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Chinese policy, disclosed by the edicts and laws promulgated in The Peking Gazette, is the existence of a class of learned men, denominated Yu-sze in the classic dialect, and who are called "public censors" by foreigners, in lieu of a more appropriate name for paid officers of the State, who have no counterpart in any other nation. Their duty is not merely to point out to the emperor the existence of any evil amongst the people that requires suppression or punishment of the offenders, but they expose the errors and misgovernment of ministers, and dare even to reprove his Majesty, "the Sacred One from Heaven," when he revels in the sensuality and debauchery that Asiatic monarchs are prone to indulge in. In fact, they use a language so bold and unmistakable in its terms, on some occasions, that, if used in England, they would be tried for treason to the throne, in France incarcerated, and perhaps guillotined, and in the United States sent to Fort Lafayette without benefit of clergy. These sages act also as imperial historiographers, their functions being defined by the State many centuries ago; so that they are a body of venerable functionaries appointed for the purpose of addressing the monarch by direct communication, either verbally or in writing. Even in this free and enlightened monarchy, the self-constituted censors of the public press do not attempt such liberties in their strictures on the queen and court at Windsor as the Yu-sze on the emperor and court at Peking; as they cautiously write at the monarch, whereas these censors talk or write to his Celestial Majesty. During the reign of a late emperor, one of these rigid sages lectured him upon his vices and the extravagance of his court, while at the same time he offered his life as a sacrifice for daring to speak faithfully. The consequences were anything but revenge ful; on the contrary, the censor was applauded for his courage and fidelity, and the emperor subsequently mended his ways.

A remarkable instance of the effect of the memorials submitted by these censors to the sovereign, or, as in the case about to be related, the regency, in altering the destiny of the nation, may be cited. On the death of the late Emperor Hien-Feng-a wretched debauchee, who

fled from Peking when it was captured by the English and French allied armies.

a Council of Regency was appointed to govern, as the successor was a youth eleven years old. This council was composed of inveterate enemies to the allies, and they contemplated fresh intrigues and wars against them. Immediately, a censor named Tung-yuan-shun memorialized the empress dowager, stating that, in consequence of the success of the allies, a new order of things had taken place in the annals of the empire, and that, for the future, "Practice should be guided by circumstances "-an innovation of doctrine unparalleled in the conservative policy of China. However, the views of this reformer had such weight with the empress and the deceased em-. peror's brother, Prince Kung, that they seized the reins of government, and in a month after deposed, strangled, and decapitated every member of the antireform council. So that, by the arguments and representations of this bold censor, a complete revolution occurred in the government of the State, favorable to British and other nations, which happily exists to the present day. A minute account of how this coup d'état came to pass, not omitting the most trifling details, was published in The Peking Gazette of the time; which is more authentic in relating the true history of that important event than all that has transpired concerning the coup d'état of 1848 in France, which established the present imperial rule on the ruins of republicanism. Our limited space precludes us from furnishing the reader with the decrees upon that occasion; but a recent extract from an ordinance against the use of opium will serve to show the character of the articles in the Gazette:

"Wang-ching-yun, a censor, has prayed us that we should enforce restrictions on officers of all ranks, soldiers, and scholars using opium. He painfully opens out the growth of the vice of opium-smoking among the above classes, and makes an earnest appeal for some effective injunction being enforced to secure the limit of its use among them. What he has laid before us is certainly a point of vast importance. As to the drug itself, though the prohibitions on it have been relaxed, yet the prevalence, and the growth of its irregular use to so

| of European governments, and issued in the name of the emperor, as ours are in the name of the queen. But while in this country this is only a fiction of the law, in China, when a talented emperor occupies the throne, many of these edicts are the bona fide production of the monarch, who frequently gives vent, through the pages of The Peking Gazette, to his hopes and fears, his joys and sorrows, respecting the social as well as the political state of his subjects. Notwithstanding a vast deal of grandiloquism and insincerity which clothes these productions of the "vermilion pencil," as they are characterized from other writings, there is something grand in the patriarchal meaning they bear that the "emperor is the father of his people." At one time he mourns with some tribes in the far west of his dominions near Thibet who have suffered by a landslip which has buried their flocks and many of their people, and relieves the survivors from all taxes during their lives; at another time he rejoices with the hus

