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fes, by obftructing circulation. Yet, general industry was not much retarded, however individual perfons, or particular communities, may have been deranged, or injured, by the colony-war. The people were able to confume abundantly, fince they actually paid vaft contributions, by their daily confumption of excifeable commodities*. And though they pursued their accustomed occupations, and thus paid vaft impofts, the established income of the ftate fuftained confiderable defalcations from various caufes; from the abufes, which war never fails to introduce into certain branches of the revenue; from the illicit traffic, that generally prevails in the course of hoftilities; and from the new impofitions, which fomewhat leffen the ufual produce of the old.

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Those disorders in the public revenue have been at least palliated, if they have not been altogether cured, fince the re-establishment of peace. The measures, which were vigorously adopted, for the effectual prevention of smuggling; the alterations, which have been made in the collection of fome departments of the public income; and the improvement, that has been happily effected in all; have brought, and continue to bring, vaft fums into the Exchequer *. The public expenditure continually distributes this vaft revenue among the creditors, or fervants of the State, who return it to the original contributors, either for the neceffaries, or the luxuries, of life. The Exchequer, which thus conftantly receives and difpenfes this immenfe income, has been aptly compared to the human heart, that unceasingly carries on the vital circulation, fo invigorating while it flows, fo fatal when it stops. Thus it is, that modern taxes, which are never hoarded, but always expended, may even promote the employments and industry, the profperity and populoufnefs, of an induftrious people.

* The whole public revenue paid into the Exchequer,
from Michaelmas 1783}. 12,995,519

to ditto 1784

Ditto, from Michaelmas 1784}
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Ditto from 5. January 1785}

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I. CHA P. XI..

The Controversy on the Populoufness of Britain revived. The Parties.A Review of their Publications. An Examination of the Argument-from Reasoning-from Facts-from Experience. -The augmented Populoufnefs of Ireland.-The Increafe of People in Scotland. The general Result as to England.

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HE conteft, which had been carried on during the war of 17.561 between Doctor Brackenridge, and Doctor Forter, with regard to the effects of our policy, both in war, and in peace, on population, was revived, amidft our Colony contests, by Doctor Price, and his opponents. This last controversy furnishes much more instruction, with regard to a very interefting fubject, than the former; as the, difputants took a wider range, and collected, in their courfe, many new facts. Doctor Price revived the difpute, by contributing an Appendix to Mr. Morgan's Effay on Annuities wherein the Doctor attempted to prove, by inge nious remarks on births and burials, a gradual decline in the populousness of Great Britain. He was foon encountered by: Mr., Arthur Young, who justly inferred; from the progress of improvements O


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in agriculture, in manufactures, and in commerce, an augmentation, in the number of people. Mr. Eden published, in 1779, elegant criticisms* on Doctor Price; by which he endeavoured to invalidate the argument, that had been drawn from a comparison of the number of houfes, at the Revolution, and at prefent; infifting that the first at must have been lefs, and the laft much greater, than the text had allowed. In his reply, the Doctor fhewed fome mistakes in his antagonist, without adding much to the force of his argument. Yet, if we may credit his coadjutor, who entered zealously into all his prejudices, be confidered bis fyftem as more firmly established than ever †.

This long-continued controverfy now found other fupporters. Mr. Wales publifhed his Accurate Inquiry, in 1781. With confiderable fuccefs. He overthrows Doctor Price's fundamental argu ment, from the comparison of houfes at different periods; by fhewing, that the returns of houfes to the tax-office are not always precife; by proving, from actual enumerations of feveral towns, at diftant periods, that they had certainly increased; by evincing, from the augmented number of births, that there must be a greater number of breeders. This able performance was immediately followed by Mr. Howlet's still more exten five examination of Doctor Price's effay. Mr.

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Howlet expands the arguments of Mr. Wales; he adds fome illuftrations; and, what is of still greater importance, in every inquiry, he establishes. many additional facts.

The treatises of Meff. Wales and Howlet made a great impreffion on the public, as facts in oppofition to fpeculations, must ever make. At the moment, when their publications had gained-a confiderable fhare of popular belief, it was deemed prudent, on the fide of Doctor Price; to publishUncertainty of the prefent population. This writer frankly declares that he is convinced by neither party, and that he muft confequently remain in a state of doubt and Sceptical fufpenfe. His apparent purpose is to fhew, in oppofition to the popular belief, that after all our refearches, we really know nothing with any certainty, as to this important part of our political œconomy. In the fceptical arithmetic of this dubious computer, 1,300,000, when multiplied by 5, produce 6,250,oco. Doctor Price and his coadjutors feemed unwilling to admit, that if there were, in England and Wales, at Lady-day 1690, 1,300,000 inhabited boufes, and five perfons in each, there must neceffarily have been, at the fame time, 6,500,000 fouls. For, they feared the charge of abfurdity, in fuppofing a decrease of a million and a half of people, during ninety years of augmented employments: And, they perceived, that by admitting there were, in 1690, fix million and a half of people, they would thereby be obliged to admit, that there had been an augmentation of a million

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