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with zeal he joined in it. The tyranny of the bishops had been long odious in his eyes, and

haps, never was than what is formed by these two paffages of the fame writer. However, in this latter, we may observe it is allowed they began well, tho their after-deeds are reprefented as black, odious and deteftable. Be they what they may, I am not concerned in their vindication. Those of them that fall in my way I will reprefent fairly, cenfure candidly, and leave them to the determination of the reader. That there was a glorious band of patriots in the houfe of commons, in the beginning of the long parliament, is too evident to be denied. Milton, by mentioning their actions, known facts, has established their character beyond all contradiction. Elated by profperity, influenced by the priesthood, enfnared by wealth and power, or heated by oppofition, 'tis very poffible many things were done by them which can never be juftified, though allowances be made for times of diforder and confufion: more especially the permitting their clergy to tyrannize over the confciences of men, like the prelates that went before them. This latter, indeed, feems to have given Milton the greatest difguft, who was a mortal foe to the dominion of priefts, and a zealous affertor of the rights of confcience. He could not bear that the fame kind of men fhould complain of and exercife oppreffion; that thofe, in whose cause he had drawn his pen, fhould defeat all his hopes, and manifeft, that 'twas not liberty, but power, they had been contending for.

Because you have thrown off your prelate lord,
And with ftiff vows renounc'd his liturgy,
To feize the widow'd whore plurality,
From them, whofe fin ye envied, not abhorr'd;
Dare ye for this adjure the civil fword

To force our confciences that Chrift fet free,
And ride us with a claffic hierarchy.---


and therefore he adhered to their enemies in all their attacks on them: though he was far enough from having formed a plan of a different government. I can tell you, Sirs,' faid he to Sir Thomas Chickely and Sir Philip



Montefquieu feems to account well for a behaviour which appears at first fight so unnatural. It is a principle, fays he, that every religion which is perfecuted becomes itself perfecuting; for as foon as by fome ac'cidental turn it arises from persecution, it attacks the • religion which perfecuted it; not as a religion, but as a tyranny [*].'



The parliament however rectified their conduct, even on this head, to the fore difpleasure of the lordly Prefbyters, and kept them from mifufing and oppreffing their brethren. So that upon the whole, though they were not free from faults, yet were they, in the eyes of the knowing and unprejudiced, the ableft noblest set ⚫ of people this nation ever produced.' But let us appeal to facts. When Van Tromp fet upon Blake in Folefton-bay, the parliament had not above thirteen 'fhips against threescore, and not a man that had ever feen any other fight at fea, than a merchant fhip and a pyrate, to oppose the best captain in the world, attended with many others in valour and experience not much inferior to him. Many other difficulties 'were observed in the unsettled ftate: few ships, want of money, several factions, and fome who to advance particular interefts betrayed the publick. But fuch was the power of wisdom and integrity of thofe that fat at the helm, and their diligence in chufing men. only for their merit, was bleffed with fuch fuccefs, that in two years our fleets grew to be as famous as • our land armies; the reputation and power of our nation rose to a greater height, than when we poffeffed the better half of France, and the Kings of France and • Scotland were our prifoners. All the States, Kings and F 3 • poten

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[*] Spirit

of Laws, vol. ii. p.


< what I would not have;



moirs, p. 877.

lip Warwick, wick's Me- though I cannot what I would *' the cafe of many others I fuppofe at that time. He appeared very zealous for the remonftrance (P) of the ftate of the kingdom, which,

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potentates of Europe, most respectfully, not to fay fubmiffively, fought our friendship; and Rome was more afraid of Blake, than they had been of the great King of Sweden, when he was ready to invade Italy with a hundred thoufand men. This was the work of those, who, if our author [Filmer] fay true, thought bafely of the publick concernments; and believing things might be well enough managed by others, minded < only their private affairs. These were the effects of the negligence and ignorance of thofe, who being fuddenly advanced to offices, were removed before they understood the duties of them (d).'———Mr. Tren hard celebrates their actions in the following manner. The Lond. 1698. parliament governed for five years, who made their


(d) Sidney of Govern

ment, p. 221. Folio.


