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(4) Thurloe, vol. i. p. 316.

(6) Id. p. 359.

rendered their memories dear to all true lovers of their country. The particulars are to be found in most of our common hiftories, and thither I muft refer the reader defirous of information on this subject. Whilst the war was carrying on in a manner glorious to the English commonwealth, the parliament omitted nothing which might make it terminate in such a manner as to prevent all future difputes between the two nations. With great diligence and dexterity they got intelligence of the most private defigns and refolutions of the enemy, and took as much care as poffible to conceal their own; nor would they abate the least in their propofals for peace, though applied to moft fubmiffively by ambaffadors fent from the ftates for that purpose. The following extracts will abundantly confirm and explain what is here mentioned. -The Dutch ambafladors, in a letter to N. Ruyfch, dated Westminster, July 4, 1653, N. S. fay, We are obliged to advise their high and mighty lordships that here have full knowledge, with all the circumftances of the refolutions taken upon the fifth of June (a). In a letter of intelligence from the Hague, dated the 28th of the fame month, we read what follows: What I have always feared is now come to


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pass, that intimation should be given here of the good intelligence you have there of the affairs here. Our deputies there have written hither to thefe ftates, that they have affurance from their friends in England, that all the fecret actings here, and were it poffible, the very thoughts of thefe ftates are most exactly and • weekly prefented in writing to the councel of ftate there. This was hotly debated in the affembly, every ⚫ one afking the other, who betrayed them; and fome quarrels were like to arife, but a fort of composure ' was made, and orders given for ftrict fecrefy in all their proceedings; fo that much difficulty will be in furnishing you; however I fhall attempt always to • ferve you as long as I can. But if you have not secrefy, you are not worthy of the profit thereof. Our deputies there begin to give very good intelligence from London, however they get it (b). The 18th of this month, we find the following fhort letter written by


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Beverning, one of the ambaffadors, to Mr. Gerard
Cinque at Goude. Sir, I dare not write much news.


All our actions are fpied. We have spies set to watch • us in our houses. We cannot be certain of any thing that we do, that it fhall not be either known or mifcarry. If you please to have any thing fent you from hence, that this country affords, pray let me know (c) Thurloe, vol. i. p. it (c).'We are not however to fuppofe but some intelligence was gotten by thefe ambaffadors. Money does wonders, and flattery is all powerful. They who can dextrously apply the one and the other, need not fear of fome fuccefs. The following paffage will fhew that they were ordered to be on the look out, and that they had not been idle. It was written from the Hague, October 31. N. S. and feems to come from the fame hand which fent that of the 28th of July just mentioned.

Since my laft to you, the poft immediately before this, great diligence is ufed and fecret enquiry made, ⚫ how your council of ftate comes by the fecret refolutions of this ftate, and the letters of their public minifters abroad; and our deputies who are gone to England have in charge to do their utmoft there, • whatever it cofts to find it out. Of which I advertize

you very seriously, to the end hereafter thefe fecrets be ⚫ not read in open council, and that prevention may be, leaft the deputies might learn, from them, that told to them part, how to discover the whole. But I hope ⚫ and believe I am not betrayed, so as to be known by name or defcription to any of the council, fince fome of them are fo kind as to tell all they know to the • Dutch deputies, to their advantage. I can fwear the


two deputies ftanding there did write at full, what I gave you in my laft; but this notwithstanding, all the chief of their bufinefs fhall be had one way or other, if you do not spoil all there, as well was attempted (d). (4) Id. p. -And how much the parliament were concerned for the honor and intereft of the nation appeared from their demanding as preliminaries to a treaty, that the Dutch fhould call back their fhips; make reparation for damages, and fatisfaction for the expences England had been put to defend herself and maintain her rights (e).' (e) Id. p.



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-Among the articles infifted on by the English was the following. That the fhips and veffels of the said • United-Provinces, as well men of war, as others,

be they fingle fhips, or in fleets, meeting at fea with any of the fhips of war of this ftate of England, or in their fervice and wearing the flag, fhall ftrike the flag, and lower their topfail until they be paffed by, and fhall likewife fubmit themfelves to be vifited if thereto required, and perform all other refpects due to the faid commonwealth of England, to whom the do• minion and fovereignty of the British feas belong.'