very large an extent, must have no little bearing and influence upon the customs and tone of society. Our civil and military officers respectively have their posts to fill; but if night be turned into day, and every duty be performed with irreg ularity, what probability is there that the affairs of State can be conducted as they should be, with vigor and promptness? Our literati have to put forward every effort in colleges and classes, gradually rising until they appear on the roll of men competent to occupy official posts. But if the educational elements are allowed to grow recklessly and wildly, where is the hope of converting such into good material? Our soldiers, to be men of pluck in the army, ought to be thoroughly expert in warfare; but if their energy flags and becomes feeble, and their skill in arms falls into disuse, will it be possible for them to keep their places in battle array and overpower a strong enemy? Now, just as we are instructing our officers to be vigilant in their respective duties and in reforming our soldiery, why should they be allow-bandmen in the rice provinces that there ed to tyrannize over themselves, or to abandon themselves to ruin, for want of further and distinct prohibitions as to the indulgence complained of? Accordingly, we prescribe henceforth (without interfering with the commonalty availing themselves of the altered code on this score) that our officers, scholars, and troops shall continue under the same prohibition heretofore existing as to opium-smoking; and we require that the heads of the civil, military, and educational departments do keep strict watch on this head. Any offenders must be immediately punished with severity and reported for degradation; and, in hope that by strenuous efforts we may revive the declining morals of the day, no indulgence shall be granted to connivance in any shape; and thus we shall maintain our dignity and majesty. Respect this!" We may remark, en passant, that the great Napoleon issued a similar decree relative to the excessive tobaccosmoking among the civil and military departments of the State.

From the foregoing it will be observed that, excepting the reference to the censor as the source of information, the general tenor of a Chinese imperial edict is similar to the decrees and ordinances

has been an abundant harvest, enjoining them to return thanks in the temples for the mercies showered upon them; again, he issues his maledictions against the Taiping rebels, who have devastated the most fertile provinces of his dominions, reducing their industrious inhabitants to want and misery, and rescinds all taxes to be levied on them, until prosperity shall again bless the land; and, lastly, he rewards his brave soldiers who have overcome the insurrectionists that laid waste the country, as in the following translation of a recent extract from The Peking Gazette, issued after the capture of the ancient city of Nanking:

"The San Mêng Mongolian Cavalry, from the time they were first led against the insurgents by San-ko-lin-sin to the present day, have constantly been in action, and their efforts have in all cases been crowned with success. For very many years the exploits of these troops have been very noble, and thus honor was acquired in several provinces. In the broiling heat of summer and the chilling cold of winter they alike exerted themselves: yet the above-mentioned high officer has recommended extremely few of the men and officers under his command for posts of importance. This,

doubtless, resulted from the extreme | deaths from this cause among the foreign care he took to avoid the slightest mis- community at Shanghai, where he was representation. Now that Nanking has resident, filled many a heart with feelbeen taken, we are anxious to bestowings of dread and sorrow: our marks of approbation on every private soldier. They are most certainly, therefore, entitled to the highest reward, and to have the cup of favor filled to overflowing. Moreover, as to the mandarins employed in San-ko-lin-sin's camp, we request him carefully to pick out the most distinguished and recommend them for promotion, waiting for our orders as to the marks of distinction to be bestowed. To the soldiers in the camp the sum of ten thousand taels is granted, to be distributed by the commissariat officers, in order to show our approbation and sympathy. To sum up, when the empire is completely pacified, we shall be at a loss to find adequate rewards to shower on our devoted follow ers. Respect this!"

