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quity assigned to this vault is, that coronets were not used by the nobility till the reign of Henry III., or nearly a hundred and thirty years after the death of Robert de Todeni; and then, as the distinctive mark of an earl. Coronets were not assigned to barons, till after the restoration of Charles II.

The way is now clear before us, to consider which of the noble possessors of the Belvoir property after this period, (1216,) was likely to have rebuilt this, the most important portion of the Castle. It should be remembered, that it was the general custom of the founder to place the initial of his name, in some such conspicuous situation as this,— the keystone of the Staunton vault. To none could the present cypher, and I may add, the coronet, apply, but to a member of the Manners family; and there is no record that any material portion of the Castle was rebuilt till after the War of the Roses. Soon after 1523, Thomas Manners, first Earl of Rutland, is known to have commenced the rebuilding of the Castle, which had been so wantonly laid in ruins by Lord Hastings. We have, then, an accumulation of probabilities derived from tolerably clear data, that Thomas Manners, first Earl of Rutland, was the rebuilder of this portion of Staunton Tower, in the early part of the sixteenth century.

The cellar is 21 feet square.

The south-east side of this story of the Castle is occupied by the passage and waiting room to the Family Dining Room, the Duke's Drawing Room, intervening passage, and private Study and Bed-room.


is a very cheerful apartment, about 34 feet by 20 feet. There are a few good pictures:

The Last Supper. slab of the sideboard.

Albrecht Durer.

Over the marble This admirable picture was a purchase of his Grace the present Duke of Rutland; and is the last work of the celebrated master. Turner, the dis

tinguished artist of the present day, declared, that he considered the view through the window, of our Saviour's entrance into Jerusalem, worth the whole sum given for the picture.

Landscape, with two Dogs, Turk and Crab. These were favourite dogs of his Grace's father.


GEORGE STUBBS, a very eminent animal painter, and an associate of the Royal Academy, was born at Liverpool, in 1724. At the age of thirty, he visited Rome for professional improvement; and, on his return, settled in London, where he became one of the first horse-painters of his day. An eminent critic says of Stubbs "That his skill in comparative anatomy never suggested to him the propriety of style in forms, if it were not eminently proved by his 'Phaeton with the Horses of the Sun,' would be evident from all his other figures, which, when human, are seldom more than the attendants of some animal; whilst the style of the animals themselves depended entirely on the individual before him. His tiger, for grandeur, has never been equalled; his lions are, to those of Rubens, what jackals are to lions: but none ever did greater justice to the peculiar structure of that artificial animal, the race-courser, and to all the mysteries of turf-tactics; though, unfortunately for the artist, they depend more on the fac-similist's precision, than the painter's spirit." Stubbs, however, was not only distinguished for correctness, but for a characteristic spirit in most of his paintings; and this is particularly remarkable in the portraits which he draws of the celebrated racers of his time. A Battle-piece. Unknown. Unknown. Over the fire-place. Landscape-Lion devouring Stag. Stubbs.

Beyond the next, or drawing room, is a passage, in which are

A Head of the Marquis of Granby.

Game. "A. Cladenberg" marked at the right bottom


This admirable painting was purchased by the

present Duke.

The passage in which are the above paintings, communicates with the Duke's private study, bed-room, and dressing room; the former affording ample evidence of his businesslike habits; the two latter, of the extreme simplicity of his desires, as far as his own personal accommodation is concerned.

There are two portraits in passages on this story, of which, from the unfavourable light in which they are placed, it is impossible to give an opinion:—

"Lord Thomas Manners, son of the first Duke of Rutland;" and

General Sporcken.

The Billiard Room looks into the court-yard, at the east angle.

The south-west portion of this story is occupied by the chapel and antechapel, the chaplain's apartments, and bedrooms for the accommodation of his Grace's brother, and other distinguished visitors. The chapel has been described, and in the remainder of this portion of the Castle, there is nothing else that requires particular remark.

Descending to the basement story, the principal apartment is the


under the Wellington Rooms, and shorter than the Elizabeth Saloon, by the breadth of a passage only.

Every means has been employed to render this portion of the Castle secure in its foundations. The vast height of the north-east tower, and its peculiar locality, rendered such careful precautions highly necessary. The basement story, or steward's room, is built over an inverted conc.

To give the reader some notion of the substantial solidity of the structure, I would observe, that the splay of the windows is four feet on the inside, and nearly six feet on the outside; the walls must, therefore, be at least nine feet thick. It was in this direction, that the greatest strength was required, from the proximity of this front of the tower to the edge of the precipitous elevation on which the Castle is built. The side walls, which are not exposed to a similar locality, are about half the thickness. The steward's room is calculated to dine a party of one hundred persons, in great comfort; a number which, during the Duke's brief residence, it not unfrequently contains.

On the north-east side of the Castle are numerous fireproof bed-rooms, for domestics. On the other sides are the kitchens, with their various appendages, pantries, offices, &c. A portion of the west angle is devoted to the Land Steward's offices; and of the north-west side, to the Porter's Lodge.

In a work like the present, the interest is necessarily of a varied kind; the different portions of which will, it is hoped, meet with acceptance from all parties, according to their varied tastes. And though we are now about to observe in some little detail, the less dignified subjects of kitchens, cellars, pantries, and such accessories of a princely establishment, perhaps even my refined readers may be reconciled to a description of such matters, when they are informed, that Majesty itself was gratified with a survey of the cellars, kitchens, and offices, which were lighted up for the occasion; (see p. 156;) and that one of the most distinguished members of Almack's, when with difficulty she had been persuaded to visit the Lamp-rooms,—a not very attractive region by anticipation to a courtly lady,-was beyond measure astonished and gratified at the excellence of the arrangements, and their entire freedom from any thing that could disgust or annoy.

We will in the first place revert to the cellar in the Staunton Tower. There is one other relic of antiquity in this cellar, of which no certain explanation can be given, as nothing is known of its history. It is a silver cup, which was found by Mr. Douglas chained to a stool. It is now of perfectly plain workmanship, and apparently of considerable antiquity; capable of containing about a winequart. I am not convinced that it was originally so devoid of character, but suppose that age and cleaning may have erased its original enchasements. From the place in which it was found, I should be inclined to consider it a sort of standard-cup, the contents of which were inflicted, according to the serio-comic taste of by-gone days, upon each individual present at a festive season; of which we have an example in the "blessed bear of Bradwardine," described in Waverley.

The Cellar Book is an interesting document, from the decided proofs it affords, that hospitality, almost regal in its extent, is perfectly consistent with great order in the arrangements, and an accurate knowledge of every article of expenditure. It contains some admirable rules to be observed by the usher of the hall; the objects of which are to secure good morals, respectful behaviour, and regularity, among the servants of the Castle, and those of the visitors.

* Through the unsolicited courtesy of Mr. Douglas, I was furnished with a document, which will give my readers some notion of the extent of the hospitality maintained during his Grace's residence at the Castle.

Consumption of Wine and Ale, Wax-lights, &c. from December, 1839, to April, 1840, or about eighteen weeks.

Wine, 200 dozen; Ale, 70 hogsheads; Wax-lights, 2330; Sperm oil, 630 gallons.

Dined at his Grace's table, 1997 persons; in the steward's room, 2421; in the servants' hall, nursery, and kitchen departments, including comers and goers, 11,312 persons.

Of loaves of bread there were consumed 3333; of meat, 22,963 lbs. exclusive of game, which will be mentioned in the descriprion of the kitchen.

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