Thou shalt write them on the doorposts of thy house, and upon thy gates." It is enclosed in a tin box, and fastened to the right doorpost of Jewish houses.
MISHNA. The oral law consisting of traditions handed down respecting the law of Moses.
Nisan, March 20 to April 16. Iyar, April 19 to May 17. Sivan, May 18 to June 16. Tamuz, June 17 to July 15. Ab, July 16 to August 14. Elul, August 16 to September 13. Tishri, September 14 to October 13. Marchesvan, October 14 to November 13. Kisley, November 14 to December 13. Tebeth, December 14 to January 12. Shebat, January 13 to February 12. Adar, February 13 to March 15. The Jewish months have 29 and 30 days, and Leap year has 13 months, the last bein; known as 2d Adar.
NEBIM. PROPHETS. Containing that portion of the Bible from the Book of Joshua to the end of the Prophets.
PAROCHES. The curtain before the holy shrine in the Synagogue.
PESACH. PASSOVER. The feast of Spring, beginning on the fourteenth day of the month Nisan and lasting seven days. It is the celebration of the Passover and commemorates the delivery of the Jews from Egyptian bondage, and the passing over of the last plague from the houses of the Israelites.
PHYLACTERY. In Hebrew, tephelin. Strips of
parchment on which were inscribed passages from the Pentateuch. They were enclosed in a small box and worn on the forehead between the eyes, or on the arm near the heart, in accordance with the command in Exodus xiii, 16.
PURIM. LOT. A feast day, on the fourteenth of the month Adar, in remembrance of God's providence in saving the Israelites from the destruction, through Mordecai and Esther, planned by Haman, according to the book of Esther.
ROSH HASHANAH. NEW YEAR. Kept on the first day of the seventh month, Tishri, the Jewish civil New Year, Nisan being the religious. The biblical name of the feast is "Day of the Trumpet."
SEPTUAGINT. SEVENTY. The Old Testament, so called, from the number of translators engaged on the original Greek version. It was commenced by the Alexandrian