The reigning emperor, Tung Chee, being a minor, as already stated, and now in his thirteenth year only, attending to his studies under the wisest tutors of the realm, the decrees quoted are not the production of his juvenile vermilion pencil. They emanate from the Court of Regency, consisting of Prince Kung, his uncle, the empress, his mother, and the empress dowager, the first wife of his father without issue. The prince is a man of high attainments and liberal principles, as may be perceived by the tone of the edicts; still, he is bound to interpret the "signs of the times," according to the superstitious antecedents of Chinese history. We finish our extracts of The Peking Gazette with a characteristic decree illustrative of the whole fabric of Chinese ethics, framed, no doubt, under the supervision of the ladies and some sage censor, which maintains the superstitions of the darkest ages in Europe, and reads like a literary production of the remotest antiquity suddenly vivified in the middle of this matter-of-fact scientific nineteenth century. The appearance of the comet, and the prevalence of cholera, referred to, occurred during the residence of the writer in China, when the awful devastation caused by the latter scourge was well qualified to give the mysterious edict all the effect intended among the native population; and the number of sudden

"We have come to the throne of this great empire, and have received authority over it. We respectfully receive the assistance of the gracious empresses dowager, who attend the deliberation on public affairs. We have diligently sought the proper mode of rule, and have been assisted by the great princes of the court. The present times and affairs are full of difficulty, and all officials are anxious that the best men should be appointed to fill offices in the State, and are arduously exerting themselves to govern rightly, and bring down Heaven's favor. Now, on the 15th day of the 7th moon, at night, there were seen many stars darting towards the southwest, and on the 25th there was seen a comet in the northwest. These appearances in the heavens did not come for nothing, and for two months the city has been overrun by cholera. Though we are still youthful, we are deeply afraid, and have received from the dowagers their united opinions, that these frightful occurrences in the heavens and amongst the people must be caused by some defect in our government. All the officials are alike in fear, and examine their conduct in order to rectify their faults. Since our accession we have ever sought good advice, and have taken care to extract good advice from other officials of the empire when they have had occasion to memorialize us. But we fear that, in the multitude of our affairs, and the great extent of our empire, there may be some defect that has escaped our notice, and of which the court has not heard, that the officers, in memorializing, have been deterred from speaking their mind from fear of giving offence, and have not told the facts of the case. Therefore we on purpose issue an edict ordering that all officials, great and small, should with their whole heart consider whether there be any shortcomings in the great and important affairs of our government; should honestly expose them, and not hide them; should not keep back anything as unimportant or trivial, and should obey Heaven in reality and not in name only. At present we are in painful anxiety as to the many troubles

all around us; we and our officials must diligently fulfil our public and private duties, and, taking warning from these appearances in the firmament, entreat Heaven's favor. Respect this!"


Ar the head of this number of THE ECLECTIC we have placed quite a life-like portrait of Goldwin Smith, the able and learned Regius Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford. Many of our readers, we are confident, will give a cordial welcome to this portrait, Inasmuch as his person and character secured to him a very flattering reception in this city and country some months since. His warm interest in, and bold advocacy of, the Federal government in its efforts to put down the rebellion, has won for him many friends and admirers. The Union Club in this city gave him a warm reception, and treated him with distinguished consideration. He was invited to address the New-York Historical Society, which he did to a very intelligent and crowded assembly, on the origin and history of the great family of English universities at Oxford. It was a masterly presentation of the leading facts, which he gave without preparation, as he remarked, and without a word written upon which to rely. His lecture was received with marked attention and interest. The press of this city announced his arrival in this country in flattering terms.

