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dissolve four times more slowly than one whose cubes have only half the size.
That kind of salt, then, which possesses most eminently the combined properties of hardness, compactness, and perfection of crystals, will be best adapted to the purpose of packing fish and other provisions, because it will remain permanently between the different layers, or will be very gradually dissolved by the fluids that exude from the provisions; thus furnishing a slow, but constant supply of saturated brine. On the other hand, for the purpose of preparing the pickle, or of striking the meat, which is done by immersion in a saturated solution of salt, the smaller grained varieties answer equally well; or, on account of their greater solubility, even better.'
In general, the Doctor concludes, and we think that he is warranted in the inference, that no ground of preference for the foreign salt over that of British manufacture can be assigned; that the British salt is more pure as to its chemical composition; and that the larger-grained varieties are equal to the foreign salt in their mechanical properties. Dr. Henry closes his paper by a minute account of the analytical processes which he employed: we have examined them with attention, and they appear to us to be well contrived, peculiarly accurate, and perfectly satisfactory.
Description of an extraordinary Human Fœtus. In a Letter from Mr. B. Gibson, Surgeon at Manchester, to H. L. Thomas, Esq., F.R.S.-This writer judiciously observes that the instances of monstrosity, in which only some parts of the body are in an unusual state, are peculiarly interesting, as exhibiting in a more striking manner the powers of nature in accommodating the different organs to their new situation, and in adjusting parts which ordinarily have no communication or connection with each other. The foetus described in the present memoir had two heads, with one body, and one pair of arms and legs. The trunk, however, contained two spines, the upper parts of which were at some distance from each other, while the lower parts were nearly united. It had two hearts; the lungs were divided into two cavities; and each separate cavity was supplied with air from a distinct trachea. Besides an abdomen formed nearly in the usual manner, it had a second imperfect kind of abdomen. Considerable irregularity prevailed in the structure of the blood-vessels, but in general each heart had an independent set of vessels: the two aortæ united at some distance below the hearts. The external organs of generation had the character of the male, though in some particulars deviating into the female structure; and an uterus was found within the cavity of the bladder. The nerves consisted of two half sets, each set supplying the half of the body to which it was contiguous.
Observations on the Effects of Magnesia, in preventing an increased Formation of Uric Acid; with ome Remarks on the Composition of the Urine. By Mr. W. T. Brande, F.R.S.--The inquiries of Mr. Home into the functions of the stomach led him to conjecture that calculous complaints might be most effectually avoided, by introducing into the stomach a substance which would prevent the formation of the uric acid, rather than one which might dissolve the calculi after they are formed; and magnesia was suggested as the most likely to answer this purpose. It was accordingly tried in four cases, in which the patients shewed a strong disposition to the formation of uric acid, and in which alkalies had not produced the desired effect. An account is given in the present paper of the state of the urine, and of the symptoms experienced by the individuals, both of which were favourable to the employment of the remedy. We must, however, be allowed to say that, though Mr. Brande's cases may afford some useful hints, we cannot consider them as sufficient to establish the utility of the practice; and with respect to Mr. Home's suggestion, we are so far from regarding it as a new idea, that we recognize in it the principle on which the carbonated alkalies are generally employed.
A Meteorological Journal for the year 1809, is added to this part of the Transactions. Part II. has just appeared.
ART. V. Hints on the Economy of feeding Stock and bettering the Condition of the Poor. By J C. Curwen, Esq., M.P., of WorkingtonHall, Cumberland. 8vo. pp. 364. 10s. Boards. Crosby and
PPLICATION having been made by a respectable individual for permission to collect and republish, at his own risk, Mr. Curwen's Prize Essays on the Economical Feeding of Horses and Cattle, this enlightened and public-spirited gentleman did not, as he says, feel himself at liberty to withhold his assent; and in consequence his useful hints on several subjects now appear together in a handsome volume, dedicated to the Bishop of Landaff, Mr. Curwen's "philosopher and friend." These essays are introduced by a short preface, in which it is contended that, in every well-regulated state, agriculture ought to form the basis of its greatness, and commerce merely the superstructure; and that the first and principal object of consideration should be, to provide victual necessary for the maintenance of the whole community. Since the years of scarcity, we have been more awake than we formerly were to this weighty truth, though the splendor of trade and com
merce continues to dazzle and mislead us. Notwithstanding so much has been written on the importance of agriculture, yet, as this pursuit opens no speedy road to the attainment of wealth, it is only subordinately attractive in a nation of commercial adventurers and speculatists. Mr. Curwen, however, hopes that a new era in our system of internal and external policy is likely to arise. We wish that this may be the case, and that his efforts may contribute to forward its arrival.
We have here this gentleman's papers on the Steaming of Potatoes as a Substitute for Hay in the Feeding of Work-Horses,on the Means of supplying Milk for the Poor,—and on Soiling Cattle, -which have appeared in the Memoirs of the Society for Arts, and in the Communications to the Board of Agriculture. In our account of the first part of the VIth Vol. of the latter *, we deferred our notice of the paper on Soiling Cattle to this place; and we have now briefly to state that the experiment was made with 80 work-horses, and 10 milch and 20 calving cows, which were soiled on 24 acres of land, viz. 18 of clover and rye-grass, and 6 of lucerne, with the aid of 2 acres of pasture for turning in the cattle during the night. The horses and cattle were kept in good condition, and Mr. C. declares his conviction of the superiority of soiling compared with grazing. For the details of management and the estimates, we must refer to the paper, which is highly satisfactory, and the statements in which are duly substantiated.
