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A captions Peace produced a new War.-The Res fources of Britain.-Trade profpers amidst Hoftili ties.-Its Amount at the Peace of 1763-Ré marks.


FTER a captious peace of very short duration, the flames of war, which for feveral years had burnt unfeen among the American' woods, broke out at length in 1755. Unfortunate as these hoftilities were at the beginning, they yet proved fuccessful in the end, owing to causes, which it is the province of history to explain.

However fashionable it then was for difcontented statesmen to talk of the confuming condition of the country, it might have been inferred beforehand, that we had prodigious resources, if the ruling powers had been animated by any genius. The defeats, which plainly followed from misconduct, naturally brought talents of every kind into action. And the events of the war of 1756 convinced the world, notwithstanding every estimate of the manners and principles of the times, that the ftrength of Great Britain is irresistible, when it is

• See Doddington's Diary, 1755-6-7.


conducted with fecrecy and difpatch, with wifdom and energy.

When Brackenridge was upbraided by Fofter, for making public degrading accounts of our population, at the commencement of the war of 1755, he afked, juftly enough,. "What encouragement can it give to the enemy to know, that we have two millions of fighting men in our British islands ?" But we had affuredly in our British islands a million more than Brackenridge unwillingly allowed.

The numbers and fpirit of our people were amply fupported by the augmented refources of the nation. The natural intereft of money, which had been 3 per cent. at the beginning of this reign, never rofe higher than £.3. 13 s. 6d. at the conclufion of it, after an expenfive courfe of eight years hoftilities. During the two first years of the war, the minifters borrowed money at 3 per cent. But, five millions being lent to the administration in 1757, the lenders required 4 per cent. And from the former punctuality of government, and prefent eafe, with which taxes were found' to pay the ftipulated intereft, Great Britain commanded the money of Europe, when the preffures of war obliged France to ftop the payment of intereft on fome of her funded debts.

Mean time the furplufes of the ftanding taxes, of Great Britain amounted, at the commencement of the war, to one million three hundred thousand pounds, which, after the reduction of the intereft of debts in 1757, fwelled to one million fix hun


dred thousand pounds. And from this vaft cur rent of income, the more fcanty ftreams, which flowly flowed from new impofts, were continually fupplied, during the exigencies of war.

It is the expences, more than the flaughter, of modern hoftilities, which debilitate every community. The wholé fupplies granted by Parliament, and raised upon the people, during the reign of George II. amounted to .183,976,624.


The fupplies granted, during the five years of the war, before the decease of that prince, amounted £.54,319,325


The fupplies voted, during the three first years of his fucceffor, amounted † to

The principal expences of a war, which, having been undertaken to drive the French from North America, has proved unfortunate in the issue


£. 105,756,639

Yet, none of the taxes that had been established, in order to raise those vaft fums, bore heavy on the induftrious claffes, if we except the additional excife of three fhillings a barrel on beer. And, whatever

Camp. Pol. Sur. vol. ii. p. 551.

t. Id.

That the confumption of the great body of the people was not leffened, in confequence of the war, we may certainly

whatever burdens may have been imposed, internal industry pursued its occupations, and the enterprize of our traders fent to every quarter of the globe, merchandizes to an extent, which were bes yond all former example.

There were exported annually, during the firft years of the war, furplufes of our land and labour, to the amount of £. 11,708,515; which, being fent abroad from time to time, to different markets, as demand required, might have been all applied, (as fome of them undoubtedly were) in paying the

infer from the official details, in the Appendix to The Obforvations on the State of the Nation:

The average of eight years nett produce of the

duty on foap, &c. ending with 1754


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£. 228,114 264,902


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£. 136,073

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£.168,200 189,216

As no new duties had been laid on the before-mentioned neceffaries of life, the augmentation of the revenue evinces an increase of confumption; confequently of comforts; and confequently of people. In confirmation, let it be confidered too, that the hereditary and temporary excife produced, according to an eight years average, ending with 1754 Ditto, ending with 1767

£.525,317 538,542

* There were moreover exported from Scotland, according to an average of 1755—6—7, goods to the value of £663,401

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fleets and armies, that made conquefts in every quarter of the globe.

The English shipping, which, after exporting that vaft cargo, might have been employed by government as tranfports, and certainly furnished the fleet with a hardy race, amounted to 609,798 tons; which muft have been navi

gated, if we allow twelve men to

every 200 tons burden, by

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- 36,588 men.

We may determine, with regard to the progress and magnitude of the royal navy, from the following statement:

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It is the boaft of Britain," that while other countries fuffered innumerable calamities, during that long period of hoftilities, this happy island escaped them all; and cultivated, unmolested, her manufactures, her fisheries, and her commerce, to an amount, which has been the wonder and envy of the world." This flattering picture of Doctor Campbell will, however, appear to be extremely like the original, from an examination of the fubfequent details; which are more accurate in their notices, and still more juft in their conclufions. Compare, then, the following averages of our na


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