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where they arrived in twelve hours through a fine plain without hills; the country is much more populous than between Timbuc too and the Nile. Ferry-boats are to be had at several villages.

• Housa.

• They did not see the town till they came within an hour from it, or an hour and a half; it stands in a plain. Housa is southeast of Timbuctoo, a much larger city, and nearly as large as London. He lived there two years, but never saw the whole of it. It has no walls; the houses are like those of Timbuctoo, and form irregular lanes or streets like those of Fas or Marocco, wide enough for camels to pass with their loads. The palace is much larger than that of Timbuctoo; it is seven or eight miles in circumference, and surrounded by a wall; he remembers but four gates, but there may be more; he thinks the number of guards at each gate is about fifty; it is in that part of the town most distant from the Nile. The houses are dark coloured and flat roofed. He thinks Cairo is about one-third larger than Housa; the streets are much wider than those of Timbuctoo; the houses are covered with a kind of clay of different colours, but never white. They have no chalk or lime in the country.'

It is difficult to convey any distinct notion of the miscellaneous topics which fill the rest of this volume, consisting of letters describing journeys through various parts of West and South Barbary at different periods, performed personally by Mr. Jackson: but it would be unjust not to allow them the merit of communicating, though in a disjointed and desultory form, many valuable articles of information.

In 1792, Mr. Jackson was appointed by the Dutch consulgeneral of Marocco to act as agent for him at Santa Cruz, which had been just opened to the Dutch by the Emperor; and he arrived there from Mogodor on the third morning after his departure. He thus describes his reception :

The most hearty exclamations of joy and approbation were manifested by the people when I landed; a merchant was come to establish, once more, that commerce by which the fathers of the present generation had prospered; and their sons appeared to know full well the advantages that again waited their industry, which for 30 years had not been exercised. I mounted my horse on the beach, amidst the general acclamations of the people, and ascended the mountain, on the summit of which is the town. On my arrival at the gate, I was courteously received by the bashaw's sons; who, however, informed me that the entrance of Santa Cruz was ever considered holy ground, and that Christians, during its former establishment, always descended and entered the town on foot, intimating at the same time that it was expected I should do the same. I had been before cautioned by Mr. Gwyn, the British consul at Mogodor, not to expostulate at this request, as it would certainly be required of me to conform to ancient usages. But I



knew too well the disposition of the people, and the great desire that pervaded all ranks to have the port established; I therefore turned my horse, and told the bashaw's sons, that I was come, with the blessing of God, to bring prosperity to the land, to make the poor rich, and to improve the condition and multiply the conveniences of the opulent; that I came to establish commerce for their advantage, not for mine; that it was indifferent to me whether I returned to Mogodor or remained with them. The sons of the bashaw became alarmed, and entreated me, with clasped hands, to wait till they should report to the bashaw my words and observations. I consented, and soon after they returned with their father's earnest request that I should enter a-horseback: old customs, said the venerable old bashaw when, immediately afterwards, I met him in the street; old customs are abolished, enter and go out of this town a-horseback or a-foot, we desire the prosperity of this port, and that its commerce may flourish; All the people of Suse hail you as their deliverer, God has sent you to us to turn the desert into (jinen afia) a fruitful garden; come, and be welcome, and God be with you."

We extract also the author's account of a journey over the Atlas mountains:

This country abounds in extensive plantations of olives, almonds, and gum-trees; some plants of the (fashook) gum-ammoniac are here discovered. Vines producing purple grapes of an enormous size and exquisite flavour: (dergmuse) the Euphorbium plant is discovered in rocky parts of the mountains; and great abundance of worm-seed and stick-liquorice. The indigo-plant (Enneel) is found here; as are also pomegranates, of a large size and a most exquisitely sweet flavour, and oranges. Ascending the Atlas, after five hours' ride, we reached a table-land, and pitched our tents near a sanctuary. The temperature of the air is cooler here, and the trees are of a different character; apples, pears, cherries, walnuts, apricots, peaches, plums, and rhododendrons, were the produce of this region. The next morning at five o'clock, the army struck their tents, and after ascending seven hours more, we met with another change in vegetation. Leguminous plants began to appear; pines of an immense size, ferns, the belute, a species of oak, the acorn of which is used as food, and is preferred to the Spanish chesnut; elms, mountain-ash, seedra and snobar, the two latter being a species of the juniper. After this we passed through a fine campaign country of four hours ride: we were informed that this country was very populous; but our fakeer and guide avoided the habitations of men. We now began again to ascend these magnificent and truly romantic mountains, and in two hours approached partial coverings of snow. Vegetation here diminishes, and nothing is now seen but firs, whose tops appear above the snow; the cold is here intense; and it is remarkable, that the pullets' eggs that we procured in the campaign country just described, were nearly twice the size of those of Europe. Proceeding two hours further, we came to a narrow


pass, on the east side of which was an inaccessible mountain, almost perpendicular, and entirely covered with snow; and on the west, a tremendous precipice, of several thousand feet in depth, as if the mountain had been split in two, or rent asunder by an earthquake: the path is not more than a foot wide, over a solid rock of granite. Here the whole army dismounted, and many prostrated in prayer, invoking the Almighty to enable them to pass in safety; but, however, notwithstanding all possible precaution, two mules missed their footing, and were precipitated with their burdens into the yawning abyss. There is no other pass but this and that of Belawin, which is equally dangerous for an army; so that the district of Suse, which was formerly a kingdom, might be defended by a few men against an invading army from Marocco of several thousands, by taking a judicious position at the southern extremity of this narrow path and tremendous precipice, which is but a few yards in length. Proceeding northward through this defile, we continued our journey seven hours (gradually descending towards the plains of Fruga, a town of considerable extent, distant about 15 miles from the mountains). Proceeding two hours further, making together nine hours' journey, the army pitched their tents, and we encamped on another table-land, on the northern declivity of Atlas, at the entrance of an immense plantation of olives, about a mile west of a village, called Ait Musie, a most luxuriant and picturesque country. The village of Ait Musie contains many Jews, whose external is truly miserable; but this appearance of poverty is merely political, for they are a trading and rich people, for such a patriarchal country. The olive-plantations at this place, and in many other parts of this country, do honour to the agricultural propensity of the Emperor Muley Ismael, who planted them. They cover about six square miles of ground; the trees are planted in right lines, at a proper distance; the plantation is interspersed with openings, or squares, to let in the air. These openings are about a square acre in extent.'

Mr. Jackson's observations on the diffusion of the blessings of Christianity in Africa, a consummation of all others most devoutly to be wished, are deserving at this moment of the most serious attention:

• That it is a Christian duty to attempt, by lenient measures, to propagate the Christian religion among the idolaters and Muhamedans of Africa, I think cannot be doubted; but this propagation will not spread to any considerable extent until (in that country) the morals of Christians in general shall approach nearer than they actually do to the standard of Christian perfection. It is, however, most certain that there never was a more promising or a more favourable opportunity of subverting paganism in Africa, and establishing Christianity on its ruins, than at this present period; and I think the best method to effect this desirable purpose is through the medium of commerce, which must, in that continent, necessarily precede science and civilisation. It is well known, by all men of penetration who have resided in Muhamedan countries,