Having passed the Essays, which are given as republications, at p. 213 we enter on new ground, and are presented with an original paper, intitled General Hints on Farming, which is thus introduced:
Should the preceding Essays have merited any share of the public attention, either on the grounds of their general usefulness, or from the correct attention with which the experiments have been made, it may not be unacceptable to the friend of agriculture, to enlarge the sphere of his enquiry, by perusing the few general remarks which have occurred to me in the progressive management of my own farin, or have resulted from my observations of the practice of others.'
Mr. Curwen's General Hints amply merit the notice of agriculturists, and especially of gentlemen-farmers. He narrates with great explicitness the circumstances which induced him to give his attention to farming; with the benefits which resulted from obtaining a practical knowlege of the details of agriculture, and from a spirited and persevering superintendance of the business of his farm. As the good sense and ingenu
* See our Number for August last, P.352.
Rav. Nov. 1810.
ousness of Mr. C. are very conspicuous in this account of himself on assuming the character of a gentleman-farmer, we wish to make room for it:
If farming, as is boldly and confidently asserted by many, be a pursuit in which gentlemen must of necessity be losers, it may not be useless to ascertain from what combination of circumstances this failure arises. Conceiving that nothing is more conducive to the interests of agriculture, than the practice and encouragement of it by gentlemen, I am anxious to examine into the grounds of an opinion, which appears to militate against past as well as present experience. The advantage of the public, not less than the virtuous happiness of its individual members, is deeply implicated in the decision of this question. In proportion as example is more forcibly illustrative of imperfect practice, than the most cogent reasoning, I present myself to the attention of my readers: and in detailing the causes which led me, at a late period of my life, to undertake the superintendance of my own house-farm, after having neglected it for upwards of twenty years, I am sincerely desirous of benefiting those, who from choice, or other motives, may, like myself, be induced to a constant residence in the country. The apprehensions generally entertained in the year 1801, from the failure of the hay-crops, and the difficulties likely to arise in the providing food for any number of horses, roused me from my indifference, and compelled me to dedicate my most serious attention to the subject. The result of my enquiry was the adoption of the plan for steaming potatoes, mixed with cut straw, as a substitute for hay. Hence an alternative which I had every reason to consider as likely to be productive of very serious loss, proved most unexpect edly a source of profit, and afforded me, what was not within my expectation, a fund of pleasurable amusement. For many years I had confided the management of my farm, which was of some magnitude, entirely to the direction of a bailiff, with the single injunction of attending to the culture of turnips. It was about twenty years since; and this crop of mine was the first grown in this neighbourhood. This was, however, the solitary instance in which I had taken any part or concern whatever in its management. The success of my steaming, and the flattering marks of approbation conferred upon my humble endeavours, by the Board of Agriculture, and the Society of the Arts and Sciences, inspired me with a decided taste for agri culture; and I determined to remain no longer ignorant of what it is so much the interest of the proprietor to be acquainted with, the value of his estate, and the most judicious methods of cultivation and improvement.
My first enquiry was respecting the system of management, which had been practised in my own farm; and I confess, that it costs me something to be obliged to expose my own remissness and inattention; but as an impartial statement may prove serviceable to others, I shall be more than compensated for any self condemnation which I may have to record. It was not long before I discovered that the neglect and inattention of the owner are maladies of a very infectious nature, communicating their baneful effects in every direc
tion, and enervating the exertions of all within their range. In short, I found my farm in the worst possible condition. Every thing was out of order, and neither intelligence nor spirit in any one employed. The extent of the farm was upwards of five hundred acres valued at a thousand pounds per annum. I was surprized, beyond measure, at finding that not only the whole produce of that year was swallowed up in expences, but a debt of seven hundred pounds incurred in addition; yet this proceeded entirely from my own ignorance. The produce, as I have now beyond a doubt ascertained, was far short of what it ought to have been; and the number, as well as the neglect and idleness of those employed, was out of all proportion to the work performed. To whom was the blame of mismanagement, chargeable? I have no hesitation in taking it entirely to myself., Here then is a notable instance in proof, that gentlemen cannot farm to advantage! To what extent my annual losses might have gone, but for the season of scarcity, which roused me from my state of lethargic indifference, I am not prepared to say: but it would be fortunate for many gentlemen-farmers, if similar difficulties were to produce similar examinations into the proceedings of their farms. Can an example of exertion be pointed out, where the stimulus of fame or profit is wanting? Is there any branch of trade; are there even any of the sports of the field practised with success, which have not cost much time and attention in acquiring? Permit me to ask then, why a knowledge of the various operations in farming should be expected to be attained without thought or application? Ignorance and inattention are the sources from whence spring the losses of the gentlemen farmers.
The foregoing description of my own attempt at conducting a farm by the agency of others, may be assumed as a faithful and general picture of the consequences of indifference on the part of the proprietor, and consequent wastefulness on that of the servant. He who would wish to farm with credit, satisfaction, and advantage, will do well to mark the words of old Cato, “Miserum est, cum Vil licus Dominum docet." This admirable precept I adopted as the rule of my agricultural proceedings; and I have pursued it with unremitting perseverance. Taking upon me at once the whole direction and superintendance of my farm, it became necessary for me to make myself acquainted with every operation.
The errors I committed were no doubt numerous; however they were not entirely without their advantage. Every failure proved a fresh incentive to energy and exertion.
To be promptly and uniformly obeyed, the judgment of the master must be respected, and looked up to by those who are to receive his orders and to establish this belief, and subdue the force of prejudice, requires a considerable length of time, as well as an unremitting attention.'
To this history, Mr. C. subjoins a view of the methods which he pursued in bringing the Schoose Farm, consisting of 520 acres, into a high degree of cultivation. Under the heads of System, Draining, Clearing, Seeds and Weeds,