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(D) Mode

rate Intel.


Dec. 7, 1648.

dom of the parliament. Others,



fer as act, would but the godly party in the kingdom call us thereunto, and think themfelves preferved by it. But the people call to us for these things, and we to your excellency, your known worth inviting us ⚫ hereunto: in profecution of which, as an unparalleled inftrument, we fhall live or dye with your excellency, having folemnly promifed, in answer to the wonders 'God hath wrought amongst us, to attempt and attend these two last expedients through all hazards. We cannot fo undervalue our God, and the rich experience we have had in behalf of this nation, as to fee them lie (like achar) under these sinful burdens, our colds, heats, nakedness, want, hunger, hardships, difficulties, dangers, cares, fears, out of which our bleffed and ever to be praifed God, hath brought us, fuggefting these things unto us, for that flock of flaughter in this kingdom. Sir, we can dye, but not endure to fee our mother England dye before us (4).'From this addrefs is easily to be collected the fpirit of the army, the principles on which it acted, the authority it affumed, and the hazard of contefting with it. It appears to have looked on itfelf as an independant body, capable of advifing, directing and giving the law to the fenate and people of England. This was the effect of the felfdenying ordinance, which was foreseen by many, and now felt by all. What was alledged in defence of these proceedings of the army, will be found in the following note. I cannot but observe here to the reader, the fpirit of the English royalifts at this time. The Scots had raised an army in aid of the King, the parliament was garbelled for treating of a peace with him-was not this meritorious in the eye of a cavalier? Far from it at this very time, both Scots and parliament were treated with the utmost virulence and contempt by those very perfons, for whofe mafter they had fubjected themfelves to the greatest inconveniencies. Speaking of the army under Hamilton, and its defeat, a writer of this

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Others, on the


contrary, have attempted to vindicate it, and apo

time has the following expreffions. It was never yet • known that the blew bonnet would enter lifts upon the gilded promises of a public faith, or the huxters ⚫ cold hopes of best be trust. And when all this is done; be confident, their hands will be more ready to receive it, than their hearts to earn it. It has ever been • observed of the peafantry of that nation, that they • could feed better than fight. Plundering was their • only mafter piece: which they could finger with such dexterity, as if they had been nursed and bred up in that trade from their infancy.'And again- What elfe could be expected by Calidon, being by chronologifts rendered to be the emblem of difloyalty; a ftran(m) The ger to equity; an harbour for injury; the magazine loyal Sactiof iniquity; the counterfeit of amity (m).'-With fice prefentrespect to the members of parliament excluded by the ed in the army, they were treated in the like fcurrilous manner by the fame party in the following verses.


Lives and

Deaths of

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Farewell ye race of Judas that betray'd

The King your royal mafter; and have lay'd • Such burthens on our fhoulders, God on high • Grant you a dire and bloody tragedie.

You were the champions of a wicked caufe; • You have unthron'd your sovereigne; and the laws


By you are quite fubverted: you have rent

In pieces a moft blessed government.
Now let their jult and woful cries and tears,
Whom you made widowes pierce th' Almighties ears;
And let those orphans, who by your expresse
• Have loft their fathers, and are fatherleffe;

Roare loud for deadly vengeance, and God grant:
As they, your wives and children may know want.
We'll to your graves your herses laughing bring,
Inftead of dirges we will carolls fing:

In joyful strains we'll pen your elegies,
And chronicle your ftinking memories.

Sir Charles Lucas and Sir George Life, p. 27. 38. 12mo.


(n) Mercu

rius Prag

apologize for Cromwell, the author and abet


Saying here lies, (and no man doth Jament)
The rotten members of a parliament (n).'


Dec. 19,


Lord Clarendon's treatment of thefe gentlemen, as

V. p. 114. and 240.

(p) Tenure

(6) See vol. well as the Scottish nation, is not much more decent (0). -Milton therefore feems to have had reafon for cautioning them To beware an old and perfect enemy, who though he hope by fowing difcord to make them his inftruments, yet cannot forbear a minute the open threatning of his defperate revenge upon them, when they have ferved his purposes (p). A caution howtrates, in his ever reasonable, yet neglected by thofe concerned, till Works, vol. their old and perfect enemy had opportunity of fati i. p. 357 ating the defperate revenge he had threatned. But to proceed, in all this affair of the exclufion of the members, Cromwell's name appears not. Nay Mr. Ludlow tells us, that lieutenant-general Cromwell the night


of Kings and Magif

after the interruption of the house arrived from Scot• land and lay at Whitehall, where, and at other places, he declared he had not been acquainted with this de6 fign; yet fince it was done, he was glad of it, and (*) See Fla- would endeavour to maintain it (q). Others fay, it