name famous through the whole earth, conquered their enemies in England, Scotland and Ireland; reduced the kingdom of Portugal to their own terms; • recovered our reputation at fea; overcame the Dutch in feveral famous battles; fecured our trade, and managed the publick expences with fo much frugality, that no eftates were gained by private men upon the publick miferies; and at last were paffing an act for their own diffolution, and fettling the nation in a free and impartial commonwealth; of which the army being afraid, thought it necefiary to diffolve them (e).' The bare recital of thefe facts is an elogium fufficient: 8vo. 1739 and every man who knows them to be facts, will be And notes difpofed to think favourably of those who performed (KK), (LL), them; and to contemn a writer who has the infolence Lanf- and ill breeding (though a frequenter of courts and a lodowne's ver of the polite arts) to call them a pack of knaves (f).' (P) The remonstrance of the state of the kingdom.] This 12mo. 1736. remonftrance deferves very particular notice, as it oc

(e) Short History of ftanding Ar mies, p. 19.


Works, vol. ii. p. 204.


which, after long and fharp debates, was carried in the houfe of commons, and ordered to be printed December 15th, 1641. On the fixth of this month he was appointed of a committee with Mr. Pymme, Mr. Lifle,

cafioned high debates in the house of commons; divifions among the members, and perhaps haftened the refolution of the impeachment and intended feizure of the Lord Kimbolton and the five members, which foon iffued into a war between his Majefty and the two houses.

The house of commons, fays Whitlock, prepared a ⚫remonftrance of the state of the kingdom; wherein they ' mentioned all the mistakes, misfortunes, illegalities, and 'defaults in government, fince the King's coming to the 'crown, the evil counfels and counfellors, and a ma

lignant party, that they have no hopes of fettling the 'diftractions of this kingdom, for want of a concur⚫rence with the lords. This remonftrance was fome

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what roughly penned, both for the matter and the expreffions in it, and met with great oppofitions in the 'houfe; infomuch as the debate of it lafted from three 'o'clock in the afternoon, till ten o'clock the next 'morning; and the fitting up all night caused many

through weakness or weariness to leave the house, and Sir B. R. [Sir Benjamin Rudyard I fuppofe] to com- (g) Memo'pare it to the verdict of a starved jury (g).'

rials, p. 5.

The truth is, this remonftrance contains a concise hiftory of the enormities of Charles's government, the evil counfellors who had, and did guide him, and the mischiefs which they had been meditating against the house itself for their oppofition to, and correction of abuses.


oppofitions, obftructions and other difficulties, fays 'the remonftrance, wherewith we have been encountred, and which still lye in our way with fome ftrength and much obftinacy, are thefe: The malignant party whom we have formerly defcribed, to be the actors ' and promoters of all our mifery, they have taken heart F 4



Lifle, Sir Guy Palmes, Lord Falkland, Mr. Strode, Sir John Strangeways, Sir*** Armyn, *** Hide; to prefent fome fuch courfe to the houfe, as may be fit to prevent all abufes in the election of members to ferve

again; they have been able to prefer fome of their own factors and agents to degrees of honor, to places of truft and employment even during the parliament. 'I hey have endeavoured to work in his Majefly ill impreffions and opinions of our proceedings, as if we had altogether done our own work, and not his, and had obtained from him many things very prejudicial to the crown, both in refpect of prerogative and profit (h).' of the King- Again They have fought, by many fubtile practices,

(b) The Remonstrance of the State

dom, p. 18. 40. Lond.


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to cause jealoufies and divifions betwixt us and our brethren of Scotland, by flandering their proceedings and intentions towards us; and by fecret endeavours to inftigate and incenfe them and us one against an• other. They have had fuch a party of bishops and popifh lords in the houfe of peers as hath caufed much ⚫ oppofition and delay in the prosecution of delinquents, hindered the proceedings of divers good bills paffed in the commons house, concerning the reformation of fundry great abuses and corruptions both in church and ftate. They have laboured to feduce and corrupt fome of the commons houfe, to draw them into confpiracies and combinations against the liberty of the parliament: and by their inftruments and agents, they have attempted to difaffect and difcontent his Majefties army, and to engage it for the maintenance of their wicked and trayterous defigns, the keeping up of bishops in their votes and functions, and by force to compel the parliament to order, limit and difpofe their proceedings in fuch manner as might beft concur with the intentions of this dangerous and potent faction. And when one mifchievous defign and attempt of theirs to bring on the army against the parliament

• and

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