To this article, the Dutch ambaffadors, November 22, * 1653, did not make any exception, either to the ftriking of the flag, or the fovereignty of the fea; but they protefted against the vifiting their fhips, as • repugnant to the practice of their country, and subject to a thousand disorders and disputes, and injuries to their ftate; befides the vifiting is not to be reciprocal. Whereupon Cromwell in the name of the commiffioners replied, that the fearching of their fhips was no C new thing; but an undoubted right which naturally followed from the fovereignty of the fea, the which did appertain to England: it was likewife an efflux of the fame dominion, for the English to prefcribe to them, with what number of ships of war they 'fhould pass the British feas: that they ought to be much • more zealous now for the afferting of the said antient dominion of the fea in all its branches; because it had been fo lately and fo notoriously disputed and in• vaded. And whereas the ambaffadors had fomewhat boaftingly faid in their memorial, that their people were of fuch generofity that they would never endure fuch terms: to this Cromwell faid he would reply no Stubbs's more, than that we were Englishmen, and had not farther Juf-loft our courage (ƒ). The parliament infifted likewife that the Dutch fhould pay for licence to fifh upon the British coafts, and fufpended the treaty, on account of their unwillingness to agree thereunto, though 'tis afferted they offered 300000l. to procure amity and ) Id. p. 65. friendship with England (g). Thefe demands of the parliament may feem high, but they endeavoured to


tification, p. 59, 60.


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juftify themselves to the world, by caufing Selden's Mare Claufum feu de Dominio Maris' to be translated into English, by Marchamont Nedham. This, by fpecial command, was published in November 1652. In a fine and fpirited dedication to the fupream authority C of the nation, the parliament of the commonwealth of England,' the tranflator obferves, it is a gallant fight to fee the fword and pen in victorious equipage together; for this fubdues the fouls of men by reason, that only their bodies by force. The pen it is which 'manifefts the right of things; and, when that is once

cleared, it gives fpurs to refolution, because men are ' never raised to fo high a pitch of action, as when they are perfuaded, that they engage in a righteous caufe; according to that old verficle,

• Frangit & attollit vires in Milite causa.

‹ Wherefore, seeing you (right honourable) have had fo frequent experience of the truth of this in our late wars, wherein the pen militant hath had as many 'fharp rencounters as the fword, and borne away as 'many trophies from home-bred enemies, in profe'cution of your most righteous caufe by land, certainly you will yield it no lefs neceffary, for the inftruction of this generous and ingenious people, in vindicating your juft rights by sea against the vain pretences and projects of encroaching neighbours. For, what true English heart will not fwell, when it shall ⚫ be made clear and evident (as in this book) that the 'fovereignty of the feas, flowing about this ifland, hath,


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in all times, whereof there remains any written teftimony, both before the old Roman invasion and fince, ⚫ under every revolution, down to the present age, been held and acknowledged by all the world, as an infeparable appendant of the British empire; and that, by 'virtue thereof, the kings of England fucceffively have

had the fovereign guard of the feas; that they have impofed taxes and tributes upon all fhips paffing and ⚫ fishing therein; that they have obftructed and opened the paffage thereof to strangers, at their own pleasure,

⚫ and

defigns (NN), and fuch as would carry them


⚫ and done all other things that may teftify an abfolute fea-dominion; what English heart (I fay) can confider these things, together with the late actings of the • Netherlanders, fet forth in your publick declaration, and not be inflamed with an indignation answerable to their infolence; that these people, raised out of the duft at first into a state of liberty, and at length to a high degree of power and felicity, by the arms and benevolence of England; or that they, who, in times paft, durft never enter our feas to touch a herring, without licence first obtained by petition from the governor of Scarborough-castle, fhould now prefume to invade them with armed fleets, and, by a moft unjust war, bid defiance to the united powers of these three nations (i)?'-But, whilft the parliament were thus labouring for the public welfare, they were difpoffeffed pointment of of their power by Cromwell, and deprived of a glory the Council they well deferved, that of finifhing a fuccefsful, wellconducted war, by a fafe and advantageous peace.

by the ap

of State.

(NN) Vaft defigns were imputed to the commonwealth.] Nothing can give us a better idea of the light in which England was viewed abroad, than the following paffages from Sorbiere. They are taken from a letter written by him to the celebrated M. de Courcelles, at Amfterdam, dated Orange, July 1, 1652. The English • republicans took things exactly right; and that, in order to the accomplishing of a defign, that would take up all their life-time (for fuch fort of men ought never to conceive mean ones, after the execution whereof they must be put to the trouble of projecting 6 a new, or live lazily, and be expofed to confpiracies against them) they thought it would be their best way · to begin with the ruin of the United Provinces, which lay next their coafts, and flourished in trade above any other country in the world; and, when once they had effected this, they were in hopes they fhould ea fily remove any obftacle in their way to attain the • do

(i) Of the

Dominion or Owner

fhip of the Sea. Folio.

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