(9) Vol. i.


gellum, p. 66.

was done by Cromwell's command (r). However this be, we need not doubt but Ireton, and the other chief officers concerned, were fully fatisfied they had Cromwell's approbation. They would not have taken fuch a step without it. For though Fairfax was easy and manageable, Cromwell was very different, nor would he have failed fhewing his refentment against those who should have prefumed to have acted oppofite to his will. His declarations on this head are not, I think, much to be regarded. Politicians have a language of their own. They abound with quirks, fubtelties and diftin&ions; they explain away and interpret as they imagine will best fuit their circumftances and conveniences. To all this, if we add Cromwell's known diffimulation, we shall fee little caufe to rely much on them. I will close this note

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tor of it. Their reafons will be found be-
low (FF).
What followed is well known-


with obferving that the houfe of commons having no-
tice of the feizing of their members, with great feeming
earneftness applyed to the general for their release, and
declared it to be their pofitive pleasure that they be
forthwith discharged; but no anfwer fatisfactory being
returned, they were forced to fubmit, perhaps not un-
willingly, to the lofs of them. This was on the feventh
of December, when it was Refolved to give hearty
thanks to Cromwell for very great and eminently faith-
<ful fervices performed by him to this parliament and
kingdom, both in this kingdom and the kingdom of
Scotland, and Mr. Speaker did accordingly give him
the very hearty thanks of this houfe (s).'



(FF) The reafons for purging the house of commons, and the apology for Cromwell on that head, are here to be given.] On the 11th of December the fecluded and fecured members published a printed paper, intituled A folemne proteftation of the imprifoned and fecluded members of the commons houfe: against the horrid force and vio-. lence of the officers and foldiers of the army, on Wednefday and Thursday laft, the 6th and 7th of December, 1648. In this proteftation They folemnly proteft

and declare to the whole kingdom, that this execrable force and open violence upon their perfons, and the whole houfe of commons, by the officers and army under their command, in marching up against their command and placing ftrong armed guards of horse and foot upon them, without, and against their order, was the highest and most deteftable force and breach ⚫ of priviledge and freedom ever offered to any parlia'ment of England; and that all acts, ordinances, votes and proceedings of the said houfe made fince the 6th of December aforefaid, or hereafter to be made during their restraint and forcible feclufion from the house,


⚫ and the continuance of the armies force upon it, were
no way obligatory, but void and null to all intents and


• pur

(s) Journal.

(c) Walker's History of Independeney, part ii.


(2) Id. p.




purposes. And that all contrivers of, actors in, and affiftants to this unparalleled force and treasonable armed violence, were open enemies to, and profeffed fubverters of the priviledges, rights and freedom of parliament, and difturbers of the peace and fettlement of the kingdom; and ought to be proceeded against C as fuch and that all members of parliament and commoners of England, by their folemn covenant and duty, under pain of deepeft perjury and eternal infamy, were obliged unanimonfly to oppofe and endeavour to their utmoft power to bring them to exemplary and condigne punishment for this tranfcendent offence, tending to the diffolution of the prefent, and fubverfion of all future parliaments, and of the fundamental go⚫vernment and laws of the land (t). This bold proteftation being complained of in the houfe of commons, and the houfe of lords, produced a joint declaration from them, in which They judged and declared, the faid printed paper to be falfe, fcandalous and feditious, and tending to deftroy the vifible fundamental government of the kingdom: and therefore ordered and ordained the faid printed paper to be fuppreffed; and all perfons whatfoever that had had any hand in, or given confent unto the contriving, framing, printing or publishing thereof, were adjudged uncapable to bear any office, or have any place of truft or authority in the kingdom, or to fit as members of either houfe of parliament. And they farther ordered, that every • member of either houfe that were then absent, upon his first coming to fit in that house whereof he was a member, for the manifeftation of his innocency, fhould difavow and difclaim, his having any hand in, or giv⚫ing confent unto the contriving, framing, printing or publishing of the faid paper, or the matter therein • contained (u).'-Here are no reasons we fee given to justify the exclufion.- -We muft feek them elfewhere then, that is, in the writings of the advocates for




Suffice it therefore to say that the votes of no


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