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successors. It is by virtue of this patent that the two winter-theatres continue to possess their exclusive privilege at the present day.

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This morceau of theatrical history is the most interesting part of Mr. Jackson's speech; in the rest of which we have seen nothing worth notice, if it be not the following passage (page 31.), in which the speaker, praising his antagonist, Mr. Warren, has managed to introduce a neat compliment to himself: My Lords, Mr. Warren is an open and a manly reasoner; I know him well; we are some times in conflict, we are sometimes colleagues; and I believe that neither of us are much in the habit of wire drawing our arguments, or descending into detail, while there is one bold and direct proposition left with which we can grapple.'

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Art. 26. An Illustration of the Egyptian, Grecian, and Roman Costume; in forty Outlines, with Descriptions, selected, drawn, and engraved by Thomas Baxter. Svo. 16s. Boards. Miller. 1810. It is not easy to account for the unrivalled pre-eminence attained by the Greeks in the department of the fine arts; we know only that, after the lapse of more than two thousand years, we are obliged to recur to them for models exhibiting the most beautiful outlines. To them,' as Mr. Baxter remarks, we owe nearly all that is elegant and dignified in art,' and it is a proof of a correct taste to follow their guidance. In the work before us, however, we are invited to survey taste in a subordinate province, or to contemplate specimens of the character and costume of the god and goddess, priest and priestess, warrior, lady, peasant, and child of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans, but especially of the Greeks.' In order to throw light on the dress of the antients, Mr. Baxter has copied from gems, bas-reliefs, vases, and statues; and his descriptions of the figures represented in outline in 42 plates, though given with much conciseness, and without ostentation of learning, contain not a little information on the subject designed to be illustrated. He notices the calasiris (xaλacıgıs) or linen tunic of the Egyptians, the only name of an Egyptian garment which has descended to us; the peplon, (TTO) mantle or garment without sleeves; the chiton, (x) or tunic; the chlamys, (xhapus) or travelling cloak; and the pharos, (agos) or exterior vestment or great mantle, of the Greeks; and the pallium or stola, the toga, tunica, paludamentum, sagum, lorica, and femoralia, of the Romans. Mr. Baxter's mode of illustration will be seen by the following short extracts:

Plate 21. young warrior, from a vase in the British Museum. The body-armour from Sir W. Hamilton's va es, vol. i. plate 4. The ornaments on the shield have been supplied from other vases. The pharos, or great mantle, which is frequently mentioned by Homer, was sometimes of a red colour. When the wearer was reposing, it was converted into a coverlet A clasp or button confined it in front. The petassus, or hat, is thrown back on the warrior's shoulders. The breast-plate of metal, with shoulder-guards, is affixed to a tunic, which seems to be of leather. Breast-plates were sometimes of gold, ornamented with sculpture. The tunic is worn over the biton. The sandals are fastened half way up the legs. On the left

side is a sword suspended from a zone, or baldric, which crosses his right shoulder; the baldric was sometimes richly ornamented. The Grecian sword was short, and usually made of brass; the hilt sometimes of gold and sometimes of ivory and gold. A warrior, if travelling, is seldom seen on the vases without two spears. Euripides describes the Greek soldiers to have carried white shields, whilst those of their leaders were richly ornamented with devices, and sometimes bordered with black. The white shields were probably of willow.'

Plate 33. A Roman Consul, from a statue. He is habited in the tunica with sleeves, and the toga. In the early part of the Roman republic, beards were generally worn, and it was considered effeminate to appear in a garment with sleeves. The tunic was worn at home without a girdle, but with one abroad. The toga, worn perhaps by no other nation, and at Rome only by freemen, seems to have been a large piece of woollen cloth, having one side semicircular, folded round the body and over the left shoulder, so as to leave the right arm at liberty, but from the left arm it hung down to the ancles in long narrow folds; under the left breast it was doubled in, and formed a kind of pocket, called sinus. Priests wore it drawn over the head, and for mourning it was generally worn so, and was of a dark colour, or black. It was sometimes the colour of the wool, sometimes white, but generally dyed, and was worn sometimes with out any tunic.'

In our superior schools, Mr. Baxter's Costume of the Antients will form an appropriate accompaniment to the study of the classics; and to artists it will be a very acceptable guide. The engravings are executed with great clearness, neatness, and strength.

Art. 27. An Essay on the Existence of the Devil, and his Influence on the Human Mind. By R. Wright. 12mo. PP. 43. IS. Eaton, 1810.

