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RELICS. It is the custom among Roman

Catholics of placing some portion of the body of a saint or martyr in newly consecrated altars. The relics are enclosed in a metal box-silver is preferable—and this bears the name of the saint and the bishop who officiates at the ceremony.

REREDOS. A screen behind an altar. In large conventional churches, where there is a space behind the altar, this was the universal termination of the ritual presbytery.

Hook's Church Dictionary.

RITUAL. A book containing the order and forms to be observed in celebrating the Divine service and all matters connected with external order, in the performance of sacred offices.

ROCHET. The garment worn by the bishops under the chimire. It was made of linen, with narrow sleeves.

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SEE. The seat of episcopal dignity and jurisdiction, where the bishop has his throne or cathedra.

Hook's Church Dictionary.

SEPTUM. The enclosure made by the altar rails for the holy table.

SEPULCHRE. A niche usually at the north side of the altar used in the representations of our Lord's burial, resurrection and tomb, on Good Friday, Easter and before the Reformation. It is sometimes quite plain, at others very elaborate. The general subjects are the Roman soldiers sleeping and the angels.

SHRINE. The place of deposit for relics or other sacred things.

SOLIDEO. Lat. Solus and Deus. A tight fit.

ting white cap worn by the pope instead of the berretta. The pope takes this cap off to no earthly person, but to God only, during the more solemn part of the


STOLE. A band of precious cloth four inches

wide and six feet long, worn around the neck and crossed on the breast, being kept in place by the cincture. A deacon is privileged to wear the stole from the time of bis ordination, but only over the left shoulder and fastened at the right side, the priest wearing it around both and crossed, while the hishop wears it pendant on both sides without crossing. In the Greek Church this is generally known as the Epitrachelion and differs from the others in being made in one piece with a seam worked along the middle, and having an opening at the top wide enough to allow the priest's head to pass through.

STOUP. A basin for holy water generally

placed near the entrance of a church, and on the right hand of the one who


SUNDAY, LOW. Upon the octave of the first Sunday after Easter day, it was the custom of the ancients to repeat some part of the solemnity which was used upon Easter day whence this Sunday took the name of Low Sunday, being celebrated as a feast, though of a lower degree than Easter day itself.

Hook's Church Dictionary.

SURCINGLE, A belt used for fastening the cassock around the waist.

SURPLICE. A white linen garment worn by

the clergy in celebrating the Divine services and on certain days by members of colleges, whether clerical or not



SYNAXIS. The mass so called by the Fathers as being the means of union with Christ.

TABERNACLE. A small structure resembling

a church placed in the centre of the altar. It is generally made of wood but sometimes of marble and is then lined with wood, and in it is kept the Holy Eucharist under lock and key.

TARGUM. A book of hymns used by the Nestorians. It is derived from the Syriac word turgn.o-interpretation.

TELEION. The mass signifying the perfect atonement made by the sacrifice of the Holy Lamb.

THURIBLE. The vessel in which the incense is burned. This is kept in a small boatshaped vessel and conveyed to the thurible by means of a small spoon.

TIARA. The pope's triple crown. That and

the keys are the badges of his dignity: the tiara of his civil rank, and the keys of his jurisdiction.


The clerical method of wearing the hair. Shaving the top of the head, leaving a rim of hair at the base, signifies wearing a crown of thorns.

TRAVERSE. A seat of state covered with a canopy for the use of the sovereign. It was formerly placed at the upper end of the choir in the royal chapels, and temporarily in cathedrals.

TRIFORIUM. The passage directly over the

arches of the great arcade, but also applied to any passage in the walls of a church.

TUNICLE. A garment worn by the minisister assisting at the Holy Communion. It has been the same as the dalmatic since the fourth century, before which time it had no sleeves.

VEIL. Made generally of silk, and used to cover the chalice.

VERGER. The one who carries the mace before the canons or dean in a cathedral or collegiate church. In some cathedrals the canons have their vergers, and the dean his, but frequently the verger goes before member of the church.


VESTMENTS, COLORS OF THE. White, the symbol of purity, innocence and glory is

used at the special feasts of our Lord and the Blessed Virgin, and at those of the angels, virgins and confessors. Red, symbolic of fortitude is used at Pentecost and the feasts of the apostles and martyrs and the Lord's Passion. Green. the symbol of hope is used from the octave of the Epiphany to Septuagesima and from the octave of Pentecost to Advent. Violet, the symbol of penitence is used in times of public sorrow, fasting and penance, and in those processions which do not immediately relate to the Blessed Sacrament. Also at the feast of the Holy Innocents, except when it comes on Sunday, when it is changed to red, as is also the color of the octave. Black is used in Masses and Offices of the dead and on Good Friday. In the Greek church there are but two colors, red and white, the latter being the general, while red is used in all masses for the dead and through Lent.