Professor Goldwin Smith was born at Reading, England, in 1823. His father, who still lives, has been for many years engaged in the practice of medicine. Goldwin Smith was sent to school at Eton, and afterwards was entered at Christ Church, Oxford, where he remained until he was elected to a Demy-ship at Magdalen College. In 1845 he took his B. A. degree, having gained the Ireland and Hertford Scholarship and the Chancellor's Prize for writing the best Latin verse. His next step in promotion was his election to a tutor's chair in University College. Having made himself acquainted with law, he was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1847, but being disinclined to practice his profession, he ac-|

cepted the post of Assistant Secretary to the first Oxford Commission, (that of inquiry,) and as Secretary to the second. He was also chosen member of the Education Commission of 1859. His published works embrace lectures on historical and other subjects. He is now Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford. He incurred the displeasure of some un-American journals because he had the courage and honesty to defend our struggling nation against the assaults made by the University with which he is associated. His clear and forcible tract on American slavery, and his letter on Southern independence, show him in the light of the true friend of freedom. His opinions have the true ring, and will cause his visit to this country to be long remeinbered. He returned to England about the first of February, 1865.


"Il-y-a des fleurs animées."-Polite Colloquialism.
To and fro in the City I go,
Tired of the ceaseless ebb and flow,
Sick of the crowded mart;
Tired of the din and rattle of wheels,
Sick of the dust as one who feels

The dust is over his heart.

Again and again, as the sunlight wanes,
I think of the lights in the leafy lanes,
With the bits of blue between;
And when about Rimmel's the perfumes play,
I smell no odor of "Ess Bouquet,"
But violets hid i' the green;
And I love how I love!-the plants that fill
The pots on my dust-dry window-sill-
A sensitive sickly crop-

But a flower that charms me more, I think,
Than cowslip or crocus, or rose or pink,
Blooms in a milliner's shop.

Hazel eyes that wickedly peep,
Flash, abash, and suddenly sleep
Under the lids drawn in;
Ripple of hair that rioteth out,
Mouth, with a half-born smile and a pout,
And a baby-breadth of chin;
Hands that light as the lighting bird
On the bloom bent bough, and the bough is

With a delicate ecstasy;
Fingers tipped with a roseate flush,
Flicking and flirting a feathery brush

Over the papery bonnetry-
Till the gauzy rose begins to glow,
And the gauzy hyacinths break and blow,
And the dusty grape grows red;


And the flaunting grasses seem to say, 'Do we look like ornaments-tell us, I prayFit for a lady's head ?"

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THE wheel of Time turns whirring on,

It never varies, never stays; Somewhiles we watch, somewhiles we shun, But it nor lingers nor delays. And if perchance Love seize the wheel, And seek to stop it in its flight,

He only learns the more to feel

He cannot lengthen Life's delight.

Yet Love will strive to change its course,
And with a soft hand grasps it fast;
Though whirled by its resistless force,
All things must leave it at the last.
Love sometimes holds, and while it turns
Faint with the speed yet faithful dies;
But oftener, when his hand it burns,
He quits at once and distant flies.
Fraser's Magazine.

F. G. F.


'Tis forty years ago since first

I climbed these dusty, winding stairs To play the Dean in: how I spurned

Beneath my feet all meaner cares, When first I leant, my cheek on fire, And looked down blushing at the choir.

Handel, and Haydn, and Mozart

I thought they watched me as I played; While Palestrina's stern, sad face

Seemed in the twilight to upbraid; Pale fingers moved upon the keysThe ghost-hands of past centuries.

Behind my oaken battlement

Above the door I used to lean, And watch, in puffing crimson hood, Come stately sailing in the Dean; On this, the organ breathing low, Began to murmur soft and slow.

I used to shut my eyes, and hear
The solemn prophecy and psalm
Rise up like incense; and I loved

Before the prayer the lull and calm,
Till, like the stream that bursts its banks,
Broke forth brave Purcell's "O give Thanks."

I knew those thirteen hundred pipes
And thirty stops, as blind men do

The voices of the friends they love,

The bird's song, and the thunder too; And the fierce diapason's roar, Like storms upon a rocky shore.

And now to-day I yield me up

The dusky seat, my old loved throne, Unto another; and no more

Shall come here in the dusk alone, Or in the early matin hour,

To hear my old friend's voice of power.

And yet methinks, that centuries hence,
Lying beneath the chancel floor,
In that dark nook I shall delight

To hear the anthen's swell once more,
And to myself shall quietly smile
When music floods the vaulted aisle.

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