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(r) Britannia Trium
being burthenfome to the generality, though
agreed, that the caftle of Edinburgh, after a fhort, but brifk fiege, fhould be delivered up to him, with all the ordinance, arms, magazines, and furniture of thereunto belonging. It may seem ftrange and almoft incredible, fays a writer of that time, that fuch a ftrong and impregnable hold as was that, fhould be fo eafily won, the like whereof is not in that nation; wherefore it was the common vogue of that time, and by many credibly believed, that it was affaulted 'with filver engines (). It does not however appear that Cromwell was wont to make use of these against his foes.- The Scots, in the mean while, were not intimidated by their loffes: full of zeal for their King, and hatred of the fectaries, who were now their conquerors, they again railed a very confiderable army, and hoped without doubt to be fully avenged on them. For they had friends and well withers in England, efpecially the prefbyterians, who were plotting how to advance the young King to the thrones of his fathers. But all was ineffectual. The plots in England were difcovered, and fome loft their lives on that account; the Scots army cared not to face Cromwell, but chofe what appeared to them, the fafer game, viz. to give him the flip, and march before him into England, where they counted they fhould meet with aid and affistance. This they put in execution. Charles II. at the head of a good army and gallant officers, attended by many of the chief nobility and gentry of Scotland, fet forward the nearest way for England. In Lancofhire he was joined by the Earl of Derby with others, and after in vain fummoning Shrewberry, he arrived at Worcester, where he determined to abide the coming of Cromwell, who was in full march after him. A few days brought him ⚫ within view indeed; and on the third of Sept. 1651, he without ceremony, gave orders to his troops to attack the enemy, and gave them a total overthrow. This, fays Cromwell, hath been a very glorious mercy, and
phalis, p. 67. 12m0. Lond. 1657.
it could not be acceptable to those from
· as ftiff a conteft for four or five hours, as ever I have (3) See his • feen (s).' So that Clarendon, out of fpight to the Letter to the Speaker Scots, has grofly mifreprefented their behaviour in this in the Parbattle, by faying, That except on the part where Mid- liamentary dleton was, who was quickly overpowered, there was Hiftory, vol. no resistance made; but fuch a general confternation And Whitpoffeffed the whole army, that the reft of the horse lock, p. C fled, and all the foot threw down their arms before 507, 508. () Vol. vi.
they were charged ().' What credit can such a P. 409. prejudiced writer deferve? Mr. Hume, however, has fervilely copied this falfe and ungenerous account of the (u) Hiftory behaviour of his countrymen (u). In this battle the Britain, vol. King loft 3000 men, belides about 12000 made prifo- ii. p. 29. ners, amongst whom were many of the chief quality. Thus an end for the prefent was put to the hopes of the Scots King and his party; who from this time was forced to wander abroad (where he would have wandered, had he had no affiftance but from the cavaliers, for ever) till the restoration in 1660After this Scotland yielded to the English, and prefumed no more to enter the lifts, for power and dominion. Indeed fhe was wholly fubdued. How high a fenfe the parliament had of Cromwell's fervices, will appear from the inftructions given to the commiffioners whom they fent to compliment him on this laft victory. They are dated Sept. 9, 1651, and are as follows: You are in the name of the parliament, to congratulate his lordship's good recovery of health, after his dangerous ficknefs; and to take notice of his unwearied labours and pains in the late ⚫ expedition into Scotland, for the fervice of this commonwealth; of his diligence in profecution of the enemy, when he fled into England; of the great hardships and hazards he hath expofed himself to, and ⚫ particularly at the late fight at Worcester; of the pru⚫dent and faithful managing and conducting throughout this great and important affair, which the Lord from heaven hath fo fignally bleffed, and crowned with so
whom it had taken the power of tyrannifing
mentary Hi. tory, p. 48. Journal, 9th
vol. xx. And