VIRGIN MARY, ANNUNCIATION OF THE BLESSED. A festival appointed by the church for the 25th of March to commemorate the appearance of the angel to Mary with the announcement that she should be the Mother of the Messiah.

WAFERS. The name given to the bread used

by the Catholics in the Eucharist, and by the Lutheran Protestants in the Lord's Supper. They are formed to represent a Denarius or penny, the coin for which our Lord was betraved.

WEEK, HOLY. The last week in Lent in

which the church commemorates the sufferings and death of our Lord. It is also called Passion Week and the Great Week.

WIEK, STILL. Also called Holy Week, at

which time no bells are rung from Thursday until Saturday when they are rung in memory of our Lord's resurrec tion.

WHITSUN-DAY. Also called White Sunday. A festival in the church commemorating the descent of the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost. It occurs ten days after Holy Thursday or Ascension Day.

ZUCCHETTO. A small, closely fitting skull

cap, in shape like a saucer. It can be worn by permission from the pope dur ing Mass from the beginning to the Preface, and from the end of communion to the completion of the service. It is of three colors, red, violet, and black. Red is worn by the cardinals, violet by the patriarchs, archbishops and bishops and black by all the other clergy.



AARON-HAKADISH. The holy ark used in the Synagogue as a depository of the scrolls of the law.

ATONEMENT, DAY OF. Celebrated on the ninth and tenth days of Tishri. It was instituted by Moses, as a general day of expiation and sacrifice for sins.

BENSHEN. A corruption of the Latin word benedicto. The prayer after meals recited by Israelites.

BROCHO. BLESSING. A grace recited before partaking of food.

CHANUKKAH. DEDICATION. A day of celebration on the ninth day of Kisley to rejoice in the victory of the Hasmoneans, or Maccabees over Antiochus, King of Syria.


EPHOD, from Aphad, to put on. An upper garment worn by Hebrew priests. There were two kinds; that worn by the priests, of plain linen, and that by the high priests, of embroidered linen. was a sort of girdle, which brought from the back of the neck over the shoulders, hung down in front, and was crossed at the waist and carried back and used as a girdle to the tunic.

GEMARA. A commentary on the Mishna.

KADDISH. A prayer recited in the Synagogue for the souls of departed parents,

KELAI KADESH. HOLY VESSELS. Silver ornaments used in the Synagogue to adorn the scrolls of the law.

KETHUBIM. WRITINGS. Containing the Psalms, Proverbs and the remaining books of the Bible.

KIDDUSH and HABDALLA. Prayers recited in Jewish houses; the first at the beginning, the latter at the close of Sabbaths and festivals. They are recited by the chief of the house, holding a glass of wine in his hand, at the conclusion of which he drinks and passes it around the table.

MESUSA. DOORPOST. A little scroll of parchment containing this passage of Scripture: "L Thou shalt write them on the doorposts of thy house, and upon thy gates." It is enclosed in a tin box, and fastened to the right doorpost of Jewish houses.


MISHNA. The oral law consisting of traditions handed down respecting the law of Moses.


Nisan, March 20 to April 16. Iyar, April 19 to May 17. Sivan, May 18 to June 16. Tamuz, June 17 to July 15. Ab, July 16 to August 14. Elul, August 16 to September 13. Tishri, September 14 to October 13. Marchesvan, October 14 to November 13. Kisley, November 14 to December 13. Tebeth, December 14 to January 12. Shebat, January 13 to February 12. Adar, February 13 to March 15. The Jewish months have 29 and 30 days, and Leap year has 13 months, the last bein; known as 2d Adar.

NEBIM. PROPHETS. Containing that portion of the Bible from the Book of Joshua to the end of the Prophets.

PAROCHES. The curtain before the holy shrine in the Synagogue.

PESACH. PASSOVER. The feast of Spring, beginning on the fourteenth day of the month Nisan and lasting seven days. It is the celebration of the Passover and commemorates the delivery of the Jews from Egyptian bondage, and the passing over of the last plague from the houses of the Israelites.

PHYLACTERY. In Hebrew, tephelin. Strips of

parchment on which were inscribed passages from the Pentateuch. They were enclosed in a small box and worn on the forehead between the eyes, or on the arm near the heart, in accordance with the command in Exodus xiii, 16.

PURIM. LOT. A feast day, on the fourteenth

of the month Adar, in remembrance of God's providence in saving the Israelites from the destruction, through Mordecai and Esther, planned by Haman, according to the book of Esther.



first day of the seventh month, Tishri, the Jewish civil New Year, Nisan being the religious. The biblical name of the feast is Day of the Trumpet." SEPTUAGINT. SEVENTY. The Old Testament, so called, from the number of translators engaged on the original Greek version. It was commenced by the Alexandrian

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