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countries, that the principles of the religion of Muhamed are not so repugnant to Christianity as many, nay, most persons, have imagined. Various causes, however, tend to increase the hostility that exists between the two religions. First, it is augmented by the fakeers, and by political men, who are ever active in bringing to their aid superstition and enthusiasm, to increase the hostility. Secondly, it is augmented by the very little intercourse which they have with Christians, originating, for the most part, in our ignorance of the Arabic language, an ignorance which has been lamented by the Emperor Seedy Muhamed ben Abdallah himself. Thirdly, the hostility of these two religions is augmented by a very ancient tradition, that the country will be invaded by the Christians, and converted to Christianity, that this event will happen on a Friday (the Muhamedan sabbath), during the time that they are at the (silla dohor) prayers at half-past one o'clock, P. M.; so that throughout the empire they close the gates of all the towns on this day, at this period of time, till two o'clock, P.M.: when the prayers are over, and the people go out of the mosques, the gates are again thrown open. This tradition, which is universally believed, acts on the minds of the whole community, and fans the embers of hostility already lighted between Christians and Muhamedans, bringing to the recollection of the latter the hostile intentions of the former to invade and take their country from them, when an opportunity shall offer. On the other hand, what tends to reconcile the two creeds is, the influence that European commerce, and the principles of the Christian doctrine, have had on the Muselmen of Africa. This influence extends as far as the commerce with Europeans extends. Wherever the Europeans negociate with the Moors, the great principle of the Christian doctrine is known and discussed, that principle which surpasses every doctrine propagated by the Grecian philosophers, or the wise men of the East, that truly noble, liberal, and charitable principle, "Do as you would be done by," influences the conduct of the better educated Muselmen who have had long intercourse and negociations with Christians; and they do not fail tó retort it upon us, whenever our conduct deviates from it. Thus, the minds of Muselmen, wherever European commerce flows, are tinctured with this great principle of the Christian doctrine. And, to an accurate observer of mankind, it will appear that this principle, from its own intrinsic beauty, has in many superseded the Muselman retaliative system of morality, originating in the Mosaic law," An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth." For I have heard Muselmen, in their individual disputes with one another, advance this precept as a rule of conduct. If, therefore, this divine principle be recognised by Muselmen, who have had intercourse and commercial negociations with Europeans, in defiance of the obstacles to this doctrine suggested by the fakeers and political men, what might we not expect from the due cultivation of an extensive commerce, upon a grand national scale, with this interesting continent? Might we not expect a gradual diffusion of the principles of Christianity among the Muselmen, as well as


among the pagans and idolators of Africa? I would venture to assert, that in the event of the British government engaging, with energy and determination, to cultivate a commercial intercourse and extensive connection with Africa, that the Negroes, and possibly even the Muhamedans, might gradually be converted to Christianity. This event would take a long time to accomplish, but its gradual progress, most probably, would be more rapid than was the progress of Muhamedanism during the life of the Arabian prophet.'

So multifarious are the topics discussed in this book, plans of commerce,-plans for the gradual civilization of Africa, - abolition of slavery, fragments, notes, and anecdotes illustrating the nature and character of the country, the Arabic language, - translations of Arabic letters, the death of Mungo Park, various letters on Africa, &c. &c.— that it might be almost denominated a treatise De omnibus rebus Africanis, et quibusdam aliis. We are constrained, however, by our limits, and by the consciousness that we have on former occasions devoted much space to African details, from entering more fully into the specific matters of which it consists; recommending it, at the same time, to those who are desirous of acquiring a full and complete knowlege of these interesting, although in many respects obscure, subjects of research.

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ART. VIII. Reports on the Diseases of London, and the State of the Weather, from 1804 to 1816; including practical Remarks on the Causes and Treatment of the former; and preceded by a historical View of the State of Health and Disease in the Metropolis in past Times; in which the Progress of the extraordinary Improvement in Salubrity, which it has undergone, the Changes in the Character of the Seasons in this Respect, and the Causes of these, are traced down to the present Period. By Thomas Bateman, M. D., &c. &c. 8vo. pp. 293. 9s. Boards. Longman and Co.


HE present Reports, like those of Dr. Willan, the author's distinguished predecessor, were at first published successively in a periodical work: this volume containing the late Dr. Bateman's Quarterly Reports on the Diseases of London, as they were given in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, to which for twelve years they formed a very interesting and valuable contribution. They have now received the addition, on more than one occasion, of such remarks as the author's subsequent experience suggested, particularly on the subject of blood-letting in the diseases of London, and especially in continued fever. As an appropriate introduction

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