compleat and glorious an iffue. Of all which you are to make known to his lordfhip, the parliament hath thought fit, by you, to certify their good acceptance and great fatisfaction therein: and for the fame you are to return, in the name of the parlia⚫ment and commonwealth of England, their molt hear6 ty thanks as alfo to the reft of the officers and folC diers, for their great and gallant fervices done to this • commonwealth. You are likewife to let his lordship know that fince, by the great bleffing of God upon his lordship's and the army's endeavours, the enemy is fo totally defeated, and the ftate of affairs, as well in England as in Scotland, fuch, as may very well difpenfe with his lordship's continuance in the field; they do defire his lordship, for the better fettlement of his health, to take fuch reft and repofe as he fhall find moft requifite and conducing thereunto: and for that purpose to make his repair to, and refidence at or within fome few miles of this place, whereby alfo the ⚫ parliament may have the affiftance of his prefence, in the great and important confultations for the further fettlement of this commonwealth, which they are now upon (x).' Mr. Whitlock, who was one of the commiflioners, tells us, That they met the general near Aylesbury, delivered their meffage, and he received them with all kindness and refpect: that he ¿ gave each of them a horfe and two Scots prifoners, as a token of his thankful reception of the parliament's regard in fending them to meet and congratulate him (y).' Cromwell was alfo met at Aon, by the Speaker, the Lord President Bradshaw, many members of parliament and the council of flate, with the Lord Mayor, aldermen, and fheriffs; and, entering London in a coach of ftate, was received with all poffible demonftrations of joy. And to crown all, the parliament refolved that lands of inheritance to the yearly value of 4000 belonging to the flate, be fettled upon the lord
() Memerials, p. 509.
over their neighbours.-Nor was this all
general Cromwell and his heirs, as a mark of favour
am, vi tamen occupatam, plus inquam, ex animi mei ⚫ finceritate victorias hafce tuas facio, quàm Cyri, Al
nec non O
exandri, Julii Cæfaris laureas omnes, habitâ ratione (6) Paralle temporis, locorum, hoftiumque (b).'-Another speaking of him, faid, Ille eft, ille eft, auditores admiremini ! livarii, p. Cujus unius fortitudo plus biennio profecit, quam 125. centenis feculis majores noftri profuerant, vel forfan nepotes profuturi. Nempe per ultimam Thulen aufpiciis obftupefcendis volitantia vexilla protulit, & ultra Romanas aquilas, exercituum victrices alas expli
Difputes arifing with the Dutch (MM), a
cuit (c).'—A third describes the battle of Wercefter in the following manner: Ad extremum illud & maximum, in quo de fumma rei Scoti dimicarunt; prælium venio. Illua inquam Vigornianum, omnibus totius antea actæ ætatis acerrimis comparandum : Nam neque apud Mantineam Thebani cum Lacedemoniis, neque apud Zamam Annibal cum Scipione, neque in Pharfalicis campis Pompejus cum Cæfare, neque apud Mutinam cum Antonio Confules, neque apud Phi(Panegy-lippos cum Augufto & Antonio Brutus & Caffius acriCromwelli, p. 35. us & pertinaciùs dimicarunt (d). The victory at 410. 1654. Worcester, and the refpect and applaufe almost univerfally attending him, infpired Cromwell, probably, first of all with the defire of difpoffeffing his mafters, and feizing the fupream command. The reasons of this affertion will be found in the note (ww).
(MM) Difputes arifing with the Dutch, a spirit ani conduct appeared in the English commonwealth, &c. ] From the beginning of the quarrel between Charles and the parliament, the Dutch had acted somewhat partially in his Majesty's favour. Arms and ammunition, officers and private foldiers, together with fome fhips, had been procured from them at different times by the Queen and her agents. On complaint of these things from the parliament, by their agent Mr. Strickland, orders were given to put a stop to every thing of this kind, and to obferve the most exact neutrality. But among a money-loving people this was but ill obferved, and therefore orders were given to the commanders of the English fhips, to feize all Dutch fhips on which were provifions, ftores, ammunition or any other thing belonging (e) See Se- to or intended for the enemy: which orders were well crets difco- obeyed, and caufed great complaints in Holland against England's the parliament, who, however, were not to be moved complaint from their refolution (e). In the beginning of January, against the 1643, the States-General fent ambaffadors into EngStates-Ge- land, who, though refpectfully treated by the parlia