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"Visiting each plant, and fed

Flowers worthy of Paradise, which not nice art
In beds and curious knots, but Nature boon
Poured forth profuse, on hill, and dale, and plain;
Both where the morning sun first warmly smote
The open field, and where the unpierced shade
Imbrowned the noon tide bowers. Thus was this place
A happy rural seat of various views."

But neither the philosopher nor the poet were successful in reforming the national taste of their own generation : though it is probable, that their hints towards the formation of a better taste, were not lost upon another age. After the restoration of Charles II., the principal change effected, through, be it observed, the influence of French example, was planting avenues in the royal parks, and radiations diverging from a centre, in an open champagne: and this plan had many to adopt it among the nobility, for it was the subjection of a whole district of country to one grand mansion. An extensive portion of Grimsthorpe Park, in Lincolnshire, presents something of an arrangement of this kind. The reigns of William and Anne were distinguished by the peculiarities of what is called the Dutch taste in gardening. Large inclosures of wrought iron, with lofty gates of richly ornamented patterns, which were placed at the end of avenues leading to the mansion; hydraulic works, fountains, and waterfalls, of some magnitude and enormous cost, were the principal features of this style. The heavy expense of the first formation of these latter, and the constant demand for supporting them in perfection; combined with a conviction of the puerile fancy by which waterworks were contrived to wet the unwary, not to refresh the spectator, were among the causes of the almost universal decay into which they have fallen. The waterworks at Chatsworth, made by Monsieur Grillett, in 1694, are the only examples remaining in any state of perfection. No exem

plification of any material change of taste occurs, from this period, till the reign of George II.; when, under the patronage of Queen Caroline, Bridgeman had an opportunity of displaying a more chaste style than any of his predecessors. He banished vegetable sculpture, and introduced wild scenes and cultivated fields in Richmond Park; but he still clipt his alleys, though he left to their natural growth the central parts of the masses, through which they were pierced. The boldest innovation, however, upon ancient style, was effected after 1716, on a small scale, by Pope, at Twickenham. This garden, of whose beautiful features nothing now remains, is said to have furnished Kent, (a painter, an architect, and, by Walpole considered, the father of modern gardening,) with a model for those he laid out at Carlton House. The villas at Chiswick, Esher, and Claremont, are cited as the best works of this artist.

A new application of Kent's style, comprehending the grounds destined to agriculture, by including them in the whole scheme, and imperceptibly connecting them with the more embellished portion, was first successfully practised by Mr. Phillip Southcote, at Wobourne Farm, in Surrey. Hence the origin of that description of pleasure ground, which has since received the French designation of ferme ornée. The most beautiful exemplification of this style was the Leasowes of Shenstone.

Wright, on a limited scale, succeeded as the director of public taste. But Launcelot Brown, who, from using the word "capability" so invariably in his consultations, had this term applied to him, as a ridiculous distinction from others of the name, possessed the supreme control over the art of modern gardening, during the course of nearly half a century. His self complacency was so great, that on the formation of an artificial river, in a valley at Blenheim, he exultingly said, that "the Thames would never forgive

him." He is described as a consummate mannerist; but his reputation and wealth gave him almost exclusive pretensions. Clumps and belts were multiplied to a disgusting monotony, and abounded in every part of the kingdom. The ancient avenues disappeared, as if before the wand of a magician; every vestige of the formal or reformed taste, was forcibly removed. Whatever approached to a right line was held in abhorrence.

Considerable opposition was manifested in a controversial form, to the influence of Brown on public opinion; in which Mr., afterwards Sir William Chambers, distinguished himself, as the advocate of the Chinese style of gardening ; and Price as the powerful supporter of a style, the basis of which is described in the title of his work-" Essays on the Picturesque, as compared with the sublime and beautiful, and on the use of studying pictures for the purpose of improving real landscape." Good taste has almost universally banished the once prevalent Chinese style. Pagodas, and Chinese bridges, and other garden decorations of a semibarbarous nation, were too ungenial to our soil, and alien from all our preconceived notions of the sublime and beautiful, to retain any very extended hold on public opinion. On the other hand, the principle of Price, followed out in the manner which the author intended, materially influenced the national taste. His real object was, not to induce the noble and wealthy to create landscape gardening from pictures, but by a reference to the taste of the most distinguished landscape painters to shew, that nature ought to be the model in both instances.

By slow degrees the soundness of this principle became generally recognised: and was effectively adopted by a gentleman of the name of Repton, who, from being an amateur, began his career as professor of landscape gardening, in the latter part of the last century. In the early part

of his professional life, Repton was an avowed defender and follower of Brown; but finding public opinion strongly sympathising with the views of Price, he judiciously sacrificed his prepossessions to the prevailing taste, and powerfully contributed by his beautiful designs, to the firm establishment of the system of landscape gardening, which may now be observed in every newly formed domain attached to the mansion of a wealthy proprietor.

I am not acquainted with the name of the artist gardener, who, during the present century, assisted in the formation of the beautiful demesne of Belvoir Castle: and I feel less solicitous about this fact, as it is known, that the Duchess herself, imagined, planned, and superintended the execution of the designs, which have now ripened into such luxuriant beauty. It would be impossible to describe in words, the magnificent series of landscapes which may be observed in various parts of the demesne. I would even go so far as to assert, that it would require a combination of the diversified talents of the three greatest landscape painters the world ever saw, to do justice to the subject. The grace of Claude, the depth and simplicity of Poussin, and the wildness of Salvator Rosa, combined in one individual, could alone pourtray on canvas, a faithful character of the Belvoir scenery. My readers will then scarcely expect, that I could efficiently describe it in order to their guidance. It must be seen, to be properly appreciated; and viewed not with the hurried incurious eye of a hasty visitor; but advantage taken of a lengthened pause at every break where a grotto, or a rustic seat shews, that the noble family has already appreciated every striking point of the landscape. This is more especially manifest in an avenue extending in a winding direction towards the west, for nearly two miles, called the DUKE'S Walk.

Below the slope to the west of the Castle, there is a gar

den of some interest, effectually secluded from the view when in the Castle, and in every other point. This was a favorite retreat of the Duchess with her young family. A few memorials of the former ornamental style of gardening, are here preserved with apposite taste. I would instance the five statues in granulated stone, representing

Juno, with her peacock, and a bunch of grapes in her left hand.

Ceres, with ears of corn and a sheaf. On the pedestal of this statue are arms, Rutland impaling, fretty, a canton ermine.

A Female Figure, with a monkey.

Pomona, with flowers and a flower pot.

Winter, in beard, trowsers, hood, and plaid mantle, cringing over a firepan.

This last statue exhibits admirable invention, character, and execution.

A flight of steps with massive balustrade,-a remnant of the former decorations of the garden,-conducts us to a kind of wilderness, intersected by narrow footpaths, which lead to various portions of the demesne, below the now green terraces. Within a few hundred yards of the above-mentioned garden, is another still more secluded, and the more especial favorite of the Duchess. It is in this last, that we observe the column which, with its inscription and a portion of the surrounding garden, has been introduced into the picture of the Duchess, by Hoppner, in the regent's gallery. The charm of both these gardens consists, not so much in their artificial embellishments, or the beauty and rarity of the flowers, as in their situation. The visitor, passing through narrow avenues of lofty trees, winding about on the side of the hill, unexpectedly emerges upon a little cleared spot, traversed by gravel walks, and glowing with gay flowers. The walks on the side of this hill have some

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