A punning clergyman said of the Devil, that "there was no living without him" and a not less facetious layman observed that "he found the Devil a most obliging personage, who put beauty, wine, and other good things in our way, and was always at hand to take his full share of the blame whenever we exceeded the bounds of moderation." This convenience, which the public have so long enjoyed from the belief in the existence of a Devil, Mr. Wright endeavours to annihilate in a small shilling pamphlet! Cruel as he is, he would have us bear the full weight of all our follies and sins, and would deprive each of us of the usual saving-clause, "The Devil tempted me." How can this be tolerated! Will the good people in the country be persuaded that the Devil and Puck are mere creatures of the imagination? Mr. Wright tries very earnestly to introduce this heterodox doctrine. Arguments are brought forwards to prove that the popular notions of the Devil are absurd, contradictory, perni cious, and inconsistent with the Scriptures. When (says he) the Almighty is every where, and has all things under his direction, no province is left for such a being as the Devil to fill.' Reasons are given for rejecting the vulgar notion of Fallen Angels; and in the last place we are invited to an examination of what the Scriptures teach concerning the Devil: which terminates with this report,



that the existence of the Devil was unknown to Moses, to the Pro phets, and to the writers of the New Testament.

In short, Mr. Wright is so formidable an adversary of the Great Adversary of us all, that he may perhaps obtain the nick-name of Mr. Kill-Devil; to which, probably, he would have no objection.

Art. 28. Letters, Essays, and Poems, on religious Subjects. By George Russel. 12mo. pp. 268. 5s. Boards. Conder. 1819. When we found Mr Russel in his Introduction opposing the Christian author to the Novelist, the Playwright, the Socinian, and the Infidel,' we had reason to conclude that he had embarked his zeal in a Calvinistic bottom, and had left his charity on shore. Wishing to be figuratively brilliant, he first talks of meteors under the guise of friendship,' and then hastens to warn his young friend, to whom his letters are addressed, against theological error, To put him on his guard against fatal mistakes, he apprises him that there is a religion which assumes the name of Christanity itself, which has as little of its essence as Judaism or Mahometanism and this spu rious Christianity, according to Mr. R., is that which proceeds on the principle of man being a moral agent, and that God will reward goodness because he himself is good. To keep his friend from such a creed, he tells him that these doctrines, though they seem at first favourable to morality, are dangerous.' He recommends a more sure road to morality, by the circuitous route of original depra. vity, natural inability, and faith: but, while he makes faith the distinguishing trait of the Christian, he quotes a text in which our Saviour (who probably knew in what Christianity consists) tells us that we are to be "known by our fruits." Mr. Russel may be a man of a serious and pious frame of mind, and we do not wish to wound his feelings, under the affliction of having lost a child: but we must take the liberty of informing him that his thoughts on religion are not sufficiently matured for publication; and we are sorry to add that his poetry makes no compensation for his prose.

Art. 29.

Studies; sacred, and philosophic; adapted to the Temple of Truth. vo. pp. 656. 9s. Boards. Mawman.

to an

What a promising title! and if the author's own report is to be taken, what an incomparable book! According to him, it is a composition which in the annals of universal science has no parallel; in which there is so much to excite our attention in the variety of the Manner,- more to reward our studies, in the sublimity and grandeur of the Sentiment, but most of all, to command our regard, in the eternai importance and interest of the Subject.' This declaration is designed to awaken the attention of the reader, and so it must, exhibition of vanity and self-conceit which was never surpassed. With an affectation of the most profound scientific and analytical dis cussion, the writer undertakes to lead us not merely to the vesti bulk but into the several interior compartments of the Temple of Truth: but we see no reason for believing that this temple is better known to him than to humbler men; and we confess that we suspect that this work, which he pronounces to be an intellectual entertainment,' will generally be regarded as neither instructive nor amusing. In the

review of his composition, (for he has endeavoured to save us the trouble by reviewing it himself,) the author suddenly grows wonderfully modest; and towards the conclusion he is scized with such a lowering fit of humility, that we should be happy if it were in our power to administer to him a cordial. Let us hear the confession of the author of a composition unparalleled in the history of universal science. After all (and after all that he has previously asserted, what an after all!!) that I may have failed, and greatly failed, in this my arduous Career, is alas! but too probable: and I sink so low in my own estimate, that it would be mean and dastardly to depress me still lower: but even then, I should have the secret Satisfaction of knowing that I have fallen in a glorious Effort. May more exalted powers of Intellect be raised, by my imbecility, and failure, to a more successful essay in the same illustrious Cause! 'The times demand every new exertion of the best mental Endowments; and, for what were they bestowed?

Adicu, then, for the present, thou peerless Cupola of sacred magnificence! Never may my Faith, or Memory, lose sight of thy instructive lessons, or thy unrivalled beauties! May they be deeply engraven on the tablet of my Heart, by that Omnipotence, to which nothing is impossible! May they administer, in this tomb-like Solitude, this cheerless Spot of literary and social desolation, that sweet Peace, which not all the treasures of the World can purchase, nor Death itself annihilate !

'Let others admire the epic of Homer, Virgil, or Tasso — the tra gedies of schylus the orations of Cicero - the lyrics of Horace the institutes of Quintilian or, the satires of Juvenal; but, while I have any being, and, even when sinking in the arms of mortal Dissolution, may the triumph of my Soul be this that,




We shall not introduce the reader into the fourteen compartments under the peerless cupola' of Truth, nor examine the edifice of moral architecture which is here undertaken. Substantial reasons oblige

ps to dismiss this thick octavo in a catalogue-article. Art. 30. Perambulations in London and its Environs. Comprehending an historical Sketch of the ancient State and Progress of the British Metropolis, a concise Description of its present State, Notices of eminent Persons, and a short Account of the surrounding Villages. In Letters designed for Young Persons, by Priscilla Wakefield, 12mo. 6s. 6d. Boards. Darton and Co. 1809. The industry, which must have been exerted in collecting the materials for this volume, is equalled by the good sense with which they are selected and arranged. We know not a publication on the same subject which affords so much information in so little compass, and adapted not only to the gratification of harmless curiosity, but also to that of antiquarian research; since it relates the time and the occasion on which every public or remarkable building was founded, while the historical events or anecdotes which are connected with them are judiciously introduced. We have received entertainment from the perusal of this work, and we cannot recommend it too

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kighly to our young readers; nor indeed, to all those who wish to be concisely acquainted with the history, inanufactures, and institutions of the British Metropolis.

Art. 31. Great Britain's Jubilee Monitor, and Briton's Mirror. Comprising an Epitome of the moral Claims of their most sacred Majesties George the Third, and Charlotte his Queen!


butes of Great Britain! with Illustrations of the transcendant Blessings, and Advantages enjoyed under the British Government! contrasted with the Despotism universally exercised in ancient and odern Nations. Hail! Britannia! Hail! The sublimest Passion of Man is (next the Deity), to adore! and if necessary, to die for his Country! By Thomas Martyn, Author of the following Books, small folio, highly finished in Colours, viz. Nondescript Shells, 4 vols. Birds, 1 vol. Insects, various, 3 vols. Works which were honoured with universal Approbation; and with Presents ations to Mr. Martyn of superb Gold Medallions by several Sovereign Princes. Royal 8vo. pp. 56. Rivingtons, &c.

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This quizzical looking performance is intended to give ‹ a portrailjeal sketch' both of our King and our Country; in which, grandeur of effect is meant to be produced by printing plain prose as if it were an inscription on a tomb, and by using notes of admiration instead of commas. Mr. Martyn is no doubt loyal to the back bone: but is he, as the Jockies say, "All over sound?"

In Mr. Martyn's Appendix of Illustrations, he reckons that France and her opponents have sacrificed nine millions of men, in their contests since the Revolution commenced; and he estimates the present annual revenue of Bonaparte at 60 millions sterling: but he gives no data for either of these conclusions.

Art. 32. A Vindication of Scriptural Unitarianism, and some other primitive Christian Doctrines, in reply to Vindex's Examination of an Appeal to the Society of Friends *. By Verax. pp. 124. 38. Johnson.


Art 33. Christian Unitarianism vindicated. Being a Reply to a Work, by John Bevans, junior, entitled, " A Defence of the Christian Doctrines of the Society of Friends +." By Velax. 8vo. PP. 324 75. Boards. Johnson.

We wished to have declined any farther interference in the controversy which has been excited in the Quaker Church, by the proceedings in the case of Hannah Barnard; who was disowned on the ground of holding heterodox opinions, dismissed from her ministry, and sent home to her friends in America: but, having formerly ad verted to this schism, (see M. R. Vol. xxxvii. N. S. p. 426. Vol. xl. p.325. 441.Vol. xlvi. p. 435, and Vol. lii. p. 409.) and having had the publications now before us particularly pressed on our notice, as necessary to complete the view of this subject, on mature deliberation we have judged it proper briefly to advert to their contents. The more we examine the documents adduced, the more we

See Rev. Vol. xl.

† See Rev. Vol